Ground Water (ground + water)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Ground Water

  • contaminated ground water
  • deep ground water
  • saline ground water
  • shallow ground water

  • Terms modified by Ground Water

  • ground water concentration
  • ground water contamination
  • ground water extraction
  • ground water flow
  • ground water flow model
  • ground water head
  • ground water level
  • ground water plume
  • ground water quality
  • ground water remediation
  • ground water resources
  • ground water sample
  • ground water system
  • ground water velocity

  • Selected Abstracts


    Michael J. Moran
    ABSTRACT: The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected or compiled data on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in samples of untreated ground water from 1,926 rural private wells during 1986 to 1999. At least one VOC was detected in 12 percent of samples from rural private wells. Individual VOCs were not commonly detected with the seven most frequently detected compounds found in only 1 to 5 percent of samples at or above a concentration of 0.2 microgram per liter (,g/l). An assessment level of 0.2 ,g/l was selected so that comparisons of detection frequencies between VOCs could be made. The seven most frequently detected VOCs were: trichloromethane, methyl tert -butyl ether, tetrachloroethene, dichlorodifluoromethane, methylbenzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. Solvents and trihalomethanes were the most frequently detected VOC groups in private wells. The distributions of detections of gasoline oxygenates and fumigants seemed to be related to the use patterns of compounds in these groups. Mixtures were a common mode of occurrence of VOCs with one-quarter of all samples with detections including two or more VOCs. The concentrations of most detected VOCs were relatively small and only 1.4 percent of samples had one or more VOC concentrations that exceeded a federally established drinking water standard or health criterion. [source]


    Navin Kumar C. Twarakavi
    ABSTRACT: A methodology consisting of ordinal logistic regression (OLR) is used to predict the probability of occurrence of arsenic concentrations in different threshold limits in shallow ground waters of the conterminous United States (CONUS) subject to a set of influencing variables. The analysis considered a number of maximum contaminant level (MCL) options as threshold values to estimate the probabilities of occurrence of arsenic in ranges defined by a given MCL of 3, 5, 10, 20, and 50 ,g/l and a detection limit of 1 ,g/l. The fit between the observed and predicted probability of occurrence was around 83 percent for all MCL options. The estimated probabilities were used to estimate the median background concentration of arsenic in the CONUS. The shallow ground water of the western United States is more vulnerable than the eastern United States. Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and California in particular are hotspots for arsenic contamination. The risk assessment showed that counties in southern California, Arizona, Florida, and Washington and a few others scattered throughout the CONUS face a high risk from arsenic exposure through untreated ground water consumption. A simple cost effectiveness analysis was performed to understand the household costs for MCL compliance in using arsenic contaminated ground water. The results showed that the current MCL of 10 ,g/l is a good compromise based on existing treatment technologies. [source]


    Zekai Sen
    ABSTRACT: The quality of ground water in any aquifer takes its final form due to natural mixture of waters, which may originate from different sources. Water quality varies from one aquifer to another and even within the same aquifer itself. Different ground water quality is obtained from wells and is mixed in a common reservoir prior to any consumption. This artificial mixing enables an increase in available ground water of a desired quality for agricultural or residential purposes. The question remains as to what proportions of water from different wells should be mixed together to achieve a desired water quality for this artificial mixture. Two sets of laboratory experiments were carried out, namely, the addition of saline water to a fixed volume of fresh water. After each addition, the mixture volume and the electric conductivity value of the artificially mixed water were recorded. The experiments were carried out under the same laboratory temperature of 20C. A standard curve was developed first experimentally and then confirmed theoretically. This curve is useful in determining either the volume or discharge ratio from two wells to achieve a predetermined electrical conductivity value of the artificial mixture. The application of the curve is given for two wells within the Quaternary deposits in the western part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [source]

