Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Genetic

  • additive genetic
  • combining genetic
  • common genetic
  • complex genetic
  • host genetic
  • molecular genetic
  • other genetic
  • population genetic
  • quantitative genetic
  • underlying genetic
  • various genetic

  • Terms modified by Genetic

  • genetic aberration
  • genetic ablation
  • genetic abnormality
  • genetic absence epilepsy
  • genetic absence epilepsy rat
  • genetic adaptation
  • genetic admixture
  • genetic affinity
  • genetic algorithm
  • genetic algorithm approach
  • genetic algorithms
  • genetic allele
  • genetic alteration
  • genetic amniocentesis
  • genetic analysis
  • genetic analysis workshop
  • genetic ancestry
  • genetic approach
  • genetic architecture
  • genetic aspect
  • genetic assessment
  • genetic assignment
  • genetic assimilation
  • genetic association
  • genetic association analysis
  • genetic association studies
  • genetic association study
  • genetic background
  • genetic barrier
  • genetic base
  • genetic basis
  • genetic benefit
  • genetic bottleneck
  • genetic caste determination
  • genetic cause
  • genetic change
  • genetic characterisation
  • genetic characteristic
  • genetic characterization
  • genetic clade
  • genetic cline
  • genetic cluster
  • genetic code
  • genetic comparison
  • genetic compatibility
  • genetic complementation
  • genetic complexity
  • genetic component
  • genetic composition
  • genetic condition
  • genetic connectivity
  • genetic consequence
  • genetic constitution
  • genetic constraint
  • genetic contact
  • genetic contribution
  • genetic control
  • genetic correlation
  • genetic cost
  • genetic counseling
  • genetic counselling
  • genetic counselor
  • genetic covariance
  • genetic cross
  • genetic damage
  • genetic data
  • genetic data set
  • genetic databases
  • genetic defect
  • genetic deficiency
  • genetic deletion
  • genetic depletion
  • genetic determinant
  • genetic determination
  • genetic determinism
  • genetic diagnosis
  • genetic difference
  • genetic differentiation
  • genetic discovery
  • genetic disease
  • genetic disorder
  • genetic disorders
  • genetic disposition
  • genetic disruption
  • genetic dissection
  • genetic dissimilarity
  • genetic distance
  • genetic distinction
  • genetic divergence
  • genetic diversification
  • genetic diversity
  • genetic diversity analysis
  • genetic diversity index
  • genetic diversity studies
  • genetic drift
  • genetic effect
  • genetic effects
  • genetic element
  • genetic engineering
  • genetic enhancement
  • genetic entity
  • genetic epidemiology
  • genetic erosion
  • genetic estimate
  • genetic etiology
  • genetic evaluation
  • genetic event
  • genetic evidence
  • genetic evolution
  • genetic examination
  • genetic exchange
  • genetic exchanges
  • genetic experiment
  • genetic factor
  • genetic feature
  • genetic finding
  • genetic fingerprinting
  • genetic form
  • genetic gain
  • genetic group
  • genetic groups
  • genetic heritage
  • genetic heterogeneity
  • genetic heterozygosity
  • genetic hierarchy
  • genetic homogeneity
  • genetic identification
  • genetic identity
  • genetic impact
  • genetic imprint
  • genetic improvement
  • genetic improvement programme
  • genetic inactivation
  • genetic incompatibility
  • genetic indicator
  • genetic influence
  • genetic information
  • genetic inheritance
  • genetic input
  • genetic insight
  • genetic instability
  • genetic integrity
  • genetic interaction
  • genetic intervention
  • genetic introgression
  • genetic investigation
  • genetic isolation
  • genetic knockout
  • genetic lesion
  • genetic level
  • genetic liability
  • genetic line
  • genetic lineage
  • genetic link
  • genetic linkage
  • genetic linkage analysis
  • genetic linkage map
  • genetic linkage studies
  • genetic load
  • genetic locus
  • genetic loss
  • genetic make
  • genetic make-up
  • genetic management
  • genetic manipulation
  • genetic map
  • genetic mapping
  • genetic marker
  • genetic material
  • genetic mechanism
  • genetic method
  • genetic methods
  • genetic model
  • genetic model system
  • genetic modelling
  • genetic models
  • genetic modification
  • genetic modifications
  • genetic modifier
  • genetic monitoring
  • genetic mutation
  • genetic network
  • genetic obesity
  • genetic optimization
  • genetic organization
  • genetic origin
  • genetic origins
  • genetic parameter
  • genetic parent
  • genetic pathway
  • genetic pattern
  • genetic perspective
  • genetic polymorphism
  • genetic pool
  • genetic population structure
  • genetic potential
  • genetic predictor
  • genetic predisposition
  • genetic problem
  • genetic process
  • genetic profile
  • genetic profiling
  • genetic program
  • genetic programming
  • genetic progress
  • genetic propensity
  • genetic quality
  • genetic rearrangement
  • genetic recombination
  • genetic recovery
  • genetic redundancy
  • genetic region
  • genetic regions
  • genetic regulation
  • genetic relatedness
  • genetic relation
  • genetic relationship
  • genetic relationships
  • genetic research
  • genetic resistance
  • genetic resource
  • genetic response
  • genetic result
  • genetic risk
  • genetic risk factor
  • genetic sample
  • genetic screen
  • genetic screening
  • genetic selection
  • genetic sequence
  • genetic services
  • genetic sex determination
  • genetic signal
  • genetic signature
  • genetic similarity
  • genetic stability
  • genetic status
  • genetic stock
  • genetic strategy
  • genetic structure
  • genetic structuring
  • genetic studies
  • genetic study
  • genetic subdivision
  • genetic subtype
  • genetic survey
  • genetic susceptibility
  • genetic susceptibility factor
  • genetic susceptibility locus
  • genetic syndrome
  • genetic system
  • genetic techniques
  • genetic technology
  • genetic test
  • genetic testing
  • genetic theory
  • genetic therapy
  • genetic tool
  • genetic trait
  • genetic transfer
  • genetic transformation
  • genetic transmission
  • genetic type
  • genetic underpinning
  • genetic unit
  • genetic vaccine
  • genetic variability
  • genetic variable
  • genetic variance
  • genetic variant
  • genetic variants
  • genetic variation
  • genetic vulnerability
  • genetic work

