Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Germination

  • conidial germination
  • de germination
  • decreased germination
  • final germination
  • increased germination
  • la germination
  • lowest germination
  • pollen germination
  • seed germination
  • spore germination

  • Terms modified by Germination

  • germination capacity
  • germination characteristic
  • germination condition
  • germination cue
  • germination level
  • germination parameter
  • germination pattern
  • germination percentage
  • germination process
  • germination rate
  • germination requirement
  • germination response
  • germination speed
  • germination success
  • germination time

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Taejun Han
    Recent reduction in the ozone shield due to manufactured chlorofluorocarbons raised considerable interest in the ecological and physiological consequences of UV-B radiation (,=280,315 nm) in macroalgae. However, early life stages of macroalgae have received little attention in regard to their UV-B sensitivity and UV-B defensive mechanisms. Germination of UV-B irradiated spores of the intertidal green alga Ulva pertusa Kjellman was significantly lower than in unexposed controls, and the degree of reduction correlated with the UV doses. After exposure to moderate levels of UV-B irradiation, subsequent exposure to visible light caused differential germination in an irradiance- and wavelength-dependent manner. Significantly higher germination was found at higher photon irradiances and in blue light compared with white and red light. The action spectrum for photoreactivation of germination in UV-B irradiated U. pertusa spores shows a major peak at 435 nm with a smaller but significant peak at 385 nm. When exposed to December sunlight, the germination percentage of U. pertusa spores exposed to 1 h of solar radiation reached 100% regardless of the irradiation treatment conditions. After a 2-h exposure to sunlight, however, there was complete inhibition of germination in PAR+UV-A+UV-B in contrast to 100% germination in PAR or PAR+UV-A. In addition to mat-forming characteristics that would act as a selective UV-B filter for settled spores under the parental canopy, light-driven repair of germination after UV-B exposure could explain successful continuation of U. pertusa spore germination in intertidal settings possibly affected by intense solar UV-B radiation. [source]

    Development and growth characteristics of Caucasian and white clover seedlings, compared with perennial ryegrass

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 4 2006
    A. D. Black
    Abstract Seedling competition for resources during establishment affects the potential success of individual species within a pasture. Germination, emergence and leaf expansion are key characteristics that contribute to the competitive ability of species. In this study, development and growth characteristics of Caucasian clover, white clover and perennial ryegrass (PRG) seedlings were quantified. A base temperature of <4°C and an optimum temperature of ,27°C were found for development in each species. Thermal time (Tt) requirements for 75% of final germination were lower for Caucasian clover (46°C d) and white clover (40°C d) than for PRG (76°C d), but Tt requirements for 50% of final emergence were similar (,110°C d). The phyllochron (°C d leaf,1) for primary stem leaves was slower for Caucasian clover (109°C d) than for white clover (94°C d) and PRG (101°C d). Appearance of the first PRG tiller, which indicates the initiation of secondary leaf development, occurred after 373°C d, compared with 532°C d for the first white clover stolon. Caucasian clover crown shoots did not develop until >1180°C d. Consequently, white clover and PRG had more leaves (,15 plant,1) and faster shoot relative growth rates (,0·062 mg mg,1 d,1) than Caucasian clover (5 leaves plant,1, 0·049 mg mg,1 d,1). [source]

    Psychrophilic and psychrotrophic clostridia: sporulation and germination processes and their role in the spoilage of chilled, vacuum-packaged beef, lamb and venison

    Katharine H. Adam
    Summary Spoilage of beef, lamb and venison by psychrophilic and psychrotrophic clostridial species renders meat unacceptable resulting in financial losses and reduced consumer confidence. A number of clostridial strains, including Clostridium algidicarnis, Clostridium algidixylanolyticum, Clostridium estertheticum, Clostridium frigidicarnis and Clostridium gasigenes, have been implicated in red meat spoilage. Unlike other spoilers, these clostridia are able to grow in anaerobic conditions and at chilled temperatures (some at ,1.5 °C the optimal storage temperature for chilled red meat). The spoilage they cause is characterised by softening of the meat, production of large amounts of drip (exudates), offensive odours and in the case of C. estertheticum and C. gasigenes production of gas. Spoilage occurs following the introduction of clostridial spores into vacuum packages during processing. Germination of spores is necessary for the growth of vegetative cells, which cause spoilage. Current mitigation strategies focus on good management practice within meat processing plants. However, this is not always sufficient to prevent spoilage. This review summarises the issues associated with meat spoilage because of psychrotolerant clostridia and discusses areas that require further study. [source]

    Germination of Salicornia bigelovii Ecotypes under Stressing Conditions of Temperature and Salinity and Ameliorative Effects of Plant Growth-promoting Bacteria

    E. O. Rueda-Puente
    Abstract Salinity is a major stress condition. Salicornia bigelovii is a valuable edible halophyte, considered to be a promising resource for cultivation in arid coastal zones. Its productivity depends on the supplementary provision of nitrogen, for which an option is chemical fertilization. Nevertheless, indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers contributes to the problem of increased salinity. The inoculation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) represents an alternative. Seed ecotypes from four coastal areas [Santa Rosa Chica, Santa Rosa Grande, Santa Cruz and Cerro Prieto (CP), Sonora, México] were collected, in order to inoculate them with two species of PGPB (Azospirillum halopraeferens and Klebsiella pneumoniae). Two germination tests were carried out to study the effect of salinity, temperature regime (night/day) and inoculation with PGPB on germination (percentage and rate), plant height, root length and biomass produced (fresh and dry matter). In the first test, all four ecotypes were considered, whereas in the second test only the CP ecotype was involved because it was found to be the outstanding ecotype in the previous test. Results showed inhibition of germination when salinity was higher in all ecotypes except CP. The CP ecotype showed a decrease of seed germination with an increase in NaCl concentrations at all temperatures tested. However, when it was inoculated with both PGPB, the germination percentage was influenced. [source]

