Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Allergy

  • IgE-mediat allergy
  • birch pollen allergy
  • childhood allergy
  • childhood food allergy
  • clinical allergy
  • contact allergy
  • cow milk allergy
  • cow milk protein allergy
  • drug allergy
  • dust mite allergy
  • dye allergy
  • egg allergy
  • food allergy
  • fragrance allergy
  • global allergy
  • grass pollen allergy
  • house dust mite allergy
  • hymenoptera venom allergy
  • i allergy
  • latex allergy
  • lupin allergy
  • metal allergy
  • milk allergy
  • milk protein allergy
  • mite allergy
  • nasal allergy
  • nickel allergy
  • nrl allergy
  • occupational allergy
  • peanut allergy
  • pediatric allergy
  • pollen allergy
  • protein allergy
  • respiratory allergy
  • type i allergy
  • venom allergy

  • Terms modified by Allergy

  • allergy clinic
  • allergy development
  • allergy diagnosis
  • allergy history
  • allergy immunol
  • allergy organization
  • allergy prevalence
  • allergy prevention
  • allergy quality
  • allergy reaction
  • allergy status
  • allergy symptom
  • allergy syndrome
  • allergy test
  • allergy testing
  • allergy treatment
  • allergy vaccine

  • Selected Abstracts


    Dr Jane Peake
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    FS01.2 Contact dermatitis to disperse blue 106 in Portugal

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 3 2004
    Francisco M Brandao
    Disperse blue 106 is one of the most important allergenic textile dyes. We reviewed all the patients that proved to be allergic to this dye, in 10 contact clinics, in Portugal, from 01/2000 to 06/2003. In the first 2 years disperse blue 106 was only tested in suspected cases, while in 2002/2003 it was routinely tested in our standard series. A total of 8957 patients (2797M + 6160F) were tested; fifty five patients (17M + 38F)(0.6%) were allergic to the dye, with a significant difference in incidence between the 2 periods (0.2 to 0.9%); a current relevance was found in 38 (69%) patients. In 5 patients the dermatitis was considered occupational. The main localizations were the axillae (25p), the antecubital fossae and the face (13p each), the neck (11p), the feet (8p), the hands and then trunk (7p each). Thirty six out of 44 patients (80%) that were tested with disperse blue 124 were allergic to this dye. Simultaneous reactions to PPDA and to fragrance mix were observed in 12 and 11 patients, respectively. Allergy to other dyes was found in 15 patients. Blouses and skirts were the main offending garments that induced contact allergy. Although both disperse blue 106 and 124 have been reported as frequent sensitizers, it proved not to be such an important allergen in Portugal. However, if tested routinely it can pick up some unexpected relevant allergic patients. [source]

    Patterns of care and referral in children with atopic dermatitis and concern for food allergy

    Michele M. Thompson
    ABSTRACT:, Although many providers believe that up to 30% of atopic dermatitis (AD) is food induced, food challenge studies show that food-induced eczematous reactions are rare. When food allergy is suggested to cause AD, it often leads to allergy testing with a high false-positivity rate, in turn further focusing parents on food allergy. Study subjects were children less than 11 years old with AD and food allergy suspicion. Prior diagnoses, provider, and testing patterns were assessed by questionnaire given to the parents. Thirty-eight patients with AD were enrolled. Most subject's parents suspected food allergy induced AD. Initial skin diagnoses were made by pediatricians (79%) and family practitioners (18%) as eczema. Allergy was suggested by providers as cause for AD in 63% of the present study's patients. Seventy-nine percent had allergy testing. Greater than 90% of parents claimed their children had food allergy and food-induced AD. Sixty-six percent had positive food allergy tests and 37% had definite history of immediate IgE reactions to food. The majority of this population had allergy suggested as causative for eczema by their primary care provider and were subsequently evaluated by allergist and allergy testing. Consensus about the role of food allergy between the different providers of AD in children would result in more effective, efficient, and less costly health care. [source]

