Better Protection (good + protection)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


NS Ahmad
SUMMARY 1.,Free radicals generated by ferric nitrilotriacetate (FeNTA) can activate osteoclastic activity and this is associated with elevation of the bone resorbing cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 2 mg/kg FeNTA (2 mg iron/kg) on the levels of serum IL-1 and IL-6 with or without supplementation with a palm oil tocotrienol mixture or ,-tocopherol acetate in Wistar rats. 2.,The FeNTA was found to elevate levels of IL-1 and IL-6. Only the palm oil tocotrienol mixture at doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg was able to prevent FeNTA-induced increases in IL-1 (P < 0.01). Both the palm oil tocotrienol mixture and ,-tocopherol acetate, at doses of 30, 60 and 100 mg/kg, were able to reduce FeNTA-induced increases in IL-6 (P < 0.05). Therefore, the palm oil tocotrienol mixture was better than pure ,-tocopherol acetate in protecting bone against FeNTA (free radical)-induced elevation of bone-resorbing cytokines. 3.,Supplementation with the palm oil tocotrienol mixture or ,-tocopherol acetate at 100 mg/kg restored the reduction in serum osteocalcin levels due to ageing, as seen in the saline (control) group (P < 0.05). All doses of the palm oil tocotrienol mixture decreased urine deoxypyridinoline cross-link (DPD) significantly compared with the control group, whereas a trend for decreased urine DPD was only seen for doses of 60 mg/kg onwards of ,-tocopherol acetate (P < 0.05). 4.,Bone histomorphometric analyses have shown that FeNTA injections significantly lowered mean osteoblast number (P < 0.001) and the bone formation rate (P < 0.001), but raised osteoclast number (P < 0.05) and the ratio of eroded surface/bone surface (P < 0.001) compared with the saline (control) group. Supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent all these FeNTA-induced changes, but a similar dose of ,-tocopherol acetate was found to be effective only for mean osteoclast number. Injections of FeNTA were also shown to reduce trabecular bone volume (P < 0.001) and trabecular thickness (P < 0.05), whereas only supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent these FeNTA-induced changes. [source]

Shake table tests on a mass eccentric model with base isolation

Bijan Samali
Abstract A mass eccentric structure is usually more seismically vulnerable than its concentric counterpart because of the coupled torsional,translational response of such structures. In this work, dynamic characteristics and response of a five-storey benchmark model with moderate mass eccentricity were investigated using a shake table, simulating four different ground motions. The effectiveness of laminated rubber bearings (LRB) and lead-core rubber bearings (LCRB) in protecting eccentric structures was examined and evaluated in relation to translational and torsional responses of the benchmark model. It was observed that both translational and torsional responses were significantly reduced with the addition of either a LRB or LCRB isolated system regardless of the nature of ground motion input. The LRB were identified to be more effective than LCRB in reducing model relative displacements, the relative torsional angle as well as accelerations, and therefore provided a better protection of the superstructure and its contents. On the other hand, LCRB rendered a smaller torsional angle and absolute displacement of the base isolation system, hence a more stable structural system. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Comparative evaluation of intranasal and subcutaneous route of immunization for development of mucosal vaccine against experimental tuberculosis

Pramod K. Giri
Abstract Activation of mucosal immunity in the respiratory tract is crucial for protection against respiratory infections. Whether the intranasal route of vaccination imparts better protection against pulmonary tuberculosis than that of subcutaneous vaccination remains a debatable issue. In this study, we have investigated the effect of the routes of immunization on the induction of immunoprotection against experimental tuberculosis employing mycobacterial culture filtrate proteins complexed with dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide. Vaccination via intranasal and subcutaneous routes triggered immune activation in the spleen and cervical lymph node, while the former route of vaccination lead to higher antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation, interferon-,, interleukin-12 and interleukin-4 responses in cervical lymph node and induction of antigen-specific IgA responses at mucosal level of the respiratory tract. Mice vaccinated via the intranasal route were found to be better protected against experimental tuberculosis particularly in lung compared to subcutaneous-immunized mice. These results emphasize the importance of the intranasal route vaccination in tuberculosis. [source]