    Seedling Growth of Agronomic Crops in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    I. Issoufi
    Abstract Phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil shows promise as a low-cost alternative to most remediation methods. This study evaluated seedling growth of six crop species in crude oil contaminated soils. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse. Weathered crude oil was added to an Ipava silt loam soil at the rate of 0 (control), 10, 50 and 100 g of crude oil kg,1 of soil, which was then placed into pots. Irrigation was used to maintain soil moisture at approximately field capacity. Five seeds of Zea mays, Meticago sativa, Lolium perenne, Triticum aestivum, Glycine max or Vicia villosa were sown per pot. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replications per treatment. Germination and seedling height data were recorded on day 7, 14, 21 and 28. Plants were harvested on day 28, separated into shoots and roots and dried to measure biomass. Analysis of variance was used to determine treatment significance. Significant treatment mean values were separated using Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference Test. Based upon percent emergence and plant biomass production in contaminated soil, Z. mays and G. max seedlings show the greatest potential to enhance remediation. [source]

    Impact of the Cropping Systems of a Minor Dry Season on the Growth, Yields and Nitrogen Uptake of Maize (Zea mays L) Grown in the Humid Tropics during the Major Rainy Season

    U. R. Sangakkara
    Abstract A field study evaluated the residual effect of a cropping system in two minor (dry) seasons on the productivity pattern and nitrogen utilization of a maize crop grown in the subsequent major (wet) seasons. The cropping systems established in the minor seasons, where evaporation exceeds rainfall, were either monocultures of maize (Zea mays L), or maize intercropped with either common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) or sunhemp (Crotolaria juncea L). In addition, monocultures of two green manures, namely sunhemp (Crotolaria juncea) or Tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia), were established. The residues of maize and beans and the green manures were incorporated at the end of the minor season; at the onset of rains in the major season, maize crops were established on the same plots. Germination of maize was not affected by the previous cropping system. In contrast, crop growth and yields of maize and nitrogen utilization were affected by the previous cropping system. Optimum growth and highest yields were procured in maize that was grown after a green manure crop. Similarly, although the yields were high, the planting of a green manure crop reduced nitrogen utilization by maize in the major season, thereby indicating its potential contribution to sustainability, due to its lower mining of soil nitrogen. On the basis of the results of this two-year study, the impact of cropping systems in minor seasons on the productivity of maize, a very important highland cereal in the tropics, grown under rain-fed conditions in a major season, is presented. [source]

    Allelopathic Effects of Parthenium hysterophorus Extracts on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Eragrostis tef

    T. Tefera
    The present study was conducted to investigate the allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus weed on seed germination and seedling growth of tef. Flower, stem, root and leaf aqueous extracts of Parthenium at 0, 1, 5, and 10 % concentrations were applied to determine their effect on tef seed germination and seedling growth under laboratory conditions. Increasing concentrations of aqueous extracts of Parthenium from leaf and flower inhibited seed germination and complete failure of seed germination was recorded when the extract concentration from the leaf part was 10 %. In contrast, aqueous extracts from stem and root had no effect on tef seed germination. Roots appeared more sensitive to allelopathic effect than shoots. Extracts from flower, root and stem had a stimulatory effect on shoot length at all concentration levels, as against an inhibitory effect of leaf extracts. Root extracts at low concentration (1 %) greatly promoted root length but aqueous extracts from leaf and flower inhibited root length. [source]

    Comparative Effects of NaCl and Polyethylene Glycol on Germination, Emergence and Seedling Growth of Cowpea