    Workshop on Immunizations in Older Adults: Identifying Future Research Agendas

    Kevin P. High MD
    Goals for immunization in older adults may differ from those in young adults and children, in whom complete prevention of disease is the objective. Often, reduced hospitalization and death but also averting exacerbation of underlying chronic illness, functional decline, and frailty are important goals in the older age group. Because of the effect of age on dendritic cell function, T cell-mediated immune suppression, reduced proliferative capacity of T cells, and other immune responses, the efficacy of vaccines often wanes with advanced age. This article summarizes the discussion and proceedings of a workshop organized by the Association of Specialty Professors, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Geriatrics Society, the National Institute on Aging, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of immunology, epidemiology, infectious diseases, geriatrics, and gerontology reviewed the current status of vaccines in older adults, identified knowledge gaps, and suggest priority areas for future research. The goal of the workshop was to identify what is known about immunizations (efficacy, effect, and current schedule) in older adults and to recommend priorities for future research. Investigation in the areas identified has the potential to enhance understanding of the immune process in aging individuals, inform vaccine development, and lead to more-effective strategies to reduce the risk of vaccine-preventable illness in older adults. [source]

    Cross-sectional survey of risk factors for asthma in 6,7-year-old children in New Zealand: International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood Phase Three

    Edwin A Mitchell
    Aim: To identify risk factors for asthma in primary school-aged children in New Zealand. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 10 873 6,7-year-old children in Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Nelson and Christchurch (a response rate of 85.2%). A questionnaire was completed by the parent or care giver. Results: 22.2% of children wheezed in the last 12 months (current wheeze). Maori children were at greater risk of current wheeze compared with European children (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) = 1.37; 95% confidence interval = 1.18,1.59). Antibiotics and paracetamol used in the first year of life were associated with an increased risk of current wheeze (adjOR = 1.78 (1.56,2.04) and adjOR = 1.31 (1.06,1.61), respectively). Watching television for 5 or more hours per day was associated with an increased risk of current wheeze (adjOR = 1.44 (1.13,1.83)). Milk and egg consumption in the last 12 months was associated with a reduced risk of current wheeze. Conclusions: This study has identified risk factors for asthma in children aged 6,7 years, although causal pathways cannot be established. These associations have important public health implications if causal. [source]

    Allergy to peanut oil , clinically relevant?

    J Ring
    Abstract The increasing prevalence of food allergies (especially allergy to peanuts) has led to a discussion of how safe topical preparations containing peanut oil are with respect to allergy. The major allergens from peanuts are proteins that have been characterized at a molecular level and cloned. Clinical signs of peanut allergy symptoms can be observed on the skin (urticaria), or in the gastrointestinal and/or respiratory tract culminating in cardiovascular symptoms and anaphylactic reactions. In most cases, symptoms are elicited by oral uptake; rarely, a contact urticaria has been described. In vegetable oils, the contents of protein differ depending on the production process: crude oils contain approximately 100 times more proteins than refined oils. This has clear-cut implications for allergic individuals. Quantitative data are available regarding elicitation of symptoms in allergic individuals with a threshold dose of 0.1,1 mg peanut allergen in oral provocation tests. There are anecdotal reports of adverse reactions after topical use of peanut oils. In one epidemiological trial, an association between topical use of skin care products containing peanut oil and the development of peanut allergy was observed; however, the data reflect a retrospective analysis without specifying skin care products containing peanut oil and also without analysing the quantity of topicals used. In contrast, oral tolerance was prevented and allergic sensitization was enhanced in a mouse model using high concentrations of peanut protein. So far, no reliable data are available regarding doses required to induce sensitization against peanut allergen via the epidermal route. A possible induction of sensitization against peanut proteins through contact with the skin via skin care products and the respective protein concentrations is a matter of speculation. Patients with atopic diseases, namely eczema, need appropriate skin care because of the disturbed skin barrier function. The benefit of avoiding damage to skin barrier functions of atopic individuals by the use of peanut protein-containing skin care products seems to outweigh possible risks of sensitization and/or allergy induction against substances contained in those products containing refined peanut oil. [source]

    Implications of eosinophilia in the normal duodenal biopsy , an association with allergy and functional dyspepsia

