Genetic Differentiation (genetic + differentiation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Genetic Differentiation

  • clear genetic differentiation
  • high genetic differentiation
  • low genetic differentiation
  • neutral genetic differentiation
  • significant genetic differentiation
  • strong genetic differentiation
  • weak genetic differentiation

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2007
    S. Bergek
    Gene flow between coexisting or nearby populations normally prevents genetic divergence and local adaptation. Despite this, there are an increasing number of reports of sympatric sister taxa, indicating potential divergence and speciation in the face of gene flow. A large number of such reported cases involve lake-dwelling fish, which are expected to run into few physical barriers to dispersal within their aquatic habitat. However, such cases may not necessarily reflect sympatric speciation if cryptic dispersal barriers are common in lakes and other aquatic systems. In this study, we examined genetic differentiation in perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) from nine locations in a single, small lake (24 km2), using microsatellites. We detected significant genetic differentiation in all but two pairwise comparisons. These patterns were not consistent with divergence by distance or the existence of kin groups. Instead, they suggest that cryptic barriers to dispersal exist within the lake, allowing small-scale genetic divergence. Such an observation suggests that allopatric (or parapatric) divergence may be possible, even in small, apparently homogenous environments such as lakes. This has important consequences for how we currently view evidence from nature for sympatric speciation. [source]

    Lack of Genetic Structuring among Tropical Brazilian Wood Stork Populations and Low Genetic Differentiation from North American Populations

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 2 2004
    Cristiano Dosualdo Rocha
    ABSTRACT The Wood Stork (Mycteria americana) is a wading bird inhabiting subtropical and tropical regions of the American continent. This species is considered endangered in the United States. We compared variability and genetic structuring of nine Brazilian Pantanal subpopulations with an North American population using eight allozyme loci data (MPI, ICD, NSP, EST-D, LDH, PGM, 6PGD, and PEP-A) and four microsatellite loci data (WS1, WS2, WS4, and WS6). Average expected heterozygosity of Pantanal population was similar (0.198 ± 0.065) to that expected for the North American population (0.231 ± 0.066). No significant genetic differentiation was found among Pantanal subpopulations (Fst= 0.012) and low differentiation was detected between Pantanal and North American populations (Fst= 0.023). Lack of differentiation among Pantanal subpopulations may have been due to high gene flow level among birds of neighbor breeding colonies and low natal philopatry. We propose that low differentiation between North and South American populations has arisen either because these populations occupied neighboring regions during late glaciation or because there is a continuous gene flow between them, via Central American or northern South American populations. RESUMO O Cabeça-seca (Mycteria americana) é uma ave aquática habitante das regiões tropicais e subtropicais do continente americano. Essa espécie está ameaçada de extinção nos Estados Unidos. Nós comparamos a variabilidade e a estruturação genética de nove subpopulações brasileiras do Pantanal com as da população norte americana, baseando-se em dados de oito locos alozímicos (MPI, ICD, NSP, EST-D, LDH, PGM, 6PGD, e PEP-A) e em dados de quatro locos de microssatélites (WS1, WS2, WS4, e WS6). A heterozigosidade média esperada para a população do Pantanal (0.198 ± 0.065) foi semelhante á esperada para a população norte americana (0.231 ± 0.066). Não foi encontrada diferenciação genética significativa entre as subpopulaçóes do Pantanal (Fst= 0.012) e baixa diferenciação genética foi detectada entre as populações do Pantanal e a norte americana (.Fst= 0.023). A não diferenciação entre subpopulações do Pantanal pode ser resultante de um alto nível do fluxo génico entre aves de colónias reprodutivas vizinhas e da baixa filopatria natal. Nós propomos que a baixa diferenciação entre as populações norte e sul americanas seja decorrente da ocupaçaTo de regiões vizinhas por essas populações durante a última glaciação ou devido á existéncia de fluxo contínue entre elas, via populações da América Central ou do norte da América do Sul. [source]

    Genetic structure of Euphrasia stricta on the Baltic island of Gotland, Sweden

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2005
    Anna-Karin Kolseth
    Genetic differentiation between and within five varieties of Euphrasia stricta (var. brevipila, var. gotlandica, var. stricta, var. suecica and var. tenuis) on Gotland was investigated, using amplified fragment length polymorphism, AFLP. The varieties are described in the literature by morphology and association to habitat type. We wanted to investigate whether the varieties are locally adapted populations to the typical habitat type for each variety or if they are preadapted to certain habitat types and have colonized Gotland in their present form. A constrained principal coordinate analysis revealed three genetically differentiated subunits within the species. The two early-flowering varieties suecica and tenuis each formed a distinct group, while the three late-flowering varieties brevipila, gotlandica and stricta together formed the third group. A phylogenetic tree confirms the partitioning into three groups. Within the group containing the late-flowering varieties there are populations that pair as each other's closest relatives, but belong to different varieties. These pairs are also geographically adjacent. The phylogenetic tree had a "star-like" appearance indicating a stronger divergence between populations than between varieties. The same pattern was seen in the partitioning of genetic diversity, with a lower amount of genetic variation occurring between varieties, FST=0.14, than between populations within the varieties, FST ranging from 0.26 to 0.60. In Euphrasia stricta the varieties suecica and tenuis and the group containing the varieties stricta/gotlandica/brevipila are likely to have a phylogeographical history outside Gotland, or an ancient and concealed local origin on the island. Within the group stricta/gotlandica/brevipila local evolutionary events seem to determine the variety identity, probably through local adaptation. [source]