    B. Murillo-Amador
    Abstract Seeds of Paceño and Cuarenteño cultivars of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) were tested for salt and drought tolerance at germination, seedling emergence and early seedling growth in NaCl and PEG-8000 solutions of different osmotic potentials (0, ,0.2, ,0.4, ,0.6, and ,0.8 MPa). Daily and final germination and emergence percentage, as well as germination and seedling emergence rate, and seedling growth were recorded under controlled conditions. Results showed that germination and emergence rate were delayed by both solutions in both cultivars, with differences between cultivars among growth stages, given that cultivar Cuarenteño, showed a higher germination rate than Paceño in NaCl, but Paceño was less affected by NaCl and PEG solutions at the emergence stage. Sodium chloride had a lesser effect on both cultivars in terms of germination rate, emergence rate and the final germination and emergence percentage than did PEG-8000. This conclusively proves that the adverse effect of PEG-8000 on germination, emergence and early seedling growth was due to the osmotic effect rather than the specific ion. Seedling growth was reduced by both stresses, but NaCl usually caused less damage than PEG to cowpea seedlings, suggesting that NaCl and PEG acted through different mechanisms. Zusammenfassung Vergleich der Wirkungen von NaCl und Polyethylenglykol auf die Keimung, das Auflaufen und das Sämlingswachstum von Kuhbohne Samen von Paceño- und Cuarenteño-Kultivaren von Kuhbohne (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) wurden hinsichtlich Salz- und Dürretoleranz zum Zeitpunkt der Keimung, des Sämlingsauflaufens und des frühen Sämlingswachstums in NaCl- und PEG-8000-Lösungen mit unterschiedlichem osmotischen Potential (0, ,0.2, ,0.4, ,0.6 und ,0.8 MPa) untersucht. Tägliche und abschließende Keimungs- und Auflaufprozente sowie Keimung und Sämlingsauflaufrate und Sämlingswachstum wurden unter kontrollierten Bedingungen bestimmt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Keimung und die Auflaufrate durch beide Lösungen verzögert wurden bei beiden Kultivaren, wobei Unterschiede zwischen den Kultivaren hinsichtlich der Wachstumsstadien auftraten; der Kultivar Cuarenteño zeigte eine höhere Keimungsrate als Paceño in NaCl, während Paceño weniger beeinflusst wurde durch NaCl und PEG-Lösungen im Auflaufstadium. Natriumchlorid hatte einen geringeren Einfluss bei beiden Kultivaren hinsichtlich der Keimungsrate, der Auflaufrate und der abschließenden Keimungs- und Auflaufprozente als PEG-8000. Dies bestätigt, dass der ungünstige Einfluss von PEG-8000 auf die Keimung, das Auflaufen und das frühe Sämlingswachstum eine Folge des osmotischen Einflusses und nicht einer spezifischen Ionenwirkung ist. Sämlingswachstum war durch beide Behandlungen beeinträchtigt, aber NaCl zeigte meist eine geringere Schädigung als PEG bei Kuhbohnensämlingen; das lässt vermuten, dass NaCl und PEG durch unterschiedliche Mechanismen einwirken. [source]

    Influence of temperature and salinity on the germination of Lotus creticus (L.) from the arid land of Tunisia

    Mokhtar Rejili
    Abstract Effects of salinity, temperature and their interactions on the rate and final percentage of germination were evaluated for two populations (Msarref, Oued dkouk) of the invasive glycophyte Lotus creticus Linné, grown under arid environmental conditions of the Tunisia. Seeds that were not treated with NaCl germinated well in a wide range of temperatures. For both populations, maximum germination occurred in distilled water at 25°C and lowest germination for all salinities was at 35°C. Germination was substantially delayed and significantly reduced with an increase in NaCl to levels above 300 mm. Compared to the Oued dkouk population, final germination and germination rate of the Msarref population was completely inhibited at 300 mm NaCl. The interactive effect of temperature and NaCl concentration on final germination and germination rate was significant (P < 0.01), indicating that the germination response to salinity depended on temperature. The inhibition of Oued dkouk population seed germination at high salt concentration was mostly due to osmotic effects while ionic effects were noted at Msarref population. The germination behaviour of the Oued dkouk population would therefore imply adaptive mechanisms to saline environments, while in the Msarref population such mechanisms seem to be absent. Since seed germination is more sensitive to salinity stress than the growth of established plants, the greater tolerance to salinity of Oued dkouk population would be an adaptive feature of this population to saline environment. Résumé L'effet de l'interaction de la salinité et de la température sur la germination de deux populations (Msarref et Oued Dkouk) du lotier de crête (Lotus creticus L.), glycophyte poussant dans des conditions environnementales arides en Tunisie, est étudié. Chez les deux populations, le taux de germination le plus élevé est obtenu à 25°C et le plus faible à 35°C. A 300 mm de NaCl, la germination de la population d'Oued Dkouk est ralentie alors que celle de Msarref est complètement inhibée. L'effet de l'interaction de deux stress est hautement significatif (P < 0,01). Il semble, ainsi, que l'effet de chacun de deux stress est intensifié par l'autre. Cependant, les deux populations montrent un comportement halophytique différent. L'inhibition de la germination, par la salinité, chez Oued Dkouk est due à un effet osmotique alors que chez Mserref, il est ionique. Il en résulte que la population de oued Dkouk présente une capacité adaptative à l'aridité plus importante que celle observée chez la population Msarref. [source]

    Germination responses of Spartidium saharae (Coss. & Dur.) Pomel (Fabaceae) to temperature and salinity

    Zammouri Jamila
    Abstract Spartidium saharae is an endemic species of the Saharo-Arabian region. It is a tall shrub widely distributed in many sandy habitats including desert dunes and sandy systems in south-western part of Tunisia, where water and salinity are serious constraints. Laboratory experiments were carried out to assess temperature and salinity effects on seed germination. The seed germination responses were determined in complete darkness over a wide range of temperatures and salinities. Germination was inhibited by either an increase or decrease in temperature from the optimal temperature range (15,20°C). Highest germination percentages were obtained under nonsaline conditions and an increase in NaCl concentrations progressively inhibited seed germination. An interaction between salinity and temperature yielded no germination at 200 mm NaCl. Résumé Spartidium saharae (Coss. & Dur.) Pomel est une légumineuse, exclusivement saharienne endémique de l'élément saharo-arabique. Cette espèce est un arbuste de haute taille, assez commune dans les habitats sableux et les dunes de sable au Sud-ouest de la Tunisie. Les effets de la température, de la salinité ainsi que leurs interactions sur la germination des semences ont étéévalués. La germination des semences a été retardée et réduite avec l'augmentation ou la diminution de la température par rapport à l'optimum thermique (15 à 20°C). Le maximum de germination a été obtenu dans des conditions non salines, l'augmentation du NaCl réduit d'une manière significative le pourcentage de germination. L'interaction de la température et du sel sur la germination entraine une inhibition totale de la germination à 200 mM de NaCl. Mots clés: Germination; Spartidium saharae, Température, Salinité. [source]