    M. M. WALKER
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther,31, 1229,1236 Summary Background, Allergy and functional gastrointestinal disorders have been associated with eosinophilia in duodenal mucosa. Aim, To assess the prevalence of eosinophilia in duodenal biopsies of patients attending for oesophogastroduodenoscopy and delineate associated clinical conditions. Methods, A total of 155 patients (mean age 55 years, 59% women) with normal duodenal biopsies were randomly selected for audit from histopathology files. Eosinophil counts in five high power fields (HPFs) were assessed. Records were analysed for symptoms, diagnosis and medications; patients were divided into five groups based on upper gastrointestinal (UGI) symptom profiles, including a control group of those without predominant UGI symptoms. The prevalence of duodenal eosinophilia (defined as >22/5HPFs a priori) was calculated. Results, In the control group, the mean duodenal eosinophil count was 15/5HPFs; prevalence of duodenal eosinophilia was 22.5%. In postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), both mean eosinophil counts (20.2/5HPF, P < 0.04) and prevalence of duodenal eosinophilia (47.3%, P < 0.04) were significantly higher. Duodenal eosinophilia was significantly associated with allergy (OR 5.04, 95% CI 2.12,11.95, P < 0.001). There was no association with irritable bowel syndrome or medications. Conclusions, Subtle duodenal eosinophilia is relatively common in routine oesophogastroduodenoscopy and previously overlooked; it is associated with allergy and may indicate a hypersensitivity mechanism in some patients with PDS including early satiety. [source]

    Suspected Allergy to Artemether,Lumefantrine Treatment of Malaria

    Reinhard Krippner
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The management of the allergic child at school: EAACI/GA2LEN Task Force on the allergic child at school

    ALLERGY, Issue 6 2010
    A. Muraro
    To cite this article: Muraro A, Clark A, Beyer K, Borrego LM, Borres M, Lødrup Carlsen KC, Carrer P, Mazon A, Rancè F, Valovirta E, Wickman M, Zanchetti M. The management of the allergic child at school: EAACI/GA2LEN Task Force on the allergic child at school. Allergy 2010; 65: 681,689. Abstract Allergy affects at least one-quarter of European schoolchildren, it reduces quality of life and may impair school performance; there is a risk of severe reactions and, in rare cases, death. Allergy is a multi-system disorder, and children often have several co-existing diseases, i.e. allergic rhinitis, asthma, eczema and food allergy. Severe food allergy reactions may occur for the first time at school, and overall 20% of food allergy reactions occur in schools. Up to two-thirds of schools have at least one child at risk of anaphylaxis but many are poorly prepared. A cooperative partnership between doctors, community and school nurses, school staff, parents and the child is necessary to ensure allergic children are protected. Schools and doctors should adopt a comprehensive approach to allergy training, ensuring that all staff can prevent, recognize and initiate treatment of allergic reactions. [source]

    Establishing a standardized quality management system for the European Health Network GA2LEN,

    ALLERGY, Issue 6 2010
    L. Heinzerling
    To cite this article: Heinzerling L, Burbach G, van Cauwenberge P, Papageorgiou P, Carlsen K-H, Lødrup Carlsen KC, Zuberbier T. Establishing a standardized quality management system for the European Health Network GA2LEN. Allergy 2010; 65: 743,752. Abstract Background:, Quality management is increasingly important in clinical practice. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) is a network of clinical and scientific excellence with originally 25 allergy centres in 16 European countries, a scientific society (European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology), and a patient organization (European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients' Associations). Although some allergy centres adhere to internal quality criteria, the implementation of a standardized quality management system for allergy centres across Europe was lacking. Objectives:, To implement standardized quality criteria among allergy centres organized within GA2LEN and thus ensure equal standards of diagnosis and care as well as to establish a culture of continuous quality improvement. Methods:, Quality criteria covering, e.g., diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and emergency preparedness to assure patient safety were developed and agreed upon by all 25 participating centres. To assure implementation of quality criteria, centres were audited to check quality indicators and document deviations. A follow-up survey was used to assess the usefulness of the project. Results:, Deviations were documented mainly in the areas of emergency care/patient safety (27.3% lacked regular emergency training of doctors and nurses; 22.7% inadequate emergency intervention equipment; 22.7% lacked critical incidence reporting/root cause analyses) and handling of extracts/pharmaceuticals (31.8% lacked temperature logs of fridges; 4.5% inadequate check of expiration dates). Quality improvement was initiated as shown by findings of re-audits. Usefulness of the project was rated high. Conclusion:, The establishment of a quality management system with joint standards of care and harmonized procedures can be achieved in an international health network and ensures quality of care. [source]