    Eolian Transport of Geogenic Hexavalent Chromium to Ground Water

    GROUND WATER, Issue 1 2010
    Warren W. Wood
    A conceptual model of eolian transport is proposed to address the widely distributed, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) observed in ground water in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Concentrations (30 to more than 1000 ,g/L Cr+6) extend over thousands of square kilometers of ground water systems. It is hypothesized that the Cr is derived from weathering of chromium-rich pyroxenes and olivines present in ophiolite sequence of the adjacent Oman (Hajar) Mountains. Cr+3 in the minerals is oxidized to Cr+6 by reduction of manganese and is subsequently sorbed on iron and manganese oxide coatings of particles. When the surfaces of these particles are abraded in this arid environment, they release fine, micrometer-sized, coated particles that are easily transported over large distances by wind and subsequently deposited on the surface. During ground water recharge events, the readily soluble Cr+6 is mobilized by rain water and transported by advective flow into the underlying aquifer. Chromium analyses of ground water, rain, dust, and surface (soil) deposits are consistent with this model, as are electron probe analyses of clasts derived from the eroding Oman ophiolite sequence. Ground water recharge flux is proposed to exercise some control over Cr+6 concentration in the aquifer. [source]

    Ground Water Recharge Using Recycled Municipal Waste Water in Los Angeles County and the California Department of Public Health's Draft Regulations on Aquifer Retention Time

    GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2009
    Theodore A. Johnson
    First page of article [source]

    HydroGeo Analyst: A Data Management Solution to Ground Water and Environmental Projects

    GROUND WATER, Issue 3 2008
    Yongqiang Qi
    First page of article [source]

    Development of Saline Ground Water through Transpiration of Sea Water

    GROUND WATER, Issue 6 2007
    T. Fass
    As vegetation usually excludes salt during water uptake, transpiration will increase the salinity of the residual water. If the source water is sea water, then the residual water may become highly saline. In the unconfined coastal aquifer of the tropical Burdekin River delta, northeastern Australia, areas of highly saline ground water with chloride concentrations up to almost three times that of sea water occur up to 15 km from the present coastline, and are attributed to transpiration by mangrove vegetation during periods of high sea level. Radiogenic (14C) carbon isotope analyses indicate that ground water with chloride concentrations between 15,000 and 35,000 mg/L is mostly between 4000 and 6000 years old, at which time sea level was 2 to 3 m higher than present. Stable isotope analyses of oxygen-18 and deuterium show no evidence for evaporative enrichment of this water. Oxygen-18, deuterium, and stable (,13C) carbon isotope analyses of ground water and soil water point to a recharge environment beneath the mangrove forests during this postglacial sea level high stand. During that period, transpiration of the mangrove forests would have led to high chloride concentrations in the residual ground water, without inducing isotopic fractionation. Due to the higher density, this hypersaline water moved downward through the aquifer by gravity and has formed lenses of highly saline ground water at the bottom of the unconfined aquifer. [source]

    Analysis of Steady Ground Water Flow Toward Wells in a Confined-Unconfined Aquifer

    GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2006
    Chen Chong-Xi
    A confined aquifer may become unconfined near the pumping wells when the water level falls below the confining unit in the case where the pumping rate is great and the excess hydraulic head over the top of the aquifer is small. Girinskii's potential function is applied to analyze the steady ground water flow induced by pumping wells with a constant-head boundary in a mixed confined-unconfined aquifer. The solution of the single-well problem is derived, and the critical radial distance at which the flow changes from confined to unconfined condition is obtained. Using image wells and the superposition method, an analytic solution is presented to study steady ground water flow induced by a group of pumping wells in an aquifer bounded by a river with constant head. A dimensionless function is introduced to determine whether a water table condition exists or not near the pumping wells. An example with three pumping wells is used to demonstrate the patterns of potentiometric surface and development of water table around the wells. [source]