    Expression of a High Mobility Group Protein Isolated from Cucumis sativus Affects the Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana under Abiotic Stress Conditions

    Ji Young Jang
    Abstract Although high mobility group B (HMGB) proteins have been identified from a variety of plant species, their importance and functional roles in plant responses to changing environmental conditions are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the functional roles of a CsHMGB isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in plant responses to environmental stimuli. Under normal growth conditions or when subjected to cold stress, no differences in plant growth were found between the wild-type and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing CsHMGB. By contrast, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants displayed retarded germination compared with the wild-type plants when grown under high salt or dehydration stress conditions. Germination of the transgenic plants was delayed by the addition of abscisic acid (ABA), implying that CsHMGB affects germination through an ABA-dependent way. The expression of CsHMGB had affected only the germination stage, and CsHMGB did not affect the seedling growth of the transgenic plants under the stress conditions. The transcript levels of several germination-responsive genes were modulated by the expression of CsHMGB in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that ectopic expression of a CsHMGB in Arabidopsis modulates the expression of several germination-responsive genes, and thereby affects the germination of Arabidopsis plants under different stress conditions. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Taejun Han
    Recent reduction in the ozone shield due to manufactured chlorofluorocarbons raised considerable interest in the ecological and physiological consequences of UV-B radiation (,=280,315 nm) in macroalgae. However, early life stages of macroalgae have received little attention in regard to their UV-B sensitivity and UV-B defensive mechanisms. Germination of UV-B irradiated spores of the intertidal green alga Ulva pertusa Kjellman was significantly lower than in unexposed controls, and the degree of reduction correlated with the UV doses. After exposure to moderate levels of UV-B irradiation, subsequent exposure to visible light caused differential germination in an irradiance- and wavelength-dependent manner. Significantly higher germination was found at higher photon irradiances and in blue light compared with white and red light. The action spectrum for photoreactivation of germination in UV-B irradiated U. pertusa spores shows a major peak at 435 nm with a smaller but significant peak at 385 nm. When exposed to December sunlight, the germination percentage of U. pertusa spores exposed to 1 h of solar radiation reached 100% regardless of the irradiation treatment conditions. After a 2-h exposure to sunlight, however, there was complete inhibition of germination in PAR+UV-A+UV-B in contrast to 100% germination in PAR or PAR+UV-A. In addition to mat-forming characteristics that would act as a selective UV-B filter for settled spores under the parental canopy, light-driven repair of germination after UV-B exposure could explain successful continuation of U. pertusa spore germination in intertidal settings possibly affected by intense solar UV-B radiation. [source]

    Fungicide Effectiveness during the Various Developmental Stages of Peronophythora litchii In Vitro

    Hancheng Wang
    Abstract Litchi downy blight caused by Peronophythora litchii is one of the most destructive diseases suffered by litchi in China. This study has evaluated the activities of the fungicides dimethomorph (DMM), azoxystrobin (AZB), famoxadone (FMD), metalaxyl (MTL), cymoxanil (CYX) and mancozeb (MCB) on the mycelial growth, sporulation, zoospores release, and germination of sporangia as well as of cystospores of P. litchii. Dimethomorph and MTL inhibited mycelial growth more effectively than the other fungicides tested. Mycelial growth was affected less by MCB, and only weakly by AZB, FMD and CYX. Sporangia production was more strongly reduced by DMM and MTL than by AZB, FMD, CYX or MCB. Zoospore release from the sporangia was most sensitive to AZB and FMD, less sensitive to MCB and insensitive to DMM, MTL and CYX. Direct germination of sporangia of P. litchii was the most strongly inhibited by AZB and FMD, followed by DMM and MCB, whilst the sensitivity of this life stage to MTL and CYX was relatively low. Germination of encysted zoospores of P. litchii was the most sensitive to AZB and FMD, followed by DMM. Mancozeb was moderately active, while MTL and CYX did not inhibit this development stage. This is the first report on the in vitro response of the litchi pathogen, P. litchii, to fungicides. These findings can be valuable tools in setting up efficient disease management programmes to control litchi downy blight. [source]

    Effect of Diaporthe/Phomopsis Species Isolated from Soyabean and Abutilon theophrasti on Soybean Seed Germination

    K. Vrandecic
    Abstract Twelve isolates of Diaporthe/Phomopsis species from soybean (six isolates) and Abutilon theophrasti (velvetleaf) (six isolates) were studied for their pathogenicity to soybean and their effect on soybean seed germination and seedling survival after artificial seed inoculation. The following criteria were taken into consideration: number of germinated and rotten seeds, seedlings with necrosis, germ length and length of necrotic lesion. All tested Diaporthe/Phomopsis isolates caused seeds rot. P. longicolla isolates from soybean plants (PL1 and PL2) and isolates from velvetleaf (AbPL1 and AbPL2) exhibited statistically significant decrease in germ growth. These germs were only 1.0,1.8 cm long. No relation between length of germs and length of necrosis was found. The highest percentage of decayed seedlings was determined in the isolates AbPL1 and 2 as well as in PS 1 and PL 1 20 days after inoculation. Results of our research showed that Diaporthe/Phomopsis species from velvetleaf could be more pathogenic on soybean than isolates of the same species from soybean. [source]