    Risk of first-generation H1 -antihistamines: a GA2LEN position paper

    ALLERGY, Issue 4 2010
    M. K. Church
    To cite this article: Church MK, Maurer M, Simons FER, Bindslev-Jensen C, van Cauwenberge P, Bousquet J, Holgate ST, Zuberbier T. Risk of first-generation H1 -antihistamines: a GA2LEN position paper. Allergy 2010; 65: 459,466. Abstract Background: First-generation H1 -antihistamines obtained without prescription are the most frequent form of self-medication for allergic diseases, coughs and colds and insomnia even though they have potentially dangerous unwanted effects which are not recognized by the general public. Aims:, To increase consumer protection by bringing to the attention of regulatory authorities, physicians and the general public the potential dangers of the indiscriminate use first-generation H1 -antihistamines purchased over-the counter in the absence of appropriate medical supervision. Methods:, A GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network) task force assessed the unwanted side-effects and potential dangers of first-generation H1-antihistamines by reviewing the literature (Medline and Embase) and performing a media audit of US coverage from 1996 to 2008 of accidents and fatal adverse events in which these drugs were implicated. Results:, First-generation H1 -antihistamines, all of which are sedating, are generally regarded as safe by laypersons and healthcare professionals because of their long-standing use. However, they reduce rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep, impair learning and reduce work efficiency. They are implicated in civil aviation, motor vehicle and boating accidents, deaths as a result of accidental or intentional overdosing in infants and young children and suicide in teenagers and adults. Some exhibit cardiotoxicity in overdose. Conclusions:, This review raises the issue of better consumer protection by recommending that older first-generation H1 -antihistamines should no longer be available over-the-counter as prescription- free drugs for self-medication of allergic and other diseases now that newer second- generation nonsedating H1 -antihistamines with superior risk/benefit ratios are widely available at competitive prices. [source]

    Recommendations for assessing Patient-Reported Outcomes and Health-Related quality of life in clinical trials on allergy: a GA2LEN taskforce position paper

    ALLERGY, Issue 3 2010
    I. Baiardini
    To cite this article: Baiardini I, Bousquet PJ, Brzoza Z, Canonica GW, Compalati E, Fiocchi A, Fokkens W, van Wijk RG, La Grutta S, Lombardi C, Maurer M, Pinto AM, Ridolo E, Senna GE, Terreehorst I, Todo Bom A, Bousquet J, Zuberbier T, Braido F. Recommendations for assessing Patient-Reported Outcomes and Health-Related quality of life in clinical trials on allergy: a GA2LEN taskforce position paper. Allergy 2010; 65: 290,295. Abstract The aim of this Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) consensus report is to provide recommendations for patient-reported outcomes (PROs) evaluation in clinical trials for allergic diseases, which constitute a global health problem in terms of physical, psychological economic and social impact. During the last 40 years, PROs have gained large consideration and use in the scientific community, to gain a better understanding of patients' subjective assessment with respect to elements concerning their health condition. They include all health-related reports coming from the patient, without involvement or interpretation by physician or others. PROs assessment should be performed by validated tools (disease-specific tools when available or generic ones) selected taking into account the aim of the study, the expected intervention effects and the determinant and confounding factors or patient-related factors which could influence PROs. Moreover, each tool should be used exclusively in the patient population following the authors' indications without modification and performing a cross-cultural validation if the tool must be used in a language that differs from the original. The result analysis also suggests that the relevance of PROs results in any interventional study should include a pre,post assessment providing information concerning statistical differences within or among groups, rates of response for the PROs and a minimal important difference for the population. The report underlines the importance of further investigation on some topics, such as the quality assessment of existing PROs tools, the definition of inclusion and exclusion criteria and a more extensive evaluation of the correlation between PROs, besides health-related quality of life, and clinical data. [source]