    Genetic differentiation between three ecological variants (,type', ,mysorensis' and ,intermediate') of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 4 2010
    Abstract,Anopheles stephensi is the main vector of urban malaria in South Asia. Three ecological variants (,type', ,mysorensis'and,intermediate') of An. stephensi have been reported on the basis of ecology and egg morphology. However, it is unclear if there is any genetic isolation between the three variants. We analyzed the three variants of An. stephensi using eight microsatellite loci and found that large and significant genetic differentiation exists between them (mean FST= 0.393 and mean RST= 0.422). Pairwise estimates of genetic differentiation between the variants were ,type' versus ,mysorensis' (mean FST= 0.411 and mean RST= 0.308), ,type' versus ,intermediate' (mean FST= 0.388 and mean RST= 0.518) and ,intermediate' versus ,mysorensis' (mean FST= 0.387 and mean RST= 0.398) and all were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The greater sensitivity of RST in differentiation indicated that mutations and not genetic drift had generated the differences between three variants of An. stephensi. The present study indicated large genetic differentiation and presence of non-significant low level of gene flow between the three variants (,type', ,mysorensis'and,intermediate') of An. stephensi. [source]

    Genetic differentiation of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q based on mitochondrial DNA markers

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 2 2008
    Dong Chu
    Abstract In the present study, genetic differentiation of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype Q was analyzed based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mt COI) gene sequence. The results showed that B. tabaci biotype Q could be separated into two subclades, which were labeled as subclades Q1 and Q2. Subclade Q1 was probably indigenous to the regions around the Mediterranean area and subclade Q2 to Israel or Cyprus. It was because B. tabaci was composed of several genetically distinct groups with a strong geographical association between more closely related biotypes. Not all of the B. tabaci biotype Q in the non-Mediterranean countries come from the same regions. Until now, all B. tabaci biotype Q in China were grouped into subclade Q1. The B. tabaci biotype Q introduced into the US included both subclades Q1 and Q2. The genetic structure analysis showed higher genetic variation of subclade Q1 than that of subclade Q2. [source]

    Genetic differentiation of Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) populations as revealed by mtDNA PCR-RFLP analysis

    By C. Turan
    Summary The genetic population structure of Mediterranean horse mackerel, Trachurus mediterraneus, from seven locations throughout the Black, Marmara, Aegean and eastern Mediterranean seas was investigated using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the mtDNA 16S rDNA region. An approximately 2000-bp segment was screened in 280 individuals using six restriction enzymes, resulting in 10 composite haplotypes. The most common haplotype was present in 56.42% individuals; the next most frequent haplotype was present in 22.85% individuals. Average haplotype diversity within samples was moderate (0.38), and nucleotide diversity was low (0.00435). Mean nucleotide divergence for the seven sampling sites was 0.0028. Nucleotide divergence among samples was moderate, with the highest value detected between the Aegean Sea (Izmir) and the eastern Black Sea (Trabzon) populations (0.007055), and the lowest (,0.000043) between the Marmara Sea (Adalar) and the western Black Sea (Sile) populations. In Monte Carlo pairwise comparisons of haplotype frequencies, the Sinop from the middle Black Sea, Trabzon from the eastern Black Sea, and Iskenderun Bay from the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea exhibited highly significant (P < 0.001) geographical differentiation from each other and from all other populations. Mantel's test indicated that the nucleotide divergence among populations of T. mediterraneus was not significantly associated with their geographical isolation (r = ,0.2963; P > 0.05). Consequently, the mtDNA 16S rDNA region provided evidence for the existence of three distinct T. mediterraneus populations (Sinop, Trabzon and Iskenderun Bay) in the Black and north-eastern Mediterranean seas. [source]

    Stock structure of pallid sturgeon analyzed with microsatellite loci

    A. W. Schrey
    Summary Recovery efforts for the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) include supplementation of wild stocks with hatchery reared progeny. Identifying the extent of genetic stock structure, which has previously been detected in samples from the range extremes, will help to determine whether stock transfers might be harmful. DNA microsatellite genotypes were screened in pallid sturgeon from the upper Missouri River, lower Missouri River, middle Mississippi River and Atchafalaya River and analyzed using a combination of Bayesian model-based and more traditional F-statistic based methods to characterize genetic differentiation. Scaphirhynchus specimens were collected by researchers active in the recovery effort and genotypes were screened at 16 microsatellite loci. Because there is considerable genetic and morphological overlap between pallid sturgeon, shovelnose sturgeon, and their hybrids, a combination of morphological and genetic techniques were used to eliminate shovelnose and possible hybrids from the sample. Genetic differentiation was detected among samples (overall , = 0.050, P = 0.001). Pairwise ,, genetic distances, and Bayesian assignment testing reveal that pallid sturgeon from the upper Missouri River are the most distinct group with pairwise comparisons of pallid sturgeon among all the remaining samples exhibiting lower , values, higher genetic distances, and self assignment scores. Our results indicate that using local broodstock, when available, should be used for pallid sturgeon propagation. If local broodstock are not available, geographically proximate individuals would limit genetic differences between native and stocked individuals. [source]