    NepA is a structural cell wall protein involved in maintenance of spore dormancy in Streptomyces coelicolor

    Wouter De Jong
    Summary Streptomycetes have a complex morphogenetic programme culminating in the formation of aerial hyphae that develop into chains of spores. After spore dispersal, environmental signals trigger dormant spores to germinate to establish a new colony. We here compared whole genome expression of a wild-type colony of Streptomyces coelicolor forming aerial hyphae and spores with that of the chp null mutant that forms few aerial structures. This revealed that expression of 244 genes was significantly altered, among which genes known to be involved in development. One of the genes that was no longer expressed in the ,chpABCDEFGH mutant was nepA, which was previously shown to be expressed in a compartment connecting the substrate mycelium with the sporulating parts of the aerial mycelium. We here show that expression is also detected in developing spore chains, where NepA is secreted to end up as a highly insoluble protein in the cell wall. Germination of spores of a nepA deletion mutant was faster and more synchronous, resulting in colonies with an accelerated morphogenetic programme. Crucially, spores of the ,nepA mutant also germinated in water, unlike those of the wild-type strain. Taken together, NepA is the first bacterial structural cell wall protein that is important for maintenance of spore dormancy under unfavourable environmental conditions. [source]

    Characterisation of the CipC-like protein AFUA_5G09330 of the opportunistic human pathogenic mould Aspergillus fumigatus

    MYCOSES, Issue 4 2010
    Bettina Bauer
    Summary,Aspergillus fumigatus is currently the major airborne fungal pathogen that menaces immunocompromised individuals. Germination of inhaled conidia is a hallmark of the early infection process, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. The intention of our ongoing studies is the identification of A. fumigatus proteins that are differentially expressed during germination and may provide insights in the germination process. Using a proteomic approach, we identified AFUA_5G09330 as a major hyphal-specific protein. This result was confirmed using monoclonal antibodies generated in this study. AFUA_5G09330 belongs to a fungal-specific protein family. The eponymous CipC protein of A. nidulans has been shown to be induced by concanamycin A, and transcriptional data from Cryptococcus neoformans demonstrate a strong up-regulation of the expression of a homologous gene during infection. Our data provide evidence that AFUA_5G09330 is a monomeric, cytoplasmic protein. We found no evidence for an overexpression of AFUA_5G09330 induced by concanamycin A or other stress conditions. AFUA_5G09330 is exclusively found in the hyphal morphotype that enables an invasive growth of A. fumigatus during infection. Further studies are required to define the biological function of this hyphae-specific protein and its potential relevance for the pathogenicity of A. fumigatus. [source]

    Transcriptome analysis of bud burst in sessile oak (Quercus petraea)

    NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 4 2006
    Jérémy Derory
    Summary ,,Expression patterns of hundreds of transcripts in apical buds were monitored during bud flushing in sessile oak (Quercus petraea), in order to identify genes differentially expressed between the quiescent and active stage of bud development. ,,Different transcriptomic techniques combining the construction of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries and the monitoring of gene expression using macroarray and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed to dissect bud burst, with a special emphasis on the onset of the process. ,,We generated 801 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from six developmental stages of bud burst. Macroarray experiment revealed a total of 233 unique transcripts exhibiting differential expression during the process, and a putative function was assigned to 65% of them. Cell rescue/defense-, metabolism-, protein synthesis-, cell cycle- and transcription-related transcripts were among the most regulated genes. Macroarray and real-time RT-PCR showed that several genes exhibited contrasted expressions between quiescent and swelling buds, such as a putative homologue of the transcription factor DAG2 (Dof Affecting Germination 2), previously reported to be involved in the control of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. ,,These differentially expressed genes constitute relevant candidates for signaling pathway of bud burst in trees. [source]

    Germination is related to seed mass in grasses (Poaceae) of the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    NORDIC JOURNAL OF BOTANY, Issue 5-6 2007
    Gaolin Wu
    Seed germination is a vulnerable stage in the plant life cycle. Many studies have focused on effects of seed mass on seed germination within a single species, but few studies have compared species of a common habitat. Poaceae plants are widely distributed on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We investigated how seed mass affect seed germination characters with forty-seven species of Poaceae typical to the alpine meadows of the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. The frequency of seed mass classes for these species produced a log-normal distribution. The weight of the seeds varied from 0.11 mg to 14.4 mg, and the weight variation nearly reached 103%. There were positive correlations between seed mass and germination index (R=0.331, p<0.05) and between seed mass and germination percentage (R=0.168, p>0.05). The results suggest that seed mass of the Poaceae family on the eastern Qinghai,Tibetan plateau is comparatively log-normal distributed as consistent with other studies, and the larger-seed species have faster germination than the smaller-seed species. Seed mass could be considered as one of the maintenance and construction mechanisms for plant communities in alpine meadows. [source]