    Anaphylaxis to patent blue V: a case series and proposed diagnostic protocol

    ALLERGY, Issue 3 2010
    R. A. Haque
    To cite this article: Haque RA, Wagner A, Whisken JA, Nasser SM, Ewan PW. Anaphylaxis to patent blue V: a case series and proposed diagnostic protocol. Allergy 2010; 65: 396,400. Abstract Patent blue V is widely used in the identification of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer and other malignancies. Individual case reports of allergy to patent blue V have been described in the medical literature since the 1960s. However, there is little data on clinical features and little experience of which allergy tests are appropriate or useful. We gathered all cases of patent blue V allergy that had been seen and diagnosed in the Department of Allergy, Addenbrooke's Hospital over a 3-year period. We collected clinical details of each case including skin test results. For comparison we recruited 12 healthy control subjects who then underwent skin testing to patent blue V. Six cases of patent blue V allergy were identified, all occurring during sentinel lymph node identification for breast carcinoma. All 6 had positive skin prick tests to neat patent blue V (25 mg/ml). Skin prick testing with a 1 : 10 dilution (2.5 mg/ml) produced positive results in 3 of 4 patients tested, and intradermal testing at a 1 : 100 dilution was (0.25 mg/ml) was positive in all patients tested. Of 12 control subjects, 11 had negative skin prick tests to both neat and 1 : 10 patent blue V with one subject showing a positive reaction to the higher concentration only. On the basis of our experience of patent blue V allergy, we propose a diagnostic protocol that can be safely and reliably utilised in centres equipped for allergy testing. [source]

    Allergic rhinitis: prevalence and possible risk factors in a Gulf Arab population

    ALLERGY, Issue 2 2010
    S. Alsowaidi
    To cite this article: Alsowaidi S, Abdulle A, Shehab A, Zuberbier T, Bernsen R. Allergic rhinitis: prevalence and possible risk factors in a Gulf Arab population. Allergy 2010; 65: 208,212 DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02123.x. Abstract Background:, Epidemiological studies mainly from Europe, the USA and Asia indicate a high prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in modern societies. However, little is known about AR among the heterogeneous population of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of AR and its independent risk factors in Al-Ain City, UAE. Methods:, We used a validated, self-administered questionnaire modified from the ISAAC study to collect data from a two stage randomly selected sample of 10 000 school children. Overall, 7550 subjects (aged 13 years and above, siblings, and their parents) responded. We assessed the prevalence of AR (both crude and standardized prevalence of previous 12 months) as well as the independent relationship of AR with age, gender, education, nationality and family history by means of logistic regression. Results:, The response rate was 76%. A total of 6543 subjects (median age 30 years) were included in the final analysis. Self-reported prevalence of AR (having symptoms in the past 12 months) was 36%, while adjusted values for sex/age yielded a prevalence of 32%. Regression analysis revealed that AR was independently associated with family history, Arab origin, younger age, female gender and higher education. Conclusions:, The relatively high prevalence of AR found in this study may be attributable to modernization and genetic factors. Further studies on the impact of rapid environmental and cultural changes on AR in the Arab countries are needed and currently planned in conjunction with GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network). [source]

    Shaping the future of Allergy

    ALLERGY, Issue 1 2010
    T. Bieber
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The definition and diagnostic testing of physical and cholinergic urticarias , EAACI/GA2LEN/EDF/UNEV consensus panel recommendations

    ALLERGY, Issue 12 2009
    M. Magerl
    The recommendations for the definition and diagnosis presented in this position paper are the result of a panel consensus meeting held in December 2008 in Berlin. This consensus meeting was a joint initiative of EAACI (European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology) Dermatology Section, the EU-funded network of excellence, GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network), the EDF (European Dermatology Forum) and UNEV (urticaria network e.V.). The aim of these recommendations is to improve the diagnosis and management of patients with physical urticaria or cholinergic urticaria and to promote research and a better understanding of these diseases. Our recommendations used the paper produced by a 1996 expert meeting (1) and they acknowledge the latest changes in our understanding of physical urticarias and cholinergic urticaria as well as the recent development of novel diagnostic tools. In addition, this consensus paper highlights areas of need for further research. [source]

    Filaggrin mutations in the onset of eczema, sensitization, asthma, hay fever and the interaction with cat exposure