    Genetic differentiation in an arboreal rodent from African savannas

    Jork Meyer
    First page of article [source]

    Genetic differentiation and natural hybridization between the Sardinian endemic Maniola nurag and the European Maniola jurtina

    A. GRILL
    Abstract The Mediterranean island of Sardinia is known for its multitude of unique genetic lineages. We view one of them in a larger phylogeographic context. The endemic Sardinian Meadow Brown butterfly, Maniola nurag, is restricted to the mountainous areas of the island, whereas its widespread close relative, Maniola jurtina, also occurs on the coast. At intermediate altitudes the species' distributions overlap. There, a number of individuals exhibit phenotypic characteristics intermediate between the two species. We examined patterns of intra- and interpopulation variation in 10 M. nurag populations from Sardinia and 16 M. jurtina populations from Sardinia and continental Europe, as well as 17 intermediate individuals, sampled in 1999,2002, by means of allozyme markers, combining it with a morphometric analysis based on 18 wing-characters of 52 males. At the 15 loci studied (aldolase, aat-1, aat-2, g6pdh, gpd, idh-1, idh-2, mdh-1, mdh-2, mpi, me, leu-ala, pgi, pgm, and 6pgdh), 76 different alleles were detected, 63 of which were shared by M. nurag and M. jurtina. None of the loci was found to be alternatively fixed between the two species. In that respect, this study testifies to the difficulties that may arise when trying to identify hybrids from genotypic data. Levels of genetic variation in island populations (M. jurtina: HO = 0.137,0.189; M. nurag: HO = 0.141,0.270) were comparable to those of mainland M. jurtina (HO = 0.141,0.236). A Bayesian admixture analysis supported the hypothesis of mixed (hybrid) ancestry of individuals occurring at intermediate altitudes. Similarly, neighbour-joining and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging (UPGMA) analyses, as well as morphometrics hinted at the existence of a Maniola -hybrid zone in Sardinia at intermediate altitudes. We discuss the results in the light of the phylogeography of other Sardinian taxa with the aim to reach a general understanding of the biogeographic history of this island's endemic species. [source]

    Genetic population structure, queen supersedure and social polymorphism in a social Hymenoptera

    Abstract In social insects, the emergence of multiple queening is linked to changes in a suite of traits such as the reproductive life span of queens, mating patterns and population structure. We investigated queen turnover, colony longevity, spatial distribution patterns and genetic differentiation in a population of the socially polymorphic ant Formica fusca. Genetic differentiation between the social forms was absent, and mating patterns were similar in the two forms. The spatial distribution of single- and multi-queen colonies indicated an absence of colony reproduction by budding in both colony types. However, the rate of queen supersedure was high in multi-queen colonies and absent in single-queen ones. The social structure of colonies remained stable across years, but colony mortality did not differ between the two social forms. These results imply that differences between social types may appear and persist also in sympatry, and that these differences may occur in some traits, but not others, despite the presence of homogenizing gene flow. [source]

    Evolutionary divergence and possible incipient speciation in post-glacial populations of a cosmopolitan aquatic plant

    G. Nies
    Abstract Habitat configuration is expected to have a major influence on genetic exchange and evolutionary divergence among populations. Aquatic organisms occur in two fundamentally different habitat types, the sea and freshwater lakes, making them excellent models to study the contrasting effects of continuity vs. isolation on genetic divergence. We compared the divergence in post-glacial populations of a cosmopolitan aquatic plant, the pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus that simultaneously occurs in freshwater lakes and coastal marine sites. Relative levels of gene flow were inferred in 12 lake and 14 Baltic Sea populations in northern Germany using nine highly polymorphic microsatellite markers developed for P. pectinatus. We found highly significant isolation-by-distance in both habitat types (P < 0.001). Genetic differentiation increased approximately 2.5-times faster among freshwater populations compared with those from the Baltic Sea. As different levels of genetic drift or population history cannot explain these differences, higher population connectivity in the sea relative to freshwater populations is the most likely source of contrasting evolutionary divergence. These findings are consistent with the notion that freshwater angiosperms are more conducive to allopatric speciation than their life-history counterparts in the sea, the relative species poor seagrasses. Surprisingly, population pairs from different habitat types revealed almost maximal genetic divergence expected for complete reproductive isolation, regardless of their respective geographical distance. Hence, the barrier to gene flow between lake and sea habitat types cannot be due to dispersal limitation. We may thus have identified a case of rapid incipient speciation in post-glacial populations of a widespread aquatic plant. [source]

    Diversity and food quality properties of farmers' varieties of sorghum from Bénin

