Better Identification (good + identification)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Quantifying contributions to storm runoff through end-member mixing analysis and hydrologic measurements at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (Georgia, USA)

Douglas A. Burns
Abstract The geographic sources and hydrologic flow paths of stormflow in small catchments are not well understood because of limitations in sampling methods and insufficient resolution of potential end members. To address these limitations, an extensive hydrologic dataset was collected at a 10 ha catchment at Panola Mountain Research Watershed near Atlanta, GA, to quantify the contribution of three geographic sources of stormflow. Samples of stream water, runoff from an outcrop, and hillslope subsurface stormflow were collected during two rainstorms in the winter of 1996, and an end-member mixing analysis model that included five solutes was developed. Runoff from the outcrop, which occupies about one-third of the catchment area, contributed 50,55% of the peak streamflow during the 2 February rainstorm, and 80,85% of the peak streamflow during the 6,7 March rainstorm; it also contributed about 50% to total streamflow during the dry winter conditions that preceded the 6,7 March storm. Riparian groundwater runoff was the largest component of stream runoff (80,100%) early during rising streamflow and throughout stream recession, and contributed about 50% to total stream runoff during the 2 February storm, which was preceded by wet winter conditions. Hillslope runoff contributed 25,30% to peak stream runoff and 15,18% to total stream runoff during both storms. The temporal response of the three runoff components showed general agreement with hydrologic measurements from the catchment during each storm. Estimates of recharge from the outcrop to the riparian aquifer that were independent of model calculations indicated that storage in the riparian aquifer could account for the volume of rain that fell on the outcrop but did not contribute to stream runoff. The results of this study generally indicate that improvements in the ability of mixing models to describe the hydrologic response accurately in forested catchments may depend on better identification, and detailed spatial and temporal characterization of the mobile waters from the principal hydrologic source areas that contribute to stream runoff. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Impact of genetic variation on perioperative bleeding

Jochen D. Muehlschlegel
Variation in bleeding in the perioperative period is a complex and multifactorial event associated with immediate and delayed consequences for the patient and health care resources. Little is known about the complex genetic influences on perioperative bleeding. With the discovery of multiple variations in the human genome and ever-growing databases of well-phenotyped surgical patients, better identification of patients at risk of bleeding is becoming a reality. In this review, polymorphisms in the platelet receptor genes, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and angiotensin genes among others will be discussed. We will explore the nature, effects, and implications of the genetics that influence perioperative bleeding above and beyond surgical bleeding, particularly in cardiac surgery. Am. J. Hematol., 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Understanding the ergonomic risk for musculoskeletal disorders in the United States agricultural sector

Kermit G. Davis PhD
Abstract Introduction Farming is a very large industry in the United States. Understanding the risks for injuries and more specifically musculoskeletal disorders in this industry poses a challenge for health officials. Methods A review was conducted of the existing peer-reviewed publications prior to December 2006 about injuries and musculoskeletal disorders for farmers and farm workers. The aim was to review existing knowledge concerning: (1) the prevalence, types, and causes of farm-related injuries, paying particular attention to musculoskeletal disorders and the special populations within the agricultural sector, and (2) interventions that have been developed to reduce risk factors associated with farm-related injuries. Results Farmers and farm workers experience high rates of low back, shoulder, and upper extremity disorders. Musculoskeletal disorders may disproportionately affect farm youth and migrant workers due to the types of farm tasks performed. There is an urgent need for improved and validated interventions to reduce exposures and to improve the health of farmers and farm workers. Discussion Future farm-related musculoskeletal disorder research should emphasize: (1) better identification of exposures for special populations, (2) development of interventions for diverse farm populations, and (3) identification of additional exposures for musculoskeletal disorders. Inadequate understanding of musculoskeletal disorders in farming impedes efforts to prevent this common and important type of occupational injuries on farms. Am. J. Ind. Med. 50:501,511, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Modélisation spatiale de la pauvretéà Montréal: apport méthodologique de la régression géographiquement pondérée