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2008
    Jenni E. Pettay
    A population's potential for evolutionary change depends on the amount of genetic variability expressed in traits under selection. Studies attempting to measure this variability typically do so over the life span of individuals, but theory suggests that the amount of additive genetic variance can change during the course of individuals' lives. Here we use pedigree data from historical Finns and a quantitative genetic framework to investigate how female fecundity, throughout an individual's reproductive life, is influenced by "maternal" versus additive genetic effects. We show that although maternal effects explain variation in female fecundity early in life, these effects wane with female age. Moreover, this decline in maternal effects is associated with a concomitant increase in additive genetic variance with age. Our results thus highlight that single over-lifetime estimates of trait heritability may give a misleading view of a trait's potential to respond to changing selection pressures. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2006
    Heike Pröhl
    Abstract We use a combination of microsatellite marker analysis and mate-choice behavior experiments to assess patterns of reproductive isolation of the túngara frog Physalaemus pustulosus along a 550-km transect of 25 populations in Costa Rica and Panama. Earlier studies using allozymes and mitochondrial DNA defined two genetic groups of túngara frogs, one ranging from Mexico to northern Costa Rica (northern group), the second ranging from Panama to northern South America (southern group). Our more fine-scale survey also shows that the northern and southern túngara frogs are genetically different and geographically separated by a gap in the distribution in central Pacific Costa Rica. Genetic differences among populations are highly correlated with geographic distances. Temporal call parameters differed among populations as well as between genetic groups. Differences in calls were explained better by geographic distance than by genetic distance. Phonotaxis experiments showed that females preferred calls of males from their own populations over calls of males from other populations in about two-thirds to three-fourths of the contrasts tested. In mating experiments, females and males from the same group and females from the north with males from the south produced nests and tadpoles. In contrast, females from the south did not produce nests or tadpoles with males from the north. Thus, northern and southern túngara frogs have diverged both genetically and bioacoustically. There is evidence for some prezygotic isolation due to differences in mate recognition and fertilization success, but such isolation is hardly complete. Our results support the general observation that significant differences in sexual signals are often not correlated with strong genetic differentiation. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2004
    Dany Garant
    Abstract Despite great interest in sexual selection, relatively little is known in detail about the genetic and environmental determinants of secondary sexual characters in natural populations. Such information is important for determining the way in which populations may respond to sexual selection. We report analyses of genetic and large-scale environmental components of phenotypic variation of two secondary sexual plumage characters (forehead and wing patch size) in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis over a 22-year period. We found significant heritability for both characters but little genetic covariance between the two. We found a positive association between forehead patch size and a large-scale climatic index, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, but not for wing patch. This pattern was observed in both cross-sectional and longitudinal data suggesting that the population response to NAO index can be explained as the result of phenotypic plasticity. Heritability of forehead patch size for old males, calculated under favorable conditions (NAO index median), was greater than that under unfavorable conditions (NAO index < median). These changes occurred because there were opposing changes in additive genetic variance (VA) and residual variance (VR) under favorable and unfavorable conditions, with VA increasing and VR decreasing in good environments. However, no such effect was detected for young birds, or for wing patch size in either age class. In addition to these environmental effects on both phenotypic and genetic variances, we found evidence for a significant decrease of forehead patch size over time in older birds. This change appears to be caused by a change in the sign of viability selection on forehead patch size, which is associated with a decline in the breeding value of multiple breeders. Our data thus reveal complex patterns of environmental influence on the expression of secondary sexual characters, which may have important implications for understanding selection and evolution of these characters. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Article first published online: 8 MAY 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Willem Stolte
    Genetic variation of pigment composition was studied in 16 different strains of Emiliania huxleyi (Lohm.) Hay et Mohler in batch culture. Distinct strain-dependent differences were found in the ratios of fucoxanthin, 19,-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, and 19,-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, hampering the use of these individual pigments as a taxonomic marker at the species level. The molar ratio of total carotenoids to chl a, however, was constant for all strains tested. In addition, the pigment composition of one axenic strain (L) of E. huxleyi at different growth rates in light-, nitrate-, and phosphate-limited continuous cultures was analyzed quantitatively. The pigments fucoxanthin and 19,-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin correlated closely under all conditions. From steady-state rate calculations, it is hypothesized that 19,-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin is synthesized from fucoxanthin, with light as a modulating factor. The net rate of synthesis of diatoxanthin depended both on the concentration of diadinoxanthin (its partner in the xanthophyll cycle) and on light, illustrating its photoprotective function in the xanthophyll cycle. In axenic strain L, the ratio of total fucoxanthins to chl a correlated strongly with photon flux density and can potentially be used to assess the physiological status with respect to irradiance in field populations. In multispecific bloom situations, the ratio of diadinoxanthin plus diatoxanthin to total fucoxanthins could be used as an alternative indicator for the light-dependent physiological state of E. huxleyi, provided that no other chromophytes are present. Application of these correlations to mesocosm data from the literature has so far provided no evidence that E. huxleyi blooms form only at inhibiting light levels, as previously suggested. [source]

    Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active comparator and placebo-controlled trial of a corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1 antagonist in generalized anxiety disorder,

    Vladimir Coric M.D.
    Abstract Background: Antagonism of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors has been hypothesized as a potential target for the development of novel anxiolytics. This study was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of pexacerfont, a selective CRF-1 receptor antagonist, in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Method: This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active comparator trial. Two hundred and sixty patients were randomly assigned to pexacerfont 100,mg/day (after a 1 week loading dose of 300,mg/day), placebo or escitalopram 20,mg/day in a 2:2:1 ratio. The primary outcome was the mean change from baseline to end point (week 8) in the Hamilton Anxiety Scale total score. Results: Pexacerfont 100,mg/day did not separate from placebo on the primary outcome measure. The half-powered active comparator arm, escitalopram 20,mg/day, demonstrated efficacy with significant separation from placebo at weeks 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 (P<.02). Response rates for pexacerfont, placebo, and escitalopram were 42, 42, and 53%, respectively. Genetic and psychometric rating scale data was obtained in 175 randomized subjects. There was a significant association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the gene encoding plexin A2 (PLXNA2-2016) with the HAM-A psychic subscale score for the entire cohort at baseline (FDR-adjusted P=.015). Conclusions: Pexacerfont did not demonstrate efficacy compared to placebo for the treatment of GAD. Whether these findings are generalizable to this class of agents remains to be determined. Our preliminary genetic finding of an association between a SNP for the gene encoding plexin A2 and an anxiety phenotype in this study merits further exploration. The trial was registered at (NCT00481325) before enrollment. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Neuropsychological profile of children with subcortical band heterotopia

    Aim, Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) or ,double cortex' is a malformation of cortical development resulting from impaired neuronal migration. So far, research has focused on the neurological, neuroimaging, and genetic correlates of SBH. More recently, clinical reports and small sample studies have documented neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with this malformation. This study aimed to characterize further the phenotype of patients with SBH by describing the neuropsychological profiles of children. Method, Seven children (six females) aged 4 to 15 years were assessed for cognitive functioning (intellectual ability, processing speed, attention, working memory) and academic achievement (reading, spelling, arithmetic). Parents completed questionnaires examining their child's social skills and problem behaviours. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) conducted for routine clinical follow-up were coded by a paediatric neurologist. Genetic and seizure history were obtained from medical records. Results, There was variation in the neurological, neuroimaging, and genetic presentation of children in the sample. Impairments were observed in all areas of neuropsychological functioning examined. Intellectual ability was generally within the ,extremely low' range (full-scale IQ 44,74; performance IQ 45,72; verbal IQ 57,80). Generalized impairments in cognitive skills were typical, with severe impairments (scores greater than 2SD below the test mean) reported in processing speed, working memory, and arithmetic. Impairments in academic