    Dispersal limitation inferred from an experimental translocation of Lomatium (Apiaceae) species outside their geographic ranges

    OIKOS, Issue 12 2009
    Travis D. Marsico
    Determining limitations on poleward range expansion is important for predicting how climate change will alter the distribution of species. For most species, it is not known what factors set their distributional limits and the role dispersal limitation might play if range-limiting factors were altered. We conducted a transplant study of three related and co-occurring Lomatium species at their northern range limits to test competing hypotheses of range limitation. We added seeds to experimental plots inside and outside the species' geographic range (a regional treatment) in a replicated design with vegetation intact and vegetation reduced (a disturbance treatment) and with herbivore access and herbivore exclusion (an herbivory treatment). Germination and reemergence were measured through two growing seasons, along with community-level variables. A fully-crossed linear mixed model revealed that Lomatium survivorship outside the current range was as good or better than survivorship within the range, at least when the vegetative community remained intact. This suggests that the species are dispersal limited. Germination often was improved in the presence of an intact vegetative community, but this potentially facilitative effect was absent in second-year reemergence. Plots exposed to herbivory had slightly, but significantly, reduced germination, though reemergence did not differ between herbivore treatments. Lomatium dissectum, a rare species, had significantly lower survivorship than its congeners, suggesting that range shifts in rare taxa may be particularly difficult. Seed additions beyond species' range limits may be a strategy for overcoming dispersal limitation and assisting species in poleward migrations. [source]

    Effects of Different Doses of Low Power Continuous Wave He,Ne Laser Radiation on Some Seed Thermodynamic and Germination Parameters, and Potential Enzymes Involved in Seed Germination of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Rashida Perveen
    In this study, water-soaked seeds of sunflower were exposed to He,Ne laser irradiation of different energies to determine whether or not He,Ne laser irradiation caused changes to seed thermodynamic and germination parameters as well as effects on the activities of germination enzymes. The experiment comprised four energy levels: 0 (control), 100, 300 and 500 mJ of laser energy and each treatment replicated four times arranged in a completely randomized design. The experimentation was performed under the greenhouse conditions in the net-house of the Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The seed thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to seed germination thermograms determined with a calorimeter at 25.8°C for 72 h. Various thermodynamic parameters of seed (,H, (,S)e, (,S)c, (,S)e/,t and (,S)c/,t) were affected significantly due to presowing laser treatment. Significant changes in seed germination parameters and enzyme activities were observed in seeds treated with He,Ne laser. The He,Ne laser seed treatment resulted in increased activities of amylase and protease. These results indicate that the low power continuous wave He,Ne laser light seed treatment has considerable biological effects on seed metabolism. This seed treatment technique can be potentially employed to enhance agricultural productivity. [source]

    The Heterotrimeric G-protein Complex Modulates Light Sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana Seed Germination

    Javier F. Botto
    Release of dormancy and induction of seed germination are complex traits finely regulated by hormonal signals and environmental cues such as temperature and light. The Red (R):Far-Red (FR) phytochrome photoreceptors mediate light regulation of seed germination. We investigated the possible involvement of heterotrimeric G-protein complex in the phytochrome signaling pathways of Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination. Germination rates of null mutants of the alpha (G,) and beta (G,) subunits of the G-protein (Atgpa1-4 and agb1-2, respectively) and the double mutant (agb1-2/gpa1-4) are lower than the wildtype (WT) under continuous or pulsed light. The G, and G, subunits play a role in seed germination under hourly pulses of R lower than 0.1 ,mol m,2 s,1 whereas the G, subunit plays a role in higher R fluences. The germination of double mutants of G-protein subunits with phyA-211 and phyB-9 suggests that AtGPA1 seems to act as a positive regulator of phyA and probably phyB signaling pathways, while the role of AGB1 is ambiguous. The imbibition of seeds at 4°C and 35°C alters the R and FR light responsiveness of WT and G-protein mutants to a similar magnitude. Thus, G, and G, subunits of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex modulate light induction of seed germination by phytochromes and are dispensable for the control of dormancy by low and high temperatures prior to irradiation. We discuss the possible indirect role of the G-protein complex on the phytochrome-regulated germination through hormonal signaling pathways. [source]

    Conditioning period, CO2 and GR24 influence ethylene biosynthesis and germination of Striga hermonthica

    Abdel Gabbar T. Babiker
    Germination of witchweed (Striga hermonthica [Del.] Benth), an important root parasite on poaceous crops, requires pretreatment ,conditioning' in a warm moist environment and a subsequent exposure to a stimulant. The roles of conditioning period, CO2 and a strigol analogue (GR24) in ethylene biosynthesis and germination of the parasite were investigated. Conditioning increased the seeds' capacity to oxidize exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Exogenous CO2 increased the seeds capacity to oxidize ACC by 3- to 9-fold. A combination of GR24 and ACC increased ethylene production by more than 3-fold in comparison with the rates obtained using these compounds separately. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) completely inhibited ethylene induction by GR24, but not by ACC. A GR24 treatment, made subsequent to conditioning in GR24, did not induce ethylene. However, seeds conditioned in GR24 and then given 1 mM ACC produced 293 nl l,1 ethylene. ACC oxidase (ACCO) activity in crude extracts was increased by conditioning and CO2. The enzyme displayed an absolute requirement for ascorbate. Absence of exogenous Fe2+ reduced enzyme activity only by 14%. GR24 applied during conditioning reduced germination in response to a subsequent GR24 treatment. ACC was, invariably, less effective in inducing S. hermonthica germination than GR24 even at concentrations which induce more ethylene than concurrent GR24 treatments. The results are consistent with a model in which conditioning removes a restriction on the ethylene biosynthetic pathway in S. hermonthica seeds. GR24 modulates the key enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis. The stimulant suppresses ethylene biosynthesis in unconditioned seeds and promotes it in conditioned ones. Germination of S. hermonthica results from the joint action of GR24 and the ethylene it induces. [source]