Spatial Modeling of Poverty in Montréal: Methodological Contribution of the Geographically Weighted Regression The Island of Montréal is particularly concerned with the issue of poverty. In 2000, 29 percent of its inhabitants lived under the low income cut-offs as defined by Statistics Canada. However, poverty is not a homogeneous phenomenon at the intra-urban scale, and identifying and categorizing spaces of poverty has become a main concern for ongoing researches. According to this way of thinking, this paper proposes an analysis of the factors influencing the geographical distribution of poverty on the Island of Montréal. To be able to identify properly the various profiles of poverty, this analysis uses a specific methodology, the geographically weighted regression (GWR), and compares its results with the ones of a classical regression model. At the global level, the most important factors to explain poverty are in order: unemployment, lone-parent families, one person households, recent immigrants, part time or part year workers, school dropouts. At the local level, L'île de Montréal est particulièrement touchée par la pauvreté, puisqu'en 2000 29 pour cent de sa population vivait sous le seuil de faible revenu tel que défini par Statistique Canada. La pauvreté ne constituant pas toutefois un phénomène homogène à l'échelle intra-urbaine, l'identification et la qualification des zones de pauvreté deviennent des enjeux de recherche de première importance. Dans cette perspective, cet article propose une analyse des facteurs qui déterminent la distribution spatiale de la pauvreté au niveau des secteurs de recensement de l'île de Montréal. Pour ce faire, l'analyse mobilise un outil méthodologique particulier: la régression géographiquement pondérée, et en compare les résultats avec un modèle de régression multiple global. Au niveau global, on constate que les facteurs classiques conduisant à la pauvreté sont à l',uvre sur le territoire de l'île de Montréal. Dans l'ordre, ces facteurs sont: le chômage, la monoparentalité, le fait de vivre seul, le fait d'être un immigrant récent, le travail atypique et la non-fréquentation scolaire des jeunes de 15 à 24 ans. Au niveau local, s'il est vrai we observe that variables employment and lone-parents families play significantly in almost all the census tracts, the four other factors are significant only in some census tracts in the center of the Island. At the end of this analysis, the advantages of the GWR methodology appear clearly, as its capacity to take into account the geographical variations of the phenomenon allows a better identification and categorization of poverty areas in Montréal. que le chômage et la monoparentalité agissent significativement dans presque tous les secteurs, les quatre autres facteurs sont uniquement significatifs dans certains secteurs du centre de l'île. Au terme de l'analyse, les avantages de la régression géographiquement pondérée apparaissent clairement, sa plus grande sensibilité aux variations spatiales du phénomène permettant de mieux identifier et qualifier les zones de pauvreté montréalaises. [source]

What is the impact of missing Indigenous status on mortality estimates?

An assessment using record linkage in Western Australia
Abstract Background: The analysis aimed to assess the Indigenous status of an increasing number of deaths not coded with a useable Indigenous status from 1997 to 2002 and its impact on reported recent gains in Indigenous mortality. Methods: The Indigenous status of WA death records with a missing Indigenous status was determined based upon data linkage to three other data sources (Hospital Morbidity Database System, Mental Health Information System and Midwives Notification System). Results: Overall, the majority of un-coded cases were assigned an Indigenous status, with 5.9% identified as Indigenous from the M1 series and 7.5% from the M2 series. The significant increase in Indigenous male LE of 5.4 years from 1997 to 2002 decreased to 4.0 and 3.6 years using the M1 and M2 series, respectively, but remained significant. For Indigenous females, the non-significant increase in LE of 1.8 years from 1997 to 2002 decreased to 1.0 and 0.6 years. Furthermore, annual all-cause mortality rates were higher than in the original data for both genders, but the significant decline for males remained. Conclusion: Through data linkage, the increasing proportion of deaths not coded with a useable Indigenous status was shown to impact on Indigenous mortality statistics in Western Australia leading to an overestimate of improvements in life expectancy. Greater attention needs to be given to better identification and recording of Indigenous identifiers if real improvements in health status are to be demonstrated. A system that captures an individual's Indigenous status once and is reflected in all health and administrative data systems needs consideration within Australia. [source]

The Treatment of Cognitive Impairment Associated with Parkinson's Disease

David J. Burn FRCP
Abstract Cognitive impairment and dementia associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) are common and often have devastating effects upon the patient and their family. Early cognitive impairment in PD is frequent, and the functional impact may be underestimated. Optimal management will rely upon better identification of the predominant symptoms and greater knowledge of their pathophysiological basis. The management of dementia in PD (PD-D) also has to consider the significant neuropsychiatric burden that frequently accompanies the cognitive decline, as well as fluctuations in attention. Atypical anti-psychotics have a limited role at present in treating PD-D, although new drugs are under development. The mainstay of drug management for people with PD-D is cholinesterase inhibitors, although recent trials have suggested that the N-methyl-D aspartate antagonist memantine may also have some benefit. Disease modification remains the ultimate goal for preventing the inexorable decline in PD-D, although effective interventions are still some way off. Limited benefit may, however, be possible through exercise programmes and so-called "medical foods", although randomised trials are required to confirm largely anecdotal observations. [source]