The genetic background of Streptococcus pneumoniae affects protection in mice immunized with PspA

Xiangyun He
Abstract Anti-PspA antibodies are less efficient at protecting mice against certain pneumococcal strains. Immunization with PspA from EF5668 provided better protection against WU2 (a different capsular serotype and PspA family) than against EF5668. To understand the role of the pneumococcal genetic background in anti-PspA-mediated protection, we constructed a mutant of WU2 expressing pspA from EF5668. Both passive and active immunization demonstrated that the genetic background impacted the protection mediated by anti-PspA antibodies. We localized the protection-eliciting region to the first 122 amino acid residues of the N-termius of the ,-helical domain of PspA/EF5668. [source]

Forced depression of leaf hydraulic conductance in situ: effects on the leaf gas exchange of forest trees

Summary 1Recent work on the hydraulic conductance of leaves suggests that maximum photosynthetic performance of a leaf is defined largely by its plumbing. Pursuing this idea, we tested how the diurnal course of gas exchange of trees in a dry tropical forest was affected by artificially depressing the hydraulic conductance of leaves (Kleaf). 2Individual leaves from four tropical tree species were exposed to a brief episode of forced evaporation by blowing warm air over leaves in situ. Despite humid soil and atmospheric conditions, this caused leaf water potential (,leaf) to fall sufficiently to induce a 50,74% drop in Kleaf. 3Two of the species sampled proved highly sensitive to artificially depressed Kleaf, leading to a marked and sustained decline in the instantaneous rate of CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance and transpiration. Leaves of these species showed a depression of hydraulic and photosynthetic capacity in response to the ,blow-dry' treatment similar to that observed when major veins in the leaf were severed. 4By contrast, the other two species sampled were relatively insensitive to Kleaf manipulation; photosynthetic rates were indistinguishable from control (untreated) leaves 4 h after treatment. These insensitive species demonstrate a linear decline of Kleaf with ,leaf, while Kleaf in the two sensitive species falls precipitously at a critical water deficit. 5We propose that a sigmoidal Kleaf vulnerability enables a high diurnal yield of CO2 at the cost of exposing leaves to the possibility of xylem cavitation. Linear Kleaf vulnerability leads to a relatively lower CO2 yield, while providing better protection against cavitation. [source]

Influence of temperature on hydrodynamic costs of morphological defences in zooplankton: experiments on models of Eubosmina (Cladocera)

R. Lagergren
Abstract 1.,If swimming speed is correlated to fitness (e.g. by affecting food intake or the chance to evade predators) or considerable energy is expended in swimming, zooplankton wearing protruding structures (as predator defence) that significantly increase drag resistance must pay a cost for the better protection against predators that these traits imply. 2.,In an experiment with plastic models, the drag and energy consumption of swimming in two species of Eubosmina were examined. Eubosmina longispina has a typical Bosmina morphology with a low carapace and short antennule, whereas E. coregoni gibbera has a very high carapax and long antennule. 3.,At 5 °C, E. c. gibbera had 32,45% higher drag than E. longispina. At 20 °C, the difference is 20,45%. 4.,A mathematical model of swimming predicts that these differences in drag should result in 18,20 (at 5 °C) or 14,16 (at 20 °C) percentage lower speed for E. c. gibbera than for E. longispina if they use the same amount of energy in swimming. 5.,The relative difference in drag or swimming speed between the two species was highest at low Reynolds number (i.e. low speed or low temperature). These results show that hydrodynamic costs of extreme morphology may increase with decreasing temperature. 6.,The increased cost of morphological antipredator defence at low temperatures may be enlightening with regard to the role of temperature in the induction of cyclomorphic traits in zooplankton. This may be one explanation for why extreme forms of E. c. gibbera and some Daphnia are only found in the summer when water temperature is high. [source]

Comparison of the corrosion protection of mild steel by polypyrrole,phosphate and polypyrrole,tungstenate coatings