    Effects of smoke, heat, darkness and cold stratification on seed germination of 40 species in a cool temperate zone in northern Japan

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    S. Tsuyuzaki
    Abstract The effects of smoke, heat, darkness and cold stratification on seed germination were examined for 40 species with various life history attributes. These species establish in early successional stages on a volcano and are distributed in cool temperate zones of northern Japan. Smoke decreased seed germination in 11 species and increased it in one species, Leucothoe grayana. Germination of Polygonum longisetum was enhanced by a combination of smoke and cold, and that of Aralia elata by smoke and heat. Heat increased germination for three species and decreased it for one. Cold stratification broke dormancy in seeds of 11 species. Continuous darkness decreased germination of 22 species and did not increase germination for any species, showing that approximately half of the species require light for maximum germination. Although most species are sun plants that establish in early stages of succession and/or in disturbed areas, smoke and heat do not enhance germination of these species after disturbance, even when the disturbance is fire. Germination of slender and/or large seeds tends to be decreased more by smoke, probably because of their larger surface area. Light is more important than smoke and heat for detection of disturbance and for seed germination in this region. However, despite the low fire frequency in the region, germination of a few species was increased by fire-derived stimuli. [source]

    Differential Responses of Germination and Seedling Establishment in Populations of Tragopogon pratensis (Asteraceae)

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    L. D. Jorritsma-Wienk
    Abstract: The establishment phase is an important bottleneck in the life cycle of plants. It consists of two steps that are rarely separated, i.e., the germination of seeds and the establishment of seedlings. Here we report the results of two experiments in which we independently investigated germination and seedling establishment in the greenhouse, under different grass vegetation treatments representing different regeneration niches. Seeds of Tragopogon pratensis from six populations and two habitat types were studied, three from roadside verges and three from hayfields. Germination percentages and germination speed were higher for seeds from roadside verges than for seeds from hayfields, but were little affected by treatment. In contrast, seedling growth was much lower in the tall grass vegetation, than in the short grass and especially the bare soil treatment. Seedling sizes were generally similar for different populations and habitat types. Our results thus show that the two early steps in the establishment phase of plants may respond very differently to the micro-environment, and may have a different selection history. Insight into the ecology and evolution of life histories may require that germination and establishment are considered separately. [source]

    Phytochromes differentially regulate seed germination responses to light quality and temperature cues during seed maturation

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 10 2009
    ABSTRACT The ratio of red to far-red light (R : FR) experienced by seeds during maturation affects germination, but the genetic regulation of this effect is poorly understood. In Arabidopsis thaliana, responses to R : FR are governed by five phytochrome photoreceptors, PHYA,PHYE. PHYA, PHYB and PHYE mediate germination, but their roles in germination response to the seed maturation environment are largely unknown. Seeds of A. thaliana phytochrome mutants and natural accessions were matured in a factorial combination of cold (16 °C) and warm (24 °C) temperatures and high (R : FR = 1) and low (R : FR = 0.6) R : FR environments, resembling sunlight and foliar shade, respectively. Germination was observed in resulting seeds. All five phytochromes mediated germination responses to seed maturation temperature and/or R : FR environment. PHYA suppressed germination in seeds matured under cold temperature, and PHYB promoted germination under the same conditions. PHYD and PHYE promoted germination of seeds matured under warm temperature, but this effect diminished when seeds matured under reduced R : FR. The A. thaliana natural accessions exhibited interesting variation in germination responses to the experimental conditions. Our results suggest that the role of individual PHY loci in regulating plant responses to R : FR varies depending on temperature and provide novel insights into the genetic basis of maternal effects. [source]

    Mechanisms involved in control of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei in barley treated with mycelial extracts from cultured fungi

    PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
    H. Haugaard
    Treatment with mycelial extracts, prepared from liquid cultures of Bipolaris oryzae, Pythium ultimum and Rhizopus stolonifer, protected barley (Hordeum vulgare) against powdery mildew disease caused by the fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. The mechanisms of this protection were studied using histopathological methods and molecular analysis. Germination and appressorial formation of B. graminis were generally reduced after treatment with mycelial extracts. Although this reduction (between 12 and 62% depending on treatment and experiment) was inconsistent and only occasionally significantly different from the water-treated control, it indicated a direct antifungal effect of the extracts. In situations where the fungus succeeded in forming an appressorium, penetration efficiency and haustorium formation from these appressoria was not affected , no enhanced penetration resistance associated with papilla formation was detected. However, a post-penetration effect was observed, as B. graminis colonies on mycelial extract-treated leaves produced 50% fewer hyphae than on controls. Northern blot analyses showed earlier accumulation of defence-related gene transcripts following treatment with B. oryzae and P. ultimum mycelial extracts, and to a lesser extent R. stolonifer mycelial extract, compared with water-treated leaves. It is suggested that the protection mechanism of the mycelial extracts involves direct antifungal effects and possible induced resistance for the B. oryzae and P. ultimum mycelial extracts. [source]