    Potential for Satellite Remote Sensing of Ground Water

    GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2006
    Matthew W. Becker
    Predicting hydrologic behavior at regional scales requires heterogeneous data that are often prohibitively expensive to acquire on the ground. As a result, satellite-based remote sensing has become a powerful tool for surface hydrology. Subsurface hydrology has yet to realize the benefits of remote sensing, even though surface expressions of ground water can be monitored from space. Remotely sensed indicators of ground water may provide important data where practical alternatives are not available. The potential for remote sensing of ground water is explored here in the context of active and planned satellite-based sensors. Satellite technology is reviewed with respect to its ability to measure ground water potential, storage, and fluxes. It is argued here that satellite data can be used if ancillary analysis is used to infer ground water behavior from surface expressions. Remotely sensed data are most useful where they are combined with numerical modeling, geographic information systems, and ground-based information. [source]

    Geochemistry of Extremely Alkaline (pH > 12) Ground Water in Slag-Fill Aquifers

    GROUND WATER, Issue 6 2005
    George S. Roadcap
    Extremely alkaline ground water has been found underneath many shuttered steel mills and slag dumps and has been an impediment to the cleanup and economic redevelopment of these sites because little is known about the geochemistry. A large number of these sites occur in the Lake Calumet region of Chicago, Illinois, where large-scale infilling of the wetlands with steel slag has created an aquifer with pH values as high as 12.8. To understand the geochemistry of the alkaline ground water system, we analyzed samples of ground water and the associated slag and weathering products from four sites. We also considered several potential remediation schemes to lower the pH and toxicity of the water. The principal cause of the alkaline conditions is the weathering of calcium silicates within the slag. The resulting ground water at most of the sites is dominated by Ca2+ and OH, in equilibrium with Ca(OH)2. Where the alkaline ground water discharges in springs, atmospheric CO2 dissolves into the water and thick layers of calcite form. Iron, manganese, and other metals in the metallic portion of the slag have corroded to form more stable low-temperature oxides and sulfides and have not accumulated in large concentrations in the ground water. Calcite precipitated at the springs is rich in a number of heavy metals, suggesting that metals can move through the system as particulate matter. Air sparging appears to be an effective remediation strategy for reducing the toxicity of discharging alkaline water. [source]

    Estimating Ground Water Recharge from Topography, Hydrogeology, and Land Cover

    GROUND WATER, Issue 1 2005
    Douglas S. Cherkauer
    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%. [source]

    Ecological Consequences of Ground Water Discharge to Delaware Bay, United States

    GROUND WATER, Issue 7 2004
    Douglas C. Miller
    Submarine ground water discharge to the ocean has the potential to create estuarine conditions near the point of discharge, thereby dramatically altering local benthic habitats and ecology. Aerial thermal infrared imaging along the southwestern margin of Delaware Bay indicated abundant discharge at Cape Henlopen, Delaware, adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. On the sandflat there, we have documented low salinity in sedimentary pore waters within 20 m of the beachface that are associated with dense assemblages (in thousands per square meter) of a deep, burrow-dwelling polychaete worm, Marenzelleria viridis, otherwise regarded as a species characteristic of fresher, oligohaline conditions. Where present, M. viridis is a numerical and biomass dominant in a benthic community strikingly different from that in nearby nonseep locations. At Cape Henlopen, the ecological role of the ground water discharge appears to be a multifaceted one. Seeps are localized regions of significantly reduced salinity, stabilized temperature, increased nutrient flux, high microalgal abundance, and enhanced sediment stability. M. viridis feeds on sediment diatoms and may provide an important trophic linkage between microalgal growth fueled by nutrients associated with the discharging ground water and worm-feeding predators such as bottom fish or shorebirds common on the Cape Henlopen sandflat. Calculations based on our sampling suggest that nutrients supplied by the ground water substantially exceed what is needed to support benthic biomass and productivity estimated for this site. [source]