M. G. Hosseini
Abstract The electrodeposition of polypyrrole,phosphate (PPy,P) and polypyrrole,tungstenate (PPy,W) on mild steel (MS) were achieved in an oxalic acid medium with cyclic voltammetry techniques. Adherent and homogeneous PPy,P and PPy,W films were obtained. The corrosion behavior of mild steel with phosphate (PPy,P) and tungstenate (PPy,W) composite coatings in 3.5% NaCl solutions were investigated through a potentiodynamic polarization technique, open-circuit potential,time curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). On the basis of a physical model for corrosion of mild steel composites, Zview (II) software was applied to the EIS to estimate the parameters of the proposed equivalent circuit. It was found that the PPy,W coatings could provide much better protection than the PPy,P and polypyrrole coatings. The effects of the phosphate and tungstenate process parameters on the morphology and structure of the passive films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and electron dispersion X-ray analyses. The results reveal that the PPy,P and PPy,W coated electrodes offered a noticeable enhancement in protection against corrosion processes. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

Inhibition of human squalene monooxygenase by selenium compounds

Nisha Gupta
Abstract Selenosis in animals is characterized by a variety of neurological abnormalities, but the chemical species of selenium and the molecular targets that mediate this neurotoxicity are unknown. We have previously shown that selenite is a potent inhibitor of squalene monooxygenase, the second enzyme in the committed pathway for cholesterol biosynthesis; inhibition of this enzyme by dimethyltellurium leads to a peripheral demyelinating neuropathy similar to that seen in selenosis. To evaluate the role methylation plays in selenium toxicity, we examined the ability of three methylselenium compounds, methylselenol, dimethylselenide, and trimethylselenonium iodide, to inhibit purified recombinant human squalene monooxygenase. IC50 values for methylselenol (95 ,M) and dimethylselenide (680 ,M) were greater than that previously obtained for selenite (37 ,M), and inhibition by trimethylselenonium iodide was evident only at concentrations above 3 mM. Inhibition by methylselenol as well as by selenite was slow and irreversible, suggestive of covalent binding to the enzyme, and thiol-containing compounds could prevent and reverse this inhibition, indicating that these compounds were reacting with sulfhydryl groups on the protein. Monothiols such as glutathione and ,-mercaptoethanol provided better protection than did dithiols, suggesting that these selenium compounds bind to only one of the two proposed vicinal cysteines on squalene monooxygenase. Unexpectedly, the inhibition by selenite was significantly enhanced by dithiols, indicating that a more toxic species, possibly selenide, was formed in the presence of these dithiol reductants. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 16:18,23, 2002; DOI 10.1002/jbt.10014 [source]


Jenq-Tzong Shiau
ABSTRACT: This paper presents a quantitative assessment framework for determining the instream flow under multiobjective water allocation criteria. The Range of Variability Approach (RVA) is employed to evaluate the hydrologic alterations caused by flow diversions, and the resulting degrees of alteration for the 32 Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHAs) are integrated as an overall degree of hydrologic alteration. By including this index in the objective function, it is possible to optimize the water allocation scheme using compromise programming to minimize the hydrologic alteration and water supply shortages. The proposed methodology is applied to a case study of the Kaoping diversion weir in Taiwan. The results indicate that the current release of 9.5 m3/s as a minimum instream flow does not effectively mitigate the highly altered hydrologic regime. Increasing the instream flow would reduce the overall degree of hydrologic alteration; however, this is achieved at the cost of increasing the water supply shortages. The effects on the optimal instream flow of the weighting factors assigned to water supplies and natural flow variations are also investigated. With equal weighting assigned to the multiple objectives, the optimal instream flow of 26 m3/s leads to a less severely altered hydrologic regime, especially for those low-flow characteristics, thereby providing a better protection of the riverine environment. [source]

Protective effect of vitamin E on ultraviolet B light,induced damage in keratinocytes