    ALLERGY, Issue 12 2009
    M. L. A. Schuttelaar
    Background:, Filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations contribute to the development of eczema and asthma, but their contribution to sensitization and hay fever remains unclear. Methods:,FLG mutations R501X, 2282del4 and R2447X were genotyped in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort (n = 934) to evaluate longitudinally, for up to 8 years, their association with eczema, sensitization, asthma, hay fever and their interaction with cat exposure. Results:, The combined FLG mutations were significantly associated with eczema at all ages when occurring in the first year of life (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4,2.8). Combined FLG mutations were associated with both atopic and nonatopic eczema, as well as asthma (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.8,7.5). When the FLG 2282del4 mutation was analysed separately, it was significantly associated with the development of eczema during the first year, having eczema up to 8 years and sensitization at the age of 8 years, which was enhanced by early-life cat exposure (ORs being 8.2; 95% CI: 2.6,25.9, 6.0; 95% CI: 3.2,11.3 and 5.4; 95% CI: 1.2,23.6 respectively). FLG 2282del4 was significantly associated with hay fever from the age 5 years onwards (OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.5,10.5). Conclusions:,FLG mutations are associated both with atopic and nonatopic eczema starting in the first year of life. FLG mutations combined with eczema in the first year of life are associated with a later development of asthma and hay fever, a clear example of the atopic march. We confirm that cat exposure enhances the effect of a FLG mutation on the development of eczema and sensitization. [source]

    Allergy is rare where butterflies flourish in a biodiverse environment

    ALLERGY, Issue 12 2009
    T. Haahtela
    First page of article [source]

    Allergy from giant pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) is not a fairy tale

    ALLERGY, Issue 11 2009
    M. M. Hagendorens
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    EAACI/GA2LEN/EDF/WAO guideline: definition, classification and diagnosis of urticaria

    ALLERGY, Issue 10 2009
    T. Zuberbier
    This guideline, together with its sister guideline on the management of urticaria [Zuberbier T, Asero R, Bindslev-Jensen C, Canonica GW, Church MK, Giménez-Arnau AM et al. EAACI/GA²LEN/EDF/WAO Guideline: Management of urticaria. Allergy, 2009; 64:1427,1443] is the result of a consensus reached during a panel discussion at the 3rd International Consensus Meeting on Urticaria, Urticaria 2008, a joint initiative of the Dermatology Section of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the EU-funded network of excellence, the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA²LEN), the European Dermatology Forum (EDF) and the World Allergy Organization (WAO). Urticaria is a frequent disease. The life-time prevalence for any subtype of urticaria is approximately 20%. Chronic spontaneous urticaria and other chronic forms of urticaria do not only cause a decrease in quality of life, but also affect performance at work and school and, as such, are members of the group of severe allergic diseases. This guideline covers the definition and classification of urticaria, taking into account the recent progress in identifying its causes, eliciting factors, and pathomechanisms. In addition, it outlines evidence-based diagnostic approaches for different subtypes of urticaria. The correct management of urticaria, which is of paramount importance for patients, is very complex and is consequently covered in a separate guideline developed during the same consensus meeting. This guideline was acknowledged and accepted by the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS). [source]

    EAACI/GA²LEN/EDF/WAO guideline: management of urticaria

    ALLERGY, Issue 10 2009
    T. Zuberbier
    This guideline, together with its sister guideline on the classification of urticaria (Zuberbier T, Asero R, Bindslev-Jensen C, Canonica GW, Church MK, Giménez-Arnau AM et al. EAACI/GA²LEN/EDF/WAO Guideline: definition, classification and diagnosis of urticaria. Allergy 2009;64: 1417,1426), is the result of a consensus reached during a panel discussion at the Third International Consensus Meeting on Urticaria, Urticaria 2008, a joint initiative of the Dermatology Section of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the EU-funded network of excellence, the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA²LEN), the European Dermatology Forum (EDF) and the World Allergy Organization (WAO). As members of the panel, the authors had prepared their suggestions regarding management of urticaria before the meeting. The draft of the guideline took into account all available evidence in the literature (including Medline and Embase searches and hand searches of abstracts at international allergy congresses in 2004,2008) and was based on the existing consensus reports of the first and the second symposia in 2000 and 2004. These suggestions were then discussed in detail among the panel members and with the over 200 international specialists of the meeting to achieve a consensus using a simple voting system where appropriate. Urticaria has a profound impact on the quality of life and effective treatment is, therefore, required. The recommended first line treatment is new generation, nonsedating H1 -antihistamines. If standard dosing is not effective, increasing the dosage up to four-fold is recommended. For patients who do not respond to a four-fold increase in dosage of nonsedating H1 -antihistamines, it is recommended that second-line therapies should be added to the antihistamine treatment. In the choice of second-line treatment, both their costs and risk/benefit profiles are most important to consider. Corticosteroids are not recommended for long-term treatment due to their unavoidable severe adverse effects. This guideline was acknowledged and accepted by the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS). [source]