    Tidal Effects on Ground Water Discharge Through a Sandy Marine Beach

    GROUND WATER, Issue 7 2004
    Daniel W. Urish
    Tidal fluctuations along the salt water boundary of a sandy beach affect the magnitude, location, timing, and salinity of both subaerial and submarine ground water discharge. Detailed studies of shoreline discharge from an unconfined aquifer at two sites in an embayment on the Cape Cod, Massachusetts, coastline provide insight into the highly dynamic spatial and temporal nature of discharge along sandy beaches affected by the tide. The constantly moving tidal boundary over a sloping beach results in a shoreline-perpendicular discharge zone of 10 to 20 m, with ,35% to 55% of the discharge being submarine discharge. The distribution of fresh ground water through a beach face varies greatly, depending primarily on the tidal cycle and range, the heterogeneous characteristics of the beach sediments, and the beach geometry. The estimated relative volume of discharge varies temporally with tidal fluctuations, with the greatest discharge occurring during early to mid ebbing tide and location of greatest estimated discharge moving seaward during ebbing tide. This is determined using net hydraulic head calculations in monitoring wells set in a shoreline-perpendicular transect in the beach. The salinity of discharge varies temporally from near fresh water values of 1 part per thousand (ppt) to near coastal salt water values of 30 ppt, being saltiest at the start of discharge as the tide ebbs and freshest during a low tide period of ,2 h. Of the discharge volume, ,65% to 85% is estimated to be from salt water that infiltrates during high tide episodes. This study highlights the complexity of the dynamic coastal ground water discharge phenomenon and provides insight into the hydraulic mechanisms involved. While there is a general pattern to sandy beach discharge, comparison of results from beaches studied at Cape Cod indicates that the temporal and spatial details of the discharge is very site-specific. [source]

    Environmental Isotopes as Indicators for Ground Water Recharge to Fractured Granite

    GROUND WATER, Issue 6 2004
    Article first published online: 9 OCT 200
    First page of article [source]

    Ground Water Flow Parameterization of an Appalachian Coal Mine Complex

    GROUND WATER, Issue 5 2004
    William R. Winters
    We examined a large (240 km2) northern Appalachian bituminous coal basin (Irwin Syncline, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania) comprising 27 mine complexes with nine major (> 2.5 103 L/min) discharges. The synclinal basin was divided into seven subbasins based on equilibrium hydraulic relationships established during the past 25 years. Recharge rates, mine pool velocity, and residence times respond to hydraulic changes in the overburden induced by mine subsidence. The estimated maximum depth for subsidence fractures is 60 m (30 times mined thickness) with recharge rates decreasing significantly in subbasins with thicker overburden (> 75 m). Calculated subbasin recharge rates range from 2 to 6 10,4 L/min/m2 and are significantly lower than the previously used rate for the basin. Residence time of ground water in the Irwin subbasins calculated using average linear velocity ranged from one to five years and were more consistent with field observations than estimates obtained using discharge and basin volume area. A positive correlation (r2= 0.80) exists between net alkalinity of the mine water-impacted discharges and residence time in the mine pools. Our results for the Irwin coal basin suggest that use of a subbasin approach incorporating overburden depth, mining methodology, and the extent of postmining inundation will lead to improved determination of ground water flow parameters in mined watersheds in northern Appalachia and elsewhere. [source]

    Comment on the "Keep It Clean and Do the Research" Editorial by Harold R. Wanless, Ground Water 42, no. 2:157

    GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2004
    Christopher J. Brown
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Radon (222Rn) in Ground Water of Fractured Rocks: A Diffusion/Ion Exchange Model

    GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2004
    Warren W. Wood
    Ground waters from fractured igneous and high-grade sialic metamorphic rocks frequently have elevated activity of dissolved radon (222Rn). A chemically based model is proposed whereby radium (226Ra) from the decay of uranium (238U) diffuses through the primary porosity of the rock to the water-transmitting fracture where it is sorbed on weathering products. Sorption of 226Ra on the fracture surface maintains an activity gradient in the rock matrix, ensuring a continuous supply of 226Ra to fracture surfaces. As a result of the relatively long half-life of 226Ra (1601 years), significant activity can accumulate on fracture surfaces. The proximity of this sorbed 226Ra to the active ground water flow system allows its decay progeny 222Rn to enter directly into the water. Laboratory analyses of primary porosity and diffusion coefficients of the rock matrix, radon emanation, and ion exchange at fracture surfaces are consistent with the requirements of a diffusion/ion-exchange model. A dipole-brine injection/withdrawal experiment conducted between bedrock boreholes in the high-grade metamorphic and granite rocks at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States (4256,N, 7143,W) shows a large activity of 226Ra exchanged from fracture surfaces by a magnesium brine. The 226Ra activity removed by the exchange process is 34 times greater than that of 238U activity. These observations are consistent with the diffusion/ion-exchange model. Elutriate isotopic ratios of 223Ra/226Ra and 238U/226Ra are also consistent with the proposed chemically based diffusion/ion-exchange model. [source]

    Ground Water Discharge and Nitrate Flux to the Gulf of Mexico

    GROUND WATER, Issue 3 2004
    Carolyn B. Dowling
    Ground water samples (37 to 186 m depth) from Baldwin County, Alabama, are used to define the hydrogeology of Gulf coastal aquifers and calculate the subsurface discharge of nutrients to the Gulf of Mexico. The ground water flow and nitrate flux have been determined by linking ground water concentrations to 3H/3He and 4He age dates. The middle aquifer (A2) is an active flow system characterized by postnuclear tritium levels, moderate vertical velocities, and high nitrate concentrations. Ground water discharge could be an unaccounted source for nutrients in the coastal oceans. The aquifers annually discharge 1.1 0.01 108 moles of nitrate to the Gulf of Mexico, or 50% and 0.8% of the annual contributions from the Mobile-Alabama River System and the Mississippi River System, respectively. In southern Baldwin County, south of Loxley, increasing reliance on ground water in the deeper A3 aquifer requires accurate estimates of safe ground water withdrawal. This aquifer, partially confined by Pliocene clay above and Pensacola Clay below, is tritium dead and contains elevated 4He concentrations with no nitrate and estimated ground water ages from 100 to 7000 years. The isotopic composition and concentration of natural gas diffusing from the Pensacola Clay into the A3 aquifer aids in defining the deep ground water discharge. The highest 4He and CH4 concentrations are found only in the deepest sample (Gulf State Park), indicating that ground water flow into the Gulf of Mexico suppresses the natural gas plume. Using the shape of the CH4 -He plume and the accumulation of 4He rate (2.2 0.8 ,cc/kg/1000 years), we estimate the natural submarine discharge and the replenishment rate for the A3 aquifer. [source]

    Quantifying Ground Water Recharge at Multiple Scales Using PRMS and GIS

    GROUND WATER, Issue 1 2004
    Douglas S. Cherkauer
    Management of ground water resources requires a method to calculate demonstrably accurate recharge rates at local to regional scales using readily available information bases. Many methods are available to calculate recharge, but most are unable to satisfy all these conditions. A distributed parameter model is shown to meet the stated needs. Such models are input intensive, however, so a procedure to define most inputs from GIS and hydrogeological sources is presented. It simplifies the PRMS calibration observed streamflow hydrographs by reducing degrees of freedom from dozens to four. For seven watersheds (60 to 500 km2), the GIS-aided calibrations have average errors of 5% on recharge and 2% on total streamflow, verifying the accuracy of the process. Recharge is also calculated for 63 local-scale subwater-sheds (average size 37 km2). For the study area, calculated recharges average 11 cm/yr. Soil and rock conductivity, porosity, and depth to the water table are shown to be the physical properties which dominate the spatial variability of recharge. The model has been extended to uncalibrated watersheds where GIS and climatic information are known. It reproduces total annual discharge and recharge to within 9% and 10%, respectively, indicating the process can also be used to calculate recharge in ungauged watersheds. It has not been tested outside the study area, however. [source]

    Ground Water and Small Research Basins: An Historical Perspective

    GROUND WATER, Issue 7 2003
    Elon S. Verry
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Comment on "A Creative Solution to the NIMBY Problem" Editorial by Jay Lehr and Herbert Inhaber, Ground Water 41, no. 4: 401.