    Germination and seedling survivorship characteristics of hybrids between native and alien species of dandelion (Taraxacum)

    Abstract Spontaneous hybrids between native and invasive species of Taraxacum were studied by means of seed germination characteristics at 4,34°C and seedling survivorship at 6,36°C. At high (28,34°C) and low (4°C) temperatures, the germination percentage was low in 4X hybrids and T. platycarpum, whereas it was high in 3X hybrids, MP (male partheno genesis) hybrids and T. officinale. When the seeds that did not germinate at high or low temperatures were incubated at 16°C for 10 days, most of the 4X hybrid and T. platycarpum seeds germinated. It was suggested that the germination of 4X hybrid and T. platycarpum seeds was suppressed at high and low temperatures. At 6,24°C, seedlings of all lineages that included T. platycarpum, T. officinale and three type hybrids exhibited a high survivorship of approximately 80,100% and no significant difference was observed between lineages. In contrast, at high temperatures survivorship of 4X hybrid seedlings was significantly higher than that of other lineages, approximately 90% at 31°C and 80% at 36°C. These results suggested that if 4X hybrid competes with T. officinale in hot areas during the seedling period, 4X hybrid would have the advantage over T. officinale, whose seedlings could not survive under high temperatures. [source]

    Early events of Bacillus anthracis germination identified by time-course quantitative proteomics

    Pratik Jagtap
    Abstract Germination of Bacillus anthracis spores involves rehydration of the spore interior and rapid degradation of several of the protective layers, including the spore coat. Here, we examine the temporal changes that occur during B. anthracis spore germination using an isobaric tagging system. Over the course of 17,min from the onset of germination, the levels of at least 19 spore proteins significantly decrease. Included are acid-soluble proteins, several known and predicted coat proteins, and proteins of unknown function. Over half of these proteins are small (less than 100 amino acids) and would have been undetectable by conventional gel-based analysis. We also identified 20 proteins, whose levels modestly increased at the later time points when metabolism has likely resumed. Taken together, our data show that isobaric labeling of complex mixtures is particularly effective for temporal studies. Furthermore, we describe a rigorous statistical approach to define relevant changes that takes into account the nature of data obtained from multidimensional protein identification technology coupled with the use of isobaric tags. This study provides an expanded list of the proteins that may be involved in germination of the B. anthracis spore and their relative levels during germination. [source]

    Germination and Initial Root Growth of Four Legumes as Affected by Landfill Biogas Atmosphere

    L. Marchiol
    The most important problem in the restoration of closed landfills is the production of toxic gases by decomposition of refuse. Such gases affect the root system of plants growing on these sites. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects induced by landfill biogas contamination on germination and initial root growth of Vicia villosa (hairy vetch), Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil), Trifolium pratense (red clover), and Trifolium repens (white clover). In laboratory conditions, simulated landfill and control gas were supplied to the seedlings. The composition of the simulated landfill gas used was: 16% O2, 8% CO2, 3% CH4, and 73% N2; a control gas was also tested (21% O2, 0. 035% CO2, and 78% N2). Percentage of germinated seeds was determined after 6 and 12 days from the starting date; at the same time qualitative assays of metabolic root functionality were also performed by using an agar technique in order to visualize changes in rhizosphere pH. At the end of the experiment, the length of the primary and secondary root was measured. Germination after 6 days was affected by the gas treatment; the landfill biogas caused a delay in germination with respect to the control in seeds of V. villosa and L. corniculatus. Root fresh weight and dry weight were significantly decreased by biogas treatment in V. villosa and T. repens. In contrast, root dry weight was higher in gas treated L. corniculatus and T. pratense compared to control seedlings. Total root system was significantly higher in treated T. pratense. The qualitative assay suggests, with the exception of T. pratense, a metabolic adjustment of the treated seedlings. Key words: restoration, landfill biogas, legumes. [source]

    Cold-inducible zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding protein contributes to the enhancement of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 6 2005
    Yeon-Ok Kim
    Summary Glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (GR-RBPs) have been implicated to play roles in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in plants under various stress conditions, but the functional roles of GR-RBPs under stress conditions remain to be verified. Here, we examine the biological roles of a GR-RBP, designated atRZ-1a, in Arabidopsis thaliana under stress conditions. atRZ-1a was expressed ubiquitously in various Arabidopsis organs including stems, roots, leaves, flowers, and siliques. The transcript level of atRZ-1a increased markedly by cold stress, whereas its expression was marginally downregulated by drought stress or abscisic acid treatment. Germination and seedling growth of the loss-of-function mutants were retarded remarkably compared with those of the wild type under cold stress. In contrast, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress atRZ-1a displayed earlier germination and better seedling growth than the wild type under cold stress. Moreover, the atRZ-1a-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants were more freezing tolerant than the wild-type plants. Heterologous expression of atRZ-1a in Escherichia coli demonstrated that the E. coli cells expressing atRZ-1a displayed much higher growth rate than the non-transformed cells after cold shock. These results provide evidence that atRZ-1a affects seed germination and seedling growth under low temperature and plays a role in the enhancement of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis plants. [source]