    AP Polycarpe Kayodé
    Abstract Farmers' varieties of sorghum from three communities in different regions of northern Bénin were analysed for their food quality and agro-morphological properties, and also for their genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Farmers' varieties of sorghum differed greatly with respect to their morphology and agronomic and food traits. Most of the varieties had long (>200 cm) stems (87%), loose panicles (79%) and a red or pink colour (52%). Most were susceptible to drought (54%) and to attacks by striga (79%), insects (99%) and birds (77%). Farmers evaluated the quality of the seeds for preparing porridges as being high for 60% of the varieties and 26% of the varieties were regarded as suitable for making beverages. Late-maturing, large-seeded, red or pink varieties are preferred by farmers for porridges and beverages. Gene diversity among varieties within regions, as measured by neutral markers, was similar for the three regions (0.211,0.240). However, across regions the short (<150 cm) stem varieties showed relatively high genetic diversity compared with long or medium stem varieties (0.378 vs 0.184,0.216 for long,medium stem varieties). Genetic differentiation (Fst) among regions and among stem lengths of varieties was significant and ranged between 0.086 and 0.135. Grain colour, stem length and panicle shape varied significantly with the region/stem length and correlated with the genetic differentiation of regions. No relationship could be detected between the genetic differentiation of the varieties and their food quality as expressed by the farmers. Implications of the findings for crop conservation and breeding are discussed. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Population structure and history of southern African scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis

    JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    U. Kryger
    Abstract Genetic differentiation among populations of the South African scrub hare Lepus saxatilis was examined using hypervariable mitochondrial DNA control region I (CR-I) sequences. Neighbour-joining analysis revealed a pattern that did not correspond to the current subspecies delineations. The CR-I sequence data delimit scrub hares into three major maternal lineages. The three phylogenetic assemblages exhibited different geographical distributions. AMOVA analyses and exact tests for population differentiation confirmed this phylogeographic partitioning. One lineage (SW) was confined to the south-western Cape, the second lineage (N) was exclusively found in the northern part of South Africa and in the neighbouring countries, and the third lineage (C) was predominant in the central parts of South Africa. This spatial distribution did not coincide with the ranges of the 10 described subspecies covered by our sampling regime. The lineages C and N overlapped in an area including eastern parts of South Africa and southern Namibia. The presence of both lineages in that area of overlap was interpreted as the result of secondary contact due to recent range expansions after the two lineages had undergone a population restriction approximately 18 000 years ago. Analyses of contemporary gene flow disclosed an exchange of migrants between N and C, which was biased towards a movement from C to N. The SW group represents a very distinct evolutionary lineage that has been isolated for more than 45 000 years. It does not exchange female migrants with the other two groups. Mismatch distribution analyses indicated sudden population size expansions in the history of all three populations. [source]

    Genetic differentiation and reproductive isolation of a naturally occurring floral homeotic mutant within a wild-type population of Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae)

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 12 2009
    Abstract Apart from the common floral architecture in Brassicaceae, variation in flower morphology occurs in several genera within the family and is considered to affect speciation processes. We analysed genetic differentiation and flowering time variation of two floral variants of Capsella bursa-pastoris, the Spe variant and the wild-type, which occur sympatrically in a vineyard in southwest Germany. The Spe variant is characterized by an additional whorl of stamens instead of petals and was formerly classified as an independent taxon ,Capsella apetala' Opiz. Amplified fragment length polymorphism and allozyme analysis revealed a substantial genetic differentiation of the two floral variants and a higher genetic variation within the wild-type subpopulation compared with the Spe subpopulation. The low genetic variation in the mutant provided evidence of a recent local origin or recent introduction. Flowering time analysis indicated that, within the analysed population, the Spe variant flowers significantly later than the wild-type (P < 0.001). We conclude that the evolution and persistence of Spe within a wild-type population is facilitated by high selfing rates and been enhanced by a shift in flowering phenology. Hence, our data provide substantial evidence that the Spe phenotype has established itself as an isolated entity within a wild-type population and may thus serve as a model for the analysis of the evolutionary significance of homeotic mutants in wild populations. [source]

    Defining reproductively isolated units in a cryptic and syntopic species complex using mitochondrial and nuclear markers: the brooding brittle star, Amphipholis squamata (Ophiuroidea)

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 7 2008
    Abstract At a time when biodiversity is threatened, we are still discovering new species, and particularly in the marine realm. Delimiting species boundaries is the first step to get a precise idea of diversity. For sympatric species which are morphologically undistinguishable, using a combination of independent molecular markers is a necessary step to define separate species. Amphipholis squamata, a cosmopolitan brittle star, includes several very divergent mitochondrial lineages. These lineages appear totally intermixed in the field and studies on morphology and colour polymorphism failed to find any diagnostic character. Therefore, these mitochondrial lineages may be totally interbreeding presently. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the genetic structure of the complex in the French Mediterranean coast using sequences of mitochondrial DNA (16S) and for the first time, several nuclear DNA markers (introns and microsatellites). The data revealed six phylogenetic lineages corresponding to at least four biological species. These sibling species seem to live in syntopy. However, they seem to display contrasted levels of genetic diversity, suggesting they have distinct demographic histories and/or life-history traits. Genetic differentiation and isolation-by-distance within the French Mediterranean coasts are revealed in three lineages, as expected for a species without a free larval phase. Finally, although recombinant nuclear genotypes are common within mitochondrial lineages, the data set displays a total lack of heterozygotes, suggesting a very high selfing rate, a feature likely to have favoured the formation of the species complex. [source]

    Spatial pattern of MHC class II variation in the great snipe (Gallinago media)