    GROUND WATER, Issue 6 2003
    C.E. Neuzil
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Ground Water Flow Analysis of a Mid-Atlantic Outer Coastal Plain Watershed, Virginia, U.S.A.

    GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2002
    Michael A. Robinson
    Models for ground water flow (MODFLOW) and particle tracking (MODPATH) were used to determine ground water flow patterns, principal ground water discharge and recharge zones, and estimates of ground water travel times in an unconfined ground water system of an outer coastal plain watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia. By coupling recharge and discharge zones within the watershed, flowpath analysis can provide a method to locate and implement specific management strategies within a watershed to reduce ground water nitrogen loading to surface water. A monitoring well network was installed in Eyreville Creek watershed, a first-order creek, to determine hydraulic conductivities and spatial and temporal variations in hydraulic heads for use in model calibration. Ground water flow patterns indicated the convergence of flow along the four surface water features of the watershed; primary discharge areas were in the noontide portions of the watershed. Ground water recharge zones corresponded to the surface water features with minimal development of a regional ground water system. Predicted ground water velocities varied between < 0.01 to 0.24 m/day, with elevated values associated with discharge areas and areas of convergence along surface water features. Some ground water residence times exceeded 100 years, although average residence times ranged between 16 and 21 years; approximately 95% of the ground water resource would reflect land use activities within the last 50 years. [source]

    Fluorescence of Dissolved Organic Matter as a Natural Tracer of Ground Water

    GROUND WATER, Issue 5 2001
    Andy Baker
    The fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in ground water in the Permian limestone of northeast England is determined from six monitoring boreholes, a private water supply well and from a natural resurgence in a flooded collapse doline in the environs of Darlington, County Durham, northeast England. Measurements of both protein and "fulvic-like" fluorescence was undertaken from January to December 1999. The wavelengths of fulvic-like fluorescence excitation and emission and of protein fluorescence emission were all determined to be sensitive fingerprints of organic matter fluxes through the ground water, with water within the till and within both gypsum and limestone strata deep inside the Magnesian Limestone being differentiated by these parameters. Previous research has suggested that proteins in waters are "young" in age, hence our seasonal variations suggest that we are sampling recently formed DOM. The rapid response of all deep borehole samples suggests relatively rapid ground water flow, probably through karstic cave systems developed in the gypsum and solution widened features in the dolomitic limestone. Our results suggest that use of both protein and fulvic-like fluorescence wavelength variations provides a DOM signature that can be used as a natural tracer. [source]

    Characterization and Origin of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Yegua Ground Water in Brazos County, Texas

    GROUND WATER, Issue 5 2001
    Joyanto Routh
    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in five shallow (< 20 m) and three deeper wells (27 to 30 m) in the Eocene Yegua Formation (Brazos County in east-central Texas) ranged from 92 to 500 ,m. Characterization of high, intermediate, and low molecular weight DOC fractions (HMW > 3000 amu, IMW 1000 to 3000 amu, and LMW 500 to 1000 amu) and combined neutral sugar analyses provide information on organic matter sources in the Yegua aquifers. Combined neutral sugars ranged in concentration from 0.6 to 2.7 ,mol/L and comprised 0.8% to 6.7% of DOC in ground water. Glucose was the most abundant neutral sugar, followed by xylose and galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, and fucose. These combined neutral sugars were more diagenetically altered in shallow, oxic ground water as indicated by high mole % fucose + rhamnose and low neutral sugar yield. The precursors for neutral sugars are most probably angiosperm leaves, which show a similar distribution pattern of neutral sugars. Ground water DOC was depleted in 13C relative to soil-zone organic matter (OM) (,16, to ,19,). The ,13C values of bulk DOC and HMW DOC ranged from ,24, to ,32,, whereas LMW and IMW DOC ranged from ,32, to ,34, and ,16, to ,28,, respectively. This variability in ,13C values is probably related to microbial processes and selective preservation of OM. Carbon isotope analyses in bulk and different molecular weight DOC fractions imply a predominantly C3 OM source and a low contribution of soil-zone OM to DOC. [source]