Samar Maalouf
Abstract Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation is the most common environmental factor in the pathogenesis of skin cancer. Exposure of human skin to UVB radiation leads to the depletion of cutaneous antioxidants, the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-,B), and programmed cell death (apoptosis). Although antioxidant supplementation has been shown to prevent UVB-induced photooxidative damage, its effect on components of cell signaling pathways leading to gene expression has not been clearly established. In the present study, the effect of the antioxidant vitamin, ,-tocopherol (,-T), and its acetate analog, ,-tocopherol acetate (,-TAc), on UVB-induced damage in primary and neoplastic mouse keratinocytes was investigated. The ability of both vitamins to modulate UVB-induced apoptosis and activation of the transcription factor NF-,B were studied. Treatment of normal and neoplastic mouse epidermal keratinocytes (308 cells) with 30,60 mJ/cm2 UVB markedly decreased viable cell number and was accompanied by DNA fragmentation. When both vitamins were applied to cells at times before and after UVB radiation, a significant increase in the percentage of viable cells and concomitant decrease in the number of apoptotic cells was noted, with vitamin pretreatment providing a better protection than posttreatment. Simultaneous posttreatment of irradiated cells with ,-TAc abolished the cytotoxic effects of UVB and restored cell viability to control levels. In addition, simultaneous posttreatment of irradiated cells with ,-T reduced the number of apoptotic cells by half, indicating a synergistic effect of two such treatments compared with any single one. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that vitamin treatment suppressed both an increase in pre-G0 cells and a decrease in cycling cells by UVB exposure. In addition, NF-,B activation was detected 2 h after UV exposure and was maintained for up to 8 h. Pretreatment with vitamins significantly inhibited NF-,B activation at 4 and 8 h. These results indicate that vitamin E and its acetate analog can modulate the cellular response to UVB partly through their action on NF-,B activation. Thus, these antioxidant vitamins are potential drugs for the protection from or the reduction of UVB-associated epidermal damage. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effect of protective filters on fire fighter respiratory health during simulated bushfire smoke exposure

Annemarie J.B.M. De Vos RN
Abstract Background Bushfire fighters are potentially subject to risks from bushfire smoke. Although many different protective masks and filters are available, it is not clear which is the most effective from a health and safety perspective. The effect of protective filters on the respiratory health of Western Australian urban career fire fighters under controlled simulated conditions is investigated. Methods Sixty-four healthy Fire and Emergency Services Authority of Western Australia (FESA) urban career fire fighters were subjected to controlled simulated bushfire smoke in an open smoke chamber for 15 min. The fire fighters were allocated one of the three types of protective filters: particulate only (P), particulate/organic vapor (POV), and a particulate/organic vapor/formaldehyde (POVF) filter using a double-blind randomized procedure. Personal air sampling inside the fire fighters' masks, spirometry, oximetry, and self-reported symptom data were collected at baseline and at two time intervals after the smoke exposure. Results A significant decline in oxygen saturation was seen immediately after exposure, however, the decline was small and no significant relationships could be established between this and the type of filter used. A significantly higher number of participants in the P and POV filter groups self-reported an increase in coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath compared to the POVF group. Air sampling demonstrated a significantly higher level of formaldehyde and acrolein inside the masks fitted with P filters compared to POV and POVF filters. Conclusions Testing the effectiveness of P, POV, and POVF filters under controlled conditions has demonstrated that the POVF filter provides statistically significant better protection for the fire fighters' airways in a simulated bushfire exposure chamber. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

DNA vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease via electroporation: study of molecular approaches for enhancing VP1 antigenicity

Suk-Am Kim
Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) affects susceptible livestock animals and causes disastrous economic impact. Immunization with plasmid expressing VP1 that contains the major antigenic epitope(s) of FMDV as cytoplasmic protein (cVP1) failed to elicit full protection against FMDV challenge. Materials and methods In this study, mice were immunized via electroporation with four cDNA expression vectors that were constructed to express VP1 of FMDV, as cytoplasmic (cVP1), secreted (sVP1), membrane-anchored (mVP1) or capsid precursor protein (P1), respectively, to evaluate whether expression of VP1 in specific subcellular compartment(s) would result in better immune responses. Results Electroporation enhanced immune responses to vectors expressing cVP1 or P1 and expedited the immune responses to vectors expressing sVP1 or mVP1. Immunization of mice via electroporation with mVP1 cDNA was better than sVP1 or cVP1 cDNA in eliciting neutralizing antibodies and viral clearance protection. Vaccination with P1 cDNA, nonetheless, yielded the best immune responses and protection among all four cDNAs that we tested. Conclusions These results suggest that the antigenicity of a VP1 DNA vaccine can be significantly enhanced by altering the cellular localization of the VP1 antigen. Electroporation is a useful tool for enhancing the immune responses of vectors expressing VP1 or P1. By mimicking FMDV more closely than that of transgenic VP1 and eliciting immune responses favorably toward Th2, transgenic P1 may induce more neutralizing antibodies and better protection against FMDV challenge. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Group Leaders as Gatekeepers: Testing Safety Climate Variations across Levels of Analysis