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 7 2007
    Abstract The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) code for proteins involved in antigen recognition and triggering of the adaptive immune response, and are therefore likely to be under selection from parasites. These selection regimes may vary in space and time. Here we report a strong geographical structure in MHC class II B genes of a migrating bird, the great snipe (Gallinago media). Genetic differentiation in the MHC between two ecologically distinct distributional regions (Scandinavian mountain populations vs. East European lowland populations) was still present after statistically controlling for the effect of selectively neutral variation (microsatellites) using partial Mantel tests. This suggests a role for selection in generating this spatial structure and that it represents local adaptation to different environments. Differentiation between populations within the two regions was negligible. Overall, we found a high number of MHC alleles (50, from 175 individuals). This, together with a tendency for a higher rate of nonsynonymous than synonymous substitutions in the peptide binding sites, and high Tajima's D in certain regions of the gene, suggests a history of balancing selection. MHC variation is often thought to be maintained by some form of balancing selection, but the nature of this selection remains unclear. Our results support the hypothesis that spatial variation in selection regimes contributes to the high polymorphism. [source]

    Genetic divergence does not predict change in ornament expression among populations of stalk-eyed flies

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 12 2005
    Abstract Stalk-eyed flies (Diptera: Diopsidae) possess eyes at the ends of elongated peduncles, and exhibit dramatic variation in eye span, relative to body length, among species. In some sexually dimorphic species, evidence indicates that eye span is under both intra- and intersexual selection. Theory predicts that isolated populations should evolve differences in sexually selected traits due to drift. To determine if eye span changes as a function of divergence time, 1370 flies from 10 populations of the sexually dimorphic species, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni and Cyrtodiopsis whitei, and one population of the sexually monomorphic congener, Cyrtodiopsis quinqueguttata, were collected from Southeast Asia and measured. Genetic differentiation was used to assess divergence time by comparing mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase II and 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments) and nuclear (wingless gene fragment) DNA sequences for c. five individuals per population. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that most populations cluster as monophyletic units with up to 9% nucleotide substitutions between populations within a species. Analyses of molecular variance suggest a high degree of genetic structure within and among the populations; > 97% of the genetic variance occurs between populations and species while < 3% is distributed within populations, indicating that most populations have been isolated for thousands of years. Nevertheless, significant change in the allometric slope of male eye span on body length was detected for only one population of either dimorphic species. These results are not consistent with genetic drift. Rather, relative eye span appears to be under net stabilizing selection in most populations of stalk-eyed flies. Given that one population exhibited dramatic evolutionary change, selection, rather than genetic variation, appears to constrain eye span evolution. [source]

    Patterns of genetic variation do not correlate with geographical distance in the reef-building coral Pocillopora meandrina in the South Pacific

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 7 2005
    Abstract Dispersal may be a critical factor in the ability of reef-building corals to recover after major disturbances. We studied patterns of geographical structure using four microsatellite markers in seven South Pacific populations of Pocillopora meandrina, a major coral species from Polynesia. Variation within populations showed evidence of heterozygote deficiency. Genetic differentiation between populations was detected at a large scale (2000 km) between the Tonga and the Society Islands. Within the Society Islands, four of the five studied populations from Bora Bora, Moorea and Tahiti were not significantly different from each other. Unexpectedly, one of the three populations surveyed in Moorea was genetically different from the other two populations of this island (that were 5 and 10 km apart), and from the populations of the other two surveyed islands in this archipelago. We cannot rule out the possibility that this pattern is an equilibrium state, whereby short-range dispersal is locally more differentiating than long-range dispersal, as has been suggested by similar patterns reported in other studies. An alternative explanation that is globally consistent with all observations is that this is the signature of a large-scale destruction event, as for instance a bleaching event, followed by the recent restoration of populations by new colonists. [source]

    Fine-scale genetic pattern and evidence for sex-biased dispersal in the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 12 2003
    Kathrin P. Lampert
    Abstract Túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) are a model system for sexual selection and communication. Population dynamics and gene flow are of major interest in this species because they influence speciation processes and microevolution, and could consequently provide a deeper understanding of the evolutionary processes involved in mate recognition. Although earlier studies have documented genetic variation across the species' range, attempts to investigate dispersal on a local level have been limited to mark,recapture studies. These behavioural studies indicated high mobility at a scale of several hundred metres. In this study we used seven highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate fine-scaled genetic variation in the túngara frog. We analysed the influence of geographical distance on observed genetic patterns, examined the influence of a river on gene flow, and tested for sex-biased dispersal. Data for 668 individuals from 17 populations ranging in distance from 0.26 to 11.8 km revealed significant levels of genetic differentiation among populations. Genetic differentiation was significantly correlated with geographic distance. A river acted as an efficient barrier to gene flow. Several tests of sex-biased dispersal were conducted. Most of them showed no difference between the sexes, but variance of Assignment Indices exhibited a statistically significant male bias in dispersal. [source]

    Population genetic structure of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis across Nigeria suggests range expansion