    On Radiocarbon Dating of Ground Water

    GROUND WATER, Issue 6 2000
    Chen Zhu
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Pesticides in Ground Water of the United States, 1992,1996

    GROUND WATER, Issue 6 2000
    Dana W. Kolpin
    During the first cycle of the National Water Quality Assessment (1992,1996), ground water in 20 of the nation's major hydro-logic basins was analyzed for 90 pesticide compounds (pesticides and degradates). One or more of the pesticide compounds examined were detected at 48.4% of the 2485 ground water sites sampled. However, approximately 70% of the sites where pesticides were detected, two or more pesticide compounds analyzed were present,documenting the prevalence of pesticide mixtures in ground water. The pesticide concentrations encountered were generally low, with the median total concentration (summation of concentrations for the 90 pesticide compounds) being 0.046 ,g/L. Pesticides were commonly detected in shallow ground water beneath both agricultural (60.4%) and urban (48.5%) areas. This is an important finding because, although agricultural activities have long been associated with pesticide contamination, urban areas have only recently been recognized as a potential source of these types of compounds. Pesticides with higher frequencies of detection were generally those with more extensive use, greater environmental persistence, and greater mobility in ground water (lower soil-water partition coefficients). [source]

    Chemical and Isotopic Constraints on the Origin of Wadi El-Tarfa Ground Water, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    GROUND WATER, Issue 5 2000
    M. Sultan
    We evaluated the use of the renewable ground water resources of the Eastern Desert to develop sustainable agriculture in Upper Egypt, an alternative that could alleviate some of Egypt's dependence on water from the Nile River. Ground water from shallow aquifers in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, near the intersection of Wadi El-Tarfa and the Nile River, was analyzed for chemical compositions, stable isotope ratios, and tritium activities. The ground water has a range in total dissolved solids of 300 to 5000 mg/L. Values of ,D and ,18O range from -10 to +34 %o and -2 to +5.2 %o, respectively, and defines a line having a slope of 5.7 that intersects the meteoric water line at about ,D = -15 %o on a plot of 8D versus ,18O. These findings indicate that the water might have been derived by a combination of evaporation of and salt addition to regional precipitation. Only one sample could have been derived directly by evaporation and transpiration of modern Nile River water. Salinization of the ground water could have occurred through dissolution of marine aerosol dry fallout, carbonate minerals, gypsum, and other trace evaporitic minerals at and near the ground surface. Tritium activities ranged from 0.04 to 12.9 TU (tritium unite), indicating that all but one of the samples were derived at least partly from precipitation that occurred within the last 45 years. These data indicate that Nubian Aquifer paleowater is not a significant component of the shallow aquifers of this portion of the Eastern Desert. The most likely source of this ground water is sporadic flash flood events yielding locally voluminous recharge that accumulates in coarse sediments and fractured rock beneath alluvial channels. The magnitude of this renewable ground water resource and its potential for supporting sustainable agriculture require further investigation. [source]

    Age of Irrigation Water in Ground Water from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, South-Central Idaho

    GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2000
    L.N. Plummer
    Stable isotope data (2H and 18O) were used in conjunction with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data to determine the fraction and age of irrigation water in ground water mixtures from farmed parts of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) Aquifer in south-central Idaho. Two groups of waters were recognized: (1) regional background water, unaffected by irrigation and fertilizer application, and (2) mixtures of irrigation water from the Snake River with regional background water. New data are presented comparing CFC and 3H/3He dating of water recharged through deep fractured basalt, and dating of young fractions in ground water mixtures. The 3H/3He ages of irrigation water in most mixtures ranged from about zero to eight years. The CFC ages of irrigation water in mixtures ranged from values near those based on 3H/3He dating to values biased older than the 3H/3He ages by as much as eight to 10 years. Unsaturated zone air had CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations that were 60% to 95%, and 50% to 90%, respectively, of modern air concentrations and were consistently contaminated with CFC-11. Irrigation water diverted from the Snake River was contaminated with CFC-11 but near solubility equilibrium with CFC-12 and CFC-113. The dating indicates ground water velocities of 5 to 8 m/d for water along the top of the ESRP Aquifer near the southwestern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many of the regional background waters contain excess terrigenic helium with a 3He/4He isotope ratio of 7 10,6 to 11 10,6 (R/Ra= 5 to 8) and could not be dated. Ratios of CFC data indicate that some rangeland water may contain as much as 5% to 30% young water (ages of less than or equal to two to 11.5 years) mixed with old regional background water. The relatively low residence times of ground water in irrigated parts of the ESRP Aquifer and the dilution with low-NO3 irrigation water from the Snake River lower the potential for NO3 contamination in agricultural areas. [source]

    Monitored Natural Attenuation of Manufactured Gas Plant Tar Mono- and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ground Water: A 14-Year Field Study

    Edward F. Neuhauser
    Site 24 was the subject of a 14-year (5110-day) study of a ground water plume created by the disposal of manufactured gas plant (MGP) tar into a shallow sandy aquifer approximately 25 years prior to the study. The ground water plume in 1988 extended from a well-defined source area to a distance of approximately 400 m down gradient. A system of monitoring wells was installed along six transects that ran perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the plume centerline. The MGP tar source was removed from the site in 1991 and a 14-year ground water monitored natural attenuation (MNA) study commenced. The program measured the dissolved mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs) periodically over time, which decreased significantly over the 14-year period. Naphthalene decreased to less than 99% of the original dissolved mass, with mass degradation rates of 0.30 per year (half-life 2.3 years). Bulk attenuation rate constants for plume centerline concentrations over time ranged from 0.33 0.09 per year (half-life 2.3 0.8 years) for toluene and 0.45 0.06 per year (half-life 1.6 0.2 years) for naphthalene. The hydrogeologic setting at Site 24, having a sandy aquifer, shallow water table, clay confining layer, and aerobic conditions, was ideal for demonstrating MNA. However, these results demonstrate that MNA is a viable remedial strategy for ground water at sites impacted by MAHs and PAHs after the original source is removed, stabilized, or contained. [source]

    Estimating Persistent Mass Flux of Volatile Contaminants from the Vadose Zone to Ground Water

    M.J. Truex
    Contaminants may persist for long time periods within low permeability portions of the vadose zone where they cannot be effectively treated and are a potential continuing source of contamination to ground water. Setting appropriate vadose zone remediation goals typically requires evaluating these persistent sources in terms of their impact on meeting ground water remediation goals. Estimating the impact on ground water can be challenging at sites with low aqueous recharge rates where vapor-phase movement is the dominant transport process in the vadose zone. Existing one-dimensional approaches for simulating transport of volatile contaminants in the vadose zone are considered and compared to a new flux-continuity-based assessment of vapor-phase contaminant movement from the vadose zone to the ground water. The flux-continuity-based assessment demonstrates that the ability of the ground water to move contaminant away from the water table controls the vapor-phase mass flux from the vadose zone across the water table. Limitations of these approaches are then discussed with respect to the required assumptions and the need to incorporate three-dimensional processes when evaluating vapor-phase transport from the vadose zone to the ground water. The carbon tetrachloride plume at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site is used as the example site where persistent vadose zone contamination needs to be considered in the context of ground water remediation. [source]