Dov Zohar
This paper tests the moderating effect of transformational supervisory leadership on the relationship between organisational and group climates, using safety climate in risky operations as an exemplar. Results indicated that under low or poor organisational climate, indicative of limited organisational commitment to employee safety, transformational leaders promoted a higher group climate as compared to the organisational climate. Similarly, under a weak organisational climate, indicative of limited consensus among company employees regarding the priority of safety, transformational leaders promoted a stronger group climate, reflecting greater consensus among group members. This pattern suggests that supervisory leaders can act as gatekeepers, with transformational leaders offering better protection against potentially harmful organisation-level priorities. Furthermore, transformational supervisors better informed their members of the organisational priorities as they perceived them, resulting in a stronger relationship between individual supervisors' perceptions and members' organisational climate perceptions. Implications for climate and leadership research are discussed. On s'intéresse dans cet article à l'impact régulateur du leadership hiérarchique de transformation sur la relation entre les climats organisationnels et de groupe en utilisant comme exemple la sécurité dans les opérations à risque. Les résultats montrent qu'en cas de climat organisationnel médiocre signifiant une implication organisationnelle minimale à propos de la sécurité du personnel, les leaders de transformation favorisent l'émergence d'un climat de groupe plus satisfaisant que le climat organisationnel. De même, si le climat organisationnel est fragile, traduisant un accord approximatif des salariés sur la prioritéà accorder à la sécurité, les leaders de transformation sont à l'origine d'un climat de groupe renforcé, expression d'un meilleur consensus parmi les membres du groupe. Ce schéma laisse penser que les leaders hiérarchiques peuvent intervenir comme gardiens, les leaders de transformation offrant une meilleure protection contre les priorités organisationnelles potentiellement nocives. De plus, les managers de transformation informent mieux leur équipe des priorités organisationnelles telles qu'ils les perçoivent, ce qui provoque une relation plus étroite entre les perceptions personnelles du manager et celles que son groupe a du climat organisationnel. On réfléchit aux retombées de ce travail sur les recherches portant sur le climat et le leadership. [source]

,-Mercapto-ethanol-treated yeast showed better protection against white spot syndrome virus infection in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

Thavarool Puthiyedathu Sajeevan
First page of article [source]

Marine yeast diet confers better protection than its cell wall component (1-3)-,- d -glucan as an immunostimulant in Fenneropenaeus indicus

Thavarool Puthiyedathu Sajeevan
Abstract A comparative study was performed to evaluate the immunostimulatory effect of yeast and yeast-derived glucan in white prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus (sub-adults of ,20 gm). Feed with a whole cell biomass of marine yeast Candida sake S165 (CSY) at a concentration of 10% (w/w) and another feed with 0.2% glucan of C. sake S165 (CSG) were used in the study. Fenneropenaeus indicus were fed with these diets for 40 days and subsequently challenged with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Haematological parameters such as the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anion (O2,) level, haemolymph peroxidase level and post-challenge survival against WSSV infection were determined to assess the immune status. In the present experiment, a higher immunity index and post-challenge survival were recorded in shrimps fed with the whole cell yeast diet. The better immunostimulatory performance of the whole cell yeast diet compared with the glucan diet could be attributed to the cellular constituents of yeast including the cell wall glucan, nucleotides, carotenoid pigments and vitamins. Here we observed that whole cell yeast performed better as an immunostimulant than the extracted cell wall glucans. Therefore, the use of yeast biomass in diets, rather than the yeast cell wall extract, glucan, would confer better protection against microbial infection besides reducing the cost of shrimp production. [source]

Liposome-Encapsulated Hemoglobin Reduces the Size of Cerebral Infarction in Rats: Effect of Oxygen Affinity