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 11 2001
    D. Y. Onyabe
    Abstract Ten microsatellite loci, four located within and six outside chromosome inversions, were employed to study the genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis across the ecological zones of Nigeria (arid savannah in the north gradually turns into humid forest in the south). Regardless of location within or outside inversions, genetic variability at all loci was characterized by a reduction in both the number of alleles per locus and heterozygosity from savannah to forest. Across all loci, all but one allele in the forest also occurred in the savannah, whereas at least 78 alleles in the savannah were missing in the forest. Genetic differentiation increased with geographical distance; consequently, genetic distances between zones exceeded those within zones. The largest genetic distances were between localities at the extremes of the transect (range FST = 0.196,0.258 and RST = 0.183,0.468) and were as large as those between A. arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae s.s. Gene flow across the country was very low, so that Nm between the extremes of the transect was < 1. These data suggest that A. arabiensis has extended its range from the savannah into the forest during which it experienced a reduction in effective population size due to sequential founder effects. Gene flow post range expansion appears too restricted by geographical distance to homogenize the gene pool of A. arabiensis across Nigeria. [source]

    Discrepancies in population differentiation at microsatellites, mitochondrial DNA and plumage colour in the pied flycatcher , inferring evolutionary processes

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 8 2000
    J. Haavie
    Abstract Genetic differentiation between three populations of the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca (Norway, Czech Republic and Spain, respectively) was investigated at microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and compared with the pattern of differentiation of male plumage colour. The Czech population lives sympatrically with the closely related collared flycatcher (F. albicollis) whereas the other two are allopatric. Allopatric populations are on average more conspicuously coloured than sympatric ones, a pattern that has been explained by sexual selection for conspicuous colour in allopatry and a character displacement on breeding plumage colour in sympatry that reduces the rate of hybridization with the collared flycatcher. The Czech population was genetically indistinguishable from the Norwegian population at microsatellite loci and mtDNA sequences. Recent isolation and/or gene flow may explain the lack of genetic differentiation. Accordingly, different selection on plumage colour in the two populations is either sufficiently strong so that gene flow has little impact on the pattern of colour variation, or differentiation of plumage colour occurred so recently that the (presumably) neutral, fast evolving markers employed here are unable to reflect the differentiation. Genetically, the Spanish population was significantly differentiated from the other populations, but the divergence was much more pronounced at mtDNA compared to microsatellites. This may reflect increased rate of differentiation by genetic drift at the mitochondrial, compared with the nuclear genome, caused by the smaller effective population size of the former genome. In accordance with this interpretation, a genetic pattern consistent with effects of small population size in the Spanish population (genetic drift and inbreeding) were also apparent at the microsatellites, namely reduced allelic diversity and heterozygous deficiency. [source]

    A microsatellite-based estimation of clonal diversity and population subdivision in Zostera marina, a marine flowering plant

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    T. B. H. Reusch
    Abstract We examined the genetic population structure in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.), the dominant seagrass species of the northern hemisphere, over spatial scales from 12 km to 10 000 km using the polymorphism of DNA microsatellites. Twelve populations were genotyped for six loci representing a total of 67 alleles. Populations sampled included the North Sea (four), the Baltic Sea (three), the western Atlantic (two), the eastern Atlantic (one), the Mediterranean Sea (one) and the eastern Pacific (one). Microsatellites revealed substantial genetic variation in a plant group with low allozyme diversity. Average expected heterozygosities per population (monoclonal populations excluded) ranged from 0.32 to 0.61 (mean = 0.48) and allele numbers varied between 3.3 and 6.7 (mean = 4.7). Using the expected frequency of multilocus genotypes within populations, we distinguished ramets from genetic individuals (i.e. equivalent to clones). Differences in clonal diversity among populations varied widely and ranged from maximal diversity (i.e. all ramets with different genotype) to near or total monoclonality (two populations). All multiple sampled ramets were excluded from further analysis of genetic differentiation within and between populations. All but one population were in Hardy,Weinberg equilibrium, indicating that Zostera marina is predominantly outcrossing. From a regression of the pairwise population differentiation with distance, we obtained an effective population size Ne of 2440,5000. The overall genetic differentiation among eelgrass populations, assessed as , (a standardized estimate of Slatkin's RST) was 0.384 (95% CI 0.34,0.44, P < 0.001). Genetic differentiation was weak among three North Sea populations situated 12,42 km distant from one another, suggesting that tidal currents result in an efficient exchange of propagules. In the Baltic and in Nova Scotia, a small but statistically significant fraction of the genetic variance was distributed between populations (, = 0.029,0.053) at scales of 15,35 km. Pairwise genetic differentiation between European populations were correlated with distance between populations up to a distance of 4500 km (linear differentiation-by-distance model, R2 = 0.67). In contrast, both Nova Scotian populations were genetically much closer to North Sea and Baltic populations than expected from their geographical distance (pairwise , = 0.03,0.08, P < 0.01). A biogeographical cluster of Canadian with Baltic/North Sea populations was also supported using a neighbour-joining tree based on Cavalli,Sforza's chord distance. Relatedness between populations may be very different from predictions based on geographical vicinity. [source]

    Morphological and genetic differentiation in Isodon umbrosus by altitudinal variation in bumblebee pollinator assemblages