    Genetic variation in CRTh2 influences development of allergic phenotypes

    ALLERGY, Issue 10 2009
    L. Cameron
    Background:, Allergic disorders are characterized by an increase in the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, produced primarily by Th2 cells. These cells are marked by the expression of CRTh2 (chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells), a receptor for prostaglandin D2. As genetic variation plays a significant role in the predisposition for allergic disorders, we investigated the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CRTh2. Methods:, In a large study population of German children (n = 4264) from the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Children (ISAAC II), six polymorphisms in CRTh2 were genotyped. Statistical analyses were performed using single SNP and haplotype analyses. Results:, Uncorrected associations among ,6373G>A, +1431G>C and +1538A>G were observed with a number of allergic phenotypes (P < 0.05). After correction, association between +1431C and specific IgE to food allergens remained significant (P = 0.04). Associations of haplotype (H)3 (containing +1538G) with reduced risk for asthma and H2 (containing +1431C) with increased risk for specific IgE to food allergens also remained significant after correction for multiple testing (P = 0.004). Conclusions:, Genetic variation within CRTh2 modifies the development of allergic sensitization and asthma in a population of German children. [source]

    Allergy for cheese: evidence for an IgE-mediated reaction from the natural dye annatto

    ALLERGY, Issue 10 2009
    D. G. Ebo
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network) addresses the allergy and asthma ,epidemic'

    ALLERGY, Issue 7 2009
    J. Bousquet
    Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN), a Sixth EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development (FP6) Network of Excellence, was created in 2005 as a vehicle to ensure excellence in research bringing together research and clinical institutions to combat fragmentation in the European research area and to tackle Allergy in its globality. The Global Allergy and Asthma European Network has benefited greatly from the voluntary efforts of researchers who are strongly committed to this model of pan-European collaboration. The network was organized in order to increase networking for scientific projects in allergy and asthma around Europe and to make GA2LEN the world leader in the field. Besides these activities, research has also been carried out and the first papers are being published. Achievements of the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network can be grouped as follows: (i) those for a durable infrastructure built up during the project phase, (ii) those which are project-related and based on these novel infrastructures, and (iii) the development and implementation of guidelines. The major achievements of GA2LEN are reported in this paper. [source]

    Scientific rationale for the Finnish Allergy Programme 2008,2018: emphasis on prevention and endorsing tolerance

    ALLERGY, Issue 5 2009
    L. C. Von Hertzen
    ,In similarity to many other western countries, the burden of allergic diseases in Finland is high. Studies worldwide have shown that an environment rich in microbes in early life reduces the subsequent risk of developing allergic diseases. Along with urbanization, such exposure has dramatically reduced, both in terms of diversity and quantity. Continuous stimulation of the immune system by environmental saprophytes via the skin, respiratory tract and gut appears to be necessary for activation of the regulatory network including regulatory T-cells and dendritic cells. ,Substantial evidence now shows that the balance between allergy and tolerance is dependent on regulatory T-cells. Tolerance induced by allergen-specific regulatory T-cells appears to be the normal immunological response to allergens in non atopic healthy individuals. Healthy subjects have an intact functional allergen-specific regulatory T-cell response, which in allergic subjects is impaired. Evidence on this exists with respect to atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma. Restoration of impaired allergen-specific regulatory T-cell response and tolerance induction has furthermore been demonstrated during allergen-specific subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy and is crucial for good therapeutic outcome. However, tolerance can also be strengthened unspecifically by simple means, e.g. by consuming farm milk and spending time in nature. ,Results so far obtained from animal models indicate that it is possible to restore tolerance by administering the allergen in certain circumstances both locally and systemically. It has become increasingly clear that continuous exposure to microbial antigens as well as allergens in foodstuffs and the environment is decisive, and excessive antigen avoidance can be harmful and weaken or even prevent the development of regulatory mechanisms. ,Success in the Finnish Asthma Programme was an encouraging example of how it is possible to reduce both the costs and morbidity of asthma. The time, in the wake of the Asthma Programme, is now opportune for a national allergy programme, particularly as in the past few years, fundamentally more essential data on tolerance and its mechanisms have been published. In this review, the scientific rationale for the Finnish Allergy Programme 2008,2018 is outlined. The focus is on tolerance and how to endorse tolerance at the population level. [source]