Dai Fukumoto
Abstract Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) with a low oxygen affinity (l-LEH, P50 = 45 mm Hg) was found to be protective in the rodent and primate models of ischemic stroke. This study investigated the role of LEH with a high O2 affinity (h-LEH, P50 = 10 mm Hg) in its protective effect on brain ischemia. The extent of cerebral infarction was determined 24 h after photochemically induced thrombosis of the middle cerebral artery from the integrated area of infarction detected by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining in rats receiving various doses of h-LEH as well as l-LEH. Both h-LEH and l-LEH significantly reduced the extent of cortical infarction. h-LEH remained protective at a lower concentration (minimal effective dose [MED]: 0.08 mL/kg) than l-LEH (MED: 2 mL/kg) in the cortex. h-LEH reduced the infarction extent in basal ganglia as well (MED: 0.4 mL/kg), whereas l-LEH provided no significant protection. h-LEH provided better protection than l-LEH. The protective effect of both high- and low-affinity LEH may suggest the importance of its small particle size (230 nm) as compared to red blood cells. The superiority of h-LEH over l-LEH supports an optimal O2 delivery to the ischemic penumbra as the mechanism of action in protecting against brain ischemia and reperfusion. [source]

p53 and ageing: too much of a good thing?

BIOESSAYS, Issue 7 2002
Thomas B.L. Kirkwood
A recent report by Tyner et al.1 suggests that p53 is bad for longevity. Heterozygotic mice carrying a p53 mutation that apparently enhances the stability of the wild-type protein showed shorter lifespans and faster ageing while also developing fewer tumours. This fits with the idea that cellular ageing is the price paid for better protection against unlimited proliferation of cancer cells. But other work shows that there is a strong positive association between DNA repair-mediated protection against cancer and ageing. So what are we to make of the new data with regard to overall understanding of the mechanisms of ageing? BioEssays 24:577,579, 2002. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Unconventional method based on circular dichroism to detect peanut DNA in food by means of a PNA probe and a cyanine dye

CHIRALITY, Issue 9 2005
Stefano Sforza
Abstract In this paper we report an innovative and unconventional method based on circular dichroism for the identification of peanut DNA in food, which can be detected after PCR amplification at the nanomolar level by using an achiral PNA probe complementary to a tract of the peanut Ara h 2 gene and an achiral 3,3,-diethylthiadicarbocyanine dye [DiSC2(5)]. Peanuts are one of the most common causes of severe allergic reactions to foods and are particularly dangerous when they are "hidden" (undeclared) in food. For better protection of consumers, detection methods are required to specifically detect the presence of hidden allergens in a wide variety of food items. Alternative to the detection of the proteins is the determination of species-specific DNA, which is more resistant to technological treatments. PNAs are very specific probes able to recognize DNA sequences with high affinity and evidence for the binding can be obtained by using the DiSC2(5) dye, which aggregates onto the PNA,DNA duplex giving rise to a characteristic visibile band at 540 nm. Because the PNA,DNA duplex is in a right-handed helical conformation, the aggregation of the dye to the duplex gives also rise to a strong CD signal in the 500,600 nm region with a strong exciton coupling due to the formation of multimeric species, since the handedness of the helix is transferred to the dye aggregate. The dye does not interact with the free single-stranded DNA and although aggregating on the achiral PNA, this interaction is obviously not detectable by circular dichroism. Thus, only the formation of the PNA,DNA duplex, which takes place only upon specific Watson,Crick hydrogen binding between the PNA and the DNA bases, is detected, ensuring a very high specificity and sensitivity. The method has been optimized in a model system by using a synthetic oligonucleotide complementary to the PNA probe, showing that the intensity of the signal is linearly related to the amount of the DNA. The optimized method has been applied to the identification and quantitation of DNA extracted and amplified by PCR from peanuts and from peanut-containing foods, allowing for a very sensitive detection at a very low level (few pmol). © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Chirality 17:515,521, 2005. [source]