    Abstract The corolla tube length of the bumblebee-pollinated plant Isodon umbrosus shows conspicuous geographical variation, corresponding with the proboscis length of its bumblebee pollinators across its distributional range. We hypothesized that altitudinal variation in the pollinator assemblage is a principal factor mediating morphological and genetic differentiation among I. umbrosus populations. We examined determinants of the morphological and genetic differentiation of Isodon umbrosus by analyzing floral morphology and allozyme variation across the distributional range. A reanalysis of previous data confirmed that altitude was a good indicator of pollinator assemblages. Corolla tube length was highly variable among the 15 study populations, and genetic differentiation among the populations (GST = 0.360) was also highly significant. The differentiation in corolla tube length was explained by altitudinal difference, a proxy of the difference in pollinator assemblages. Genetic differentiation among populations also tended to be affected by the same factor, but statistical support was weak. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for morphological and genetic differentiation in I. umbrosus, we need to investigate altitudinally different populations over a narrower geographical scale. [source]

    Limited Reintroduction Does Not Always Lead to Rapid Loss of Genetic Diversity: An Example from the American Chestnut (Castanea dentata; Fagaceae)

    Sarah A. M. Pierson
    Abstract In restoring species, reasons for introducing limited numbers of individuals at different locations include costs of introduction and maintenance, limited founder supply, and risk "bet hedging." However, populations initiated from few founders may experience increased genetic drift, inbreeding, and diversity loss. We examined the genetic diversity of an isolated stand of more than 5,000 American chestnut trees relative to that of the 9 surviving stand founders (out of 10 total) planted in the 1880s. We used minisatellite DNA probes to reveal 84 genetic markers (circa 24 loci) among the nine founders, and their genetic diversity was compared with three separate plots of descendant trees, as well as with two natural stands. The descendants were circa 7.3% more heterozygous than the founders (mean estimated H= 0.556 vs. 0.518, respectively; p < 0.0001). Genetic differentiation was not pronounced (FST < 0.031), and no markers, including those at low frequency among the founders, were lost in the descendants. The founders and natural transects were not significantly different in H or similarity (mean proportion of bands shared). Special planting or mating protocols for establishment of a vigorous American chestnut population from a low number of founders may not be required to avoid strong effects of genetic drift and inbreeding. These results demonstrate that loss of genetic diversity following reintroduction of a limited number of founders is not always inevitable, such as this case where the species is highly outcrossing, expression of heterozygous advantage may occur, the original founders remain as gene contributors over generations, and the establishing population expands constantly and rapidly. [source]

    Genetic differentiation in pointing dog breeds inferred from microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequence

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 1 2008
    D. Parra
    Summary Recent studies presenting genetic analysis of dog breeds do not focus specifically on genetic relationships among pointing dog breeds, although hunting was among the first traits of interest when dogs were domesticated. This report compares histories with genetic relationships among five modern breeds of pointing dogs (English Setter, English Pointer, Epagneul Breton, Deutsch Drahthaar and German Shorthaired Pointer) collected in Spain using mitochondrial, autosomal and Y-chromosome information. We identified 236 alleles in autosomal microsatellites, four Y-chromosome haplotypes and 18 mitochondrial haplotypes. Average FST values were 11.2, 14.4 and 13.1 for autosomal, Y-chromosome microsatellite markers and mtDNA sequence respectively, reflecting relatively high genetic differentiation among breeds. The high gene diversity observed in the pointing breeds (61.7,68.2) suggests contributions from genetically different individuals, but that these individuals originated from the same ancestors. The modern English Setter, thought to have arisen from the Old Spanish Pointer, was the first breed to cluster independently when using autosomal markers and seems to share a common maternal origin with the English Pointer and German Shorthaired Pointer, either via common domestic breed females in the British Isles or through the Old Spanish Pointer females taken to the British Isles in the 14th and 16th centuries. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence indicates the isolation of the Epagneul Breton, which has been formally documented, and shows Deutsch Drahthaar as the result of crossing the German Shorthaired Pointer with other breeds. Our molecular data are consistent with historical documents. [source]

    Genetic differentiation analysis of African cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces and elite germplasm using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat markers

    A.A.J. Raji
    Abstract Molecular-marker-aided evaluation of germplasm plays an important role in defining the genetic diversity of plant genotypes for genetic and population improvement studies. A collection of African cassava landraces and elite cultivars was analysed for genetic diversity using 20 amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) DNA primer combinations and 50 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Within-population diversity estimates obtained with both markers were correlated, showing little variation in their fixation index. The amount of within-population variation was higher for landraces as illustrated by both markers, allowing discrimination among accessions along their geographical origins, with some overlap indicating the pattern of germplasm movement between countries. Elite cultivars were grouped in most cases in agreement with their pedigree and showed a narrow genetic variation. Both SSR and AFLP markers showed some similarity in results for the landraces, although SSR provided better genetic differentiation estimates. Genetic differentiation (Fst) in the landrace population was 0.746 for SSR and 0.656 for AFLP. The molecular variance among cultivars in both populations accounted for up to 83% of the overall variation, while 17% was found within populations. Gene diversity (He) estimated within each population varied with an average value of 0.607 for the landraces and 0.594 for the elite lines. Analyses of SSR data using ordination techniques identified additional cluster groups not detected by AFLP and also captured maximum variation within and between both populations. Our results indicate the importance of SSR and AFLP as efficient markers for the analysis of genetic diversity and population structure in cassava. Genetic differentiation analysis of the evaluated populations provides high prospects for identifying diverse parental combinations for the development of segregating populations for genetic studies and the introgression of desirable genes from diverse sources into the existing genetic base. [source]