    Obesity, adipokines and asthma

    ALLERGY, Issue 5 2009
    T. Jartti
    Background:, The prevalence of asthma and obesity is increasing concomitantly, but many aspects of this link are unclear. Our objective was to examine whether obesity is associated with asthma in three time points of life, and whether immunomodulatory adipokines, leptin and adiponectin are linked to overweight-associated asthma. Methods:, We studied the association between obesity and asthma at ages 3,18 years [mean (SD), 10 years (5), n = 3582, year 1980], 9,24 years [16 years (5), n = 2764, 1986] and 24,39 years [32 years (5), n = 2620, 2001] in a prospective cohort study and further tested for associations with serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations. Data on allergy status, smoking and other laboratory values (serum insulin, plasma C-reactive protein and serum lipid values) were also analyzed. Results:, Allergy and parental asthma were significantly associated with asthma at all ages. At ages 24,39 years, but not earlier, body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio, OR 1.05; P = 0.019) and female gender (OR 1.56; P = 0.031) were independently associated with asthma. Increase in BMI was also associated with incident asthma during adulthood (OR 1.08; P = 0.030). Levels of leptin, adiponectin or any other obesity-related biomarker were not independently associated with asthma. Conclusions:, Asthma is linked with obesity in adults, but our results do not support a significant role for leptin, adiponectin or any other obesity-related biomarker studied in this association. Other factors should be sought for better understanding the connection between obesity and asthma. [source]

    Rhinitis and asthma represent hot topics for Allergy

    ALLERGY, Issue 1 2009
    J. Bousquet
    First page of article [source]

    Symptoms to pollen and fruits early in life and allergic disease at 4 years of age

    ALLERGY, Issue 11 2008
    X.-M. Mai
    Background:, The predictive value of reported early symptoms to pollen or fruits on later allergic disease is unclear. Our aim is to evaluate if symptoms to pollen and/or to fruits early in life are associated with allergic disease and sensitization to pollen at 4 years. Methods:, The study included 3619 children from the Barn (Children), Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology project (BAMSE) birth cohort. Reported symptoms of wheeze, sneeze or rash to birch, grass or weed, symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea, rash, facial edema, sneeze, or wheeze) to fruits including tree-nuts at 1 or 2 years of age, and definitions of asthma, rhinitis and eczema at 4 years were derived from questionnaire data. Sensitization to pollen allergens was defined as allergen-specific IgE-antibodies to any pollen (birch/timothy/mugwort) ,0.35 kUA/l. Results:, At 1 or 2 years of age, 6% of the children were reported to have pollen-related symptoms, 6% had symptoms to fruits, and 1.4% to both pollen and fruits. Children with symptoms to both pollen and fruits at 1 or 2 years of age had an increased risk for sensitization to any pollen allergen at age 4 (ORadj = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.1,9.2). This group of children also had a substantially elevated risk for developing any allergic disease (asthma, rhinitis, or eczema) at 4 years irrespective of sensitization to pollen (ORadj = 8.6, 95% CI = 4.5,16.4). Conclusions:, The prevalence of reported symptoms to pollen and fruits is very low in early childhood. However, children with early symptoms to both pollen and fruits appear to have a markedly elevated risk for allergic disease. [source]

    In Allergy, ,A new day has begun'

    ALLERGY, Issue 6 2008
    J. Bousquet
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Allergy celebrates the 2007 World Asthma Day: ,You can control your asthma!'

    ALLERGY, Issue 6 2007
    M. Humbert
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]