GH TeschArticle first published online: 15 AUG 200
SUMMARY 1Macrophage accumulation is a feature of Type 2 diabetes and is associated with the development of diabetic complications (nephropathy, atherosclerosis, neuropathy and retinopathy). The present article reviews the current evidence that macrophages contribute to the complications of Type 2 diabetes. 2Macrophage-depletion studies in rodent models have demonstrated a causal role for macrophages in the development of diabetic complications. 3Components of the diabetic milieu (high glucose, advanced glycation end-products and oxidized low-density lipoprotein) promote macrophage accumulation (via induction of chemokines and adhesion molecules) and macrophage activation within diabetic tissues. 4Macrophages mediate diabetic injury through a variety of mechanisms, including production of reactive oxygen species, cytokines and proteases, which result in tissue damage leading to sclerosis. 5A number of existing and experimental therapies can indirectly reduce macrophage-mediated injury in diabetic complications. The present article discusses the use of these therapies, given alone and in combination, in suppressing macrophage accumulation and activity. 6In conclusion, current evidence supports a critical role for macrophages in the evolution of diabetic complications. Present therapies are limited in slowing the progression of macrophage-mediated injury. Novel strategies that are more specific at targeting macrophages may provide better protection against the development of Type 2 diabetic complications. [source]

Evaluation of analogues of DRDE-07 as prophylactic agents against the lethality and toxicity of sulfur mustard administered through percutaneous route

A. S. Kulkarni
Abstract Sulfur mustard (SM), chemically bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes serious blisters on contact with human skin. Although several antidotes have been reported for the systemic toxicity of SM in experimental animals none of them are approved so far and decontamination of SM immediately by physical or chemical means is recommended as the best protection. Two compounds amifostine [S-2(3-aminopropylamino) ethyl phosphorothioate] and DRDE-07 [S-2(2-aminoethylamino) ethyl phenyl sulfide] gave very good protection as an oral prophylactic agent against SM the in mouse model, but in the rat model the protection was only moderate. In the search for more effective and less toxic compounds, a number of analogues of DRDE-07 were synthesised and their protective efficacy was evaluated in mouse and rat models. The LD50 of S-aryl substitution was between 1 and 2 g kg,1 and S-alkyl substitution was more than 2 g kg,1. In the mouse model, DRDE-07, DRDE-10, DRDE-21, DRDE-30 and DRDE-35 gave about 20 fold protection, and DRDE-23 and DRDE-38 gave less protection of 4.8 and 9.0 fold respectively, against percutaneously administered SM. In the rat model, DRDE-07, DRDE-09, DRDE-10 and DRDE-21 gave about two fold protection. Percutaneously administered SM (19.33 mg kg,1) significantly depleted the hepatic GSH content in mice. Pretreatment with DRDE-21 significantly elevated the levels. A 4.4 fold increase in % DNA fragmentation was observed 7 days after SM administration (19.33 mg kg,1) in mice. Pretreatment with DRDE-07, DRDE-09, DRDE-10, DRDE-21, DRDE-30 and DRDE-35 significantly protected the mice from SM induced DNA damage. The histopathological lesions in liver and spleen induced by percutaneously administered SM was reduced by pretreatment with DRDE-07, DRDE-09, DRDE-10 and DRDE-21. These analogues may prove as prototypes for the designing of more effective prophylactic drug for SM. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Vaccination trials of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.), against Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida, using novel vaccine mixtures

V Bakopoulos
Abstract Bacterial cells of the marine fish pathogen Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida were grown in novel culture media. A mixture of whole cells and extracellular components was inactivated and used in bath, intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral vaccination of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, employing two sizes of fish. A commercial vaccine was used for comparative purposes. Control and immunized fish were either bath or intraperitoneally challenged 6 and 12 weeks post-vaccination. Small fish had significantly higher relative percentage survival with the novel vaccine mixture both at 6 and 12 weeks post-vaccination by bath, in comparison with the commercial vaccine. No protection was afforded at 6 or 12 weeks post-immunization by either vaccine after challenge via i.p. injection. Sea bass (1.5,2 g) intraperitoneally vaccinated with various adjuvanted vaccine mixtures were not protected against pasteurellosis. In contrast, larger sea bass (20 g) benefited from vaccination with the novel vaccine mixtures. Intraperitoneal challenge with the pathogen resulted in protection in both fish groups vaccinated with novel vaccine mixtures, whereas control fish suffered high mortalities (>80%). Orally vaccinated fish were immersion challenged with the pathogen. At 6 and 12 weeks post-vaccination the control fish had a high mortality and the fish vaccinated with the novel vaccine mixture achieved good protection. [source]

Ultrasonic immunization of sea bream, Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel), with a mixed vaccine against Vibrio alginolyticus and V. anguillarum

Y-C Zhou
In order to clarify the effectiveness of ultrasonication on vaccine delivery, juvenile sea bream, Pagrus major, were treated with eight different ultrasonic methods. A mixed vaccine against Vibrio alginolyticus and V. anguillarum was used to immunize the fish. The intensity and frequency of the ultrasound were 280 mW cm,2 and 35 kHz, respectively. The ultrasonic methods included continuous or pulsed ultrasound for 3 min, and continuous or pulsed ultrasound for 3 min before and/or after immersion for 3 min. Of all the eight ultrasonic methods tested, `pulsed ultrasound followed by immersion' and `immersion, pulsed ultrasound, and followed by immersion again' provided the best protection, which were comparable with protection of fish immunized by intraperitoneal injection. Moreover, the convenience of applying these two ultrasonic methods for immunization was comparable with the immersion method and was much better than intraperitoneal injection. If 2 × 108 CFU mL,1 of this mixed vaccine was used for vaccination repeatedly five times by ultrasonic methods, it could still produce good protection for the immunized sea bream. Therefore, the ultrasonic method is an effective and practical approach for fish vaccination on a large scale. [source]

Pharmaceutical and immunological evaluation of human papillomavirus viruslike particle as an antigen carrier

Roxana M. Ionescu
Abstract We report the preparation and the immunogenicity of a conjugate vaccine obtained by chemically conjugating a variant of the extracellular peptide fragment of influenza type A M2 protein to the human papillomavirus (HPV) viruslike particle (VLP). Conjugates comprised of approximately 4000 copies of the antigenic peptide per VLP are obtained as the result of the reaction between a C-terminal cysteine residue on the peptide and the maleimide-activated HPV VLP. The resulting conjugates have an average particle size slightly larger than the carrier and present enhanced overall stability against chemical and thermal-induced denaturation. The M2-HPV VLP conjugates lost the binding affinity for anti-HPV conformational antibodies but retained reactivity to a M2-specific monoclonal antibody. The conjugate vaccine formulated with aluminum adjuvant and delivered in two doses of 30-ng peptide was found to be highly immunogenic and conferred good protection against lethal challenge of influenza virus in mice. These results suggest that HPV VLP can be used as a carrier for synthetic or small antigens for the development of subunit vaccines. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 95:70,79, 2006 [source]

Corrosion behaviour of tool steels in tannic acids

H. Winkelmann
Abstract It is well known that cutting knifes in the wood industry often suffer from corrosion. Investigations showed that the corrosiveness of different wood types is responsible for a major part of the damage, and that different woods have a different corrosive impact. It is revealed that tannin, a water-soluble acid, which can be found in all woods in different concentrations, is the most aggressive acid contained in the wood, and so it is responsible for the main part of the corrosive attack. In view of the above, the ability of different cold-work steels to resist corrosion caused by tannic acid has been investigated. Often corrosion is measured by the mass loss of the sample divided by the surface of the sample under certain conditions during a fixed period of time. One problem with this method is that there is also a weight gain caused by oxidation or by other side reactions at the samples surface. So in some cases the weight of the sample even increases during the testing time, which makes the quantification of the corrosion impossible with this method. Due to the reasons already mentioned, another method was used to quantify the test results. This method is based on inductive coupled plasma,optical emission spectral analyses (ICP-OES), where the released Fe is quantified. The results of the corrosion resistant tests get correlated to the microstructure and the elemental composition of the analysed cold-work steels. The present investigations improve the understanding of important material parameters to enhance the corrosion resistance against tannin. It is revealed that the higher the primary carbide concentration is the more Cr or other passivating elements are necessary in the matrix to show a good protection against corrosion by tannin. Three materials with different elemental compositions have been investigated, and for one of those materials the influence of different heat treatments was also analysed. The investigations could show that annealing parameters and freeze-cycle processing (FCP) have less impact on the corrosion resistance to tannin than elemental composition and austenitising temperature. [source]