    Genetic relationship between Litopenaeus setiferus (L.) and L. schmitti (Burkenroad) determined by using 16S mitochondrial sequences and enzymatic analysis

    L Arena
    Abstract Genetic differentiation and variability data of two populations of two species of shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus (L.) and L. schmitti (Burkenroad)) have been obtained by electrophoretic analysis and by analysis of 16S mitochondrial DNA. Using eight polymorphic enzymes, the genetic distance (GD) between the two species was 0.165. The GD between L. setiferus populations was 0.0057 and between L. schmitti populations it was 0.0034. The greatest differentiation was found within, rather than between, populations, although the differentiation value between Mexican and Cuban populations varied in accordance with the geographic distance and ecological characteristic of each. We found a high similarity between these two species with a bimodal distribution of the loci with respect to genetic identity. The homology percentages for gene 16S fragments were compared with those from six different shrimp species (L. vannamei, L. stylirostris, Farfantepenaeus notialis, Metapeneopsis lamellata) and Artemia salina. Ninety-seven percent of identity was found by analysis of a 409 bp of 16S mitochondrial DNA. With these values a phylogenetic tree was made using parsimony criteria. The GDs obtained with this method confirm the classification proposed by Pérez-Farfante & Kensley (1997). [source]

    Biogeography meets conservation: the genetic structure of the endangered lycaenid butterfly Lycaena helle (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

    Cold-adapted species are thought to have had their largest distribution ranges in central Europe during the glacial periods. Postglacial warming caused severe range shifts of such taxa into higher latitudes and altitudes. We selected the boreomontane butterfly Lycaena helle (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) as an example to demonstrate the genetic effects of range changes, and to document the recent status of highly fragmented remnant populations. We analysed five polymorphic microsatellite loci in 1059 individuals sampled at 50 different localities scattered over the European distribution area of the species. Genetic differentiation was strong among the mountain ranges of western Europe, but we did not detect similarly distinct genetic groups following a geographical pattern in the more eastern areas. The Fennoscandian populations form a separate genetic group, and provide evidence for a colonization from southern Finland via northern Scandinavia to south-central Sweden. Species distribution modelling suggests a large extension of the spatial distribution during the last glacial maximum, but highlights strong retractions to a few mountain areas under current conditions. These findings, combined with our genetic data, suggest a more or less continuous distribution of L. helle throughout central Europe at the end of the last ice age. As a consequence of postglacial warming, the species retreated northwards to Fennoscandia and escaped increasing temperatures through altitudinal shifts. Therefore, the species is today restricted to population remnants located at the mountain tops of western Europe, genetically isolated from each other, and evolved into genetically unique entities. Rising temperatures and advancing habitat destruction threaten this wealth of biodiversity. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 101, 155,168. [source]

    Genetic differentiation in the urban habitat: the great tits (Parus major) of the parks of Barcelona city

    The increase of urban areas has led to a fragmentation of habitats for many forest-living species. Man-made parks might be a solution, but they can also act as sinks that are unable to maintain themselves without immigration from natural areas. Alternatively, parks might act as true metapopulations with extinctions and colonizations. In both cases, we can expect genetic variation to be reduced in the parks compared to the natural habitat. A third alternative is that the parks have sufficient reproduction to maintain themselves. To test these hypotheses, we analysed the pattern of genetic variation in the great tit (Parus major) in 12 parks in central Barcelona, and in an adjacent forest population using microsatellites. Genetic variation was not lower in the parks compared to the forest population, but larger, and gene flow was higher from the town to the forest compared to vice versa. We found a significant genetic differentiation among the parks, with a structure that only partly reflected the geographic position of the parks. Relatedness among individuals within parks was higher than expected by chance, although we found no evidence of kin groups. Assignment tests suggest that some parks are acting as net donors of individuals to other parks. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 99, 9,19. [source]

    Population genetics of the black ant Formica lemani (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Colony kin structure and spatial population structure were studied in multiple populations of the ant Formica lemani, using allozymes and DNA microsatellites. Average genetic relatedness between nestmate workers varied little between populations (r = 0.51,0.76), indicating that the average colony kin structure was relatively simple. Worker genotypes could not be explained with a single breeding pair in all nests, however, and the distribution of relatedness estimates across nests was bimodal, suggesting that single- and multi-queen colonies co-occur. We studied spatial population structure in a successional boreal forest system, which is a mixture of different aged habitats. Newly clear-cut open habitat patches are quickly colonized by F. lemani, where it is able to persist for a limited number of generations. Newly-founded populations showed signs of a founder effect and spatial substructuring, whereas older populations were more homogenous. This suggests that new populations are founded by a limited number of colonizers arriving from more than one source. Genetic differentiation among local populations was minor, indicating strong migration between them. There were, however, indications of both isolation by distance and populations becoming more isolated as habitat patches grew older. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 97, 247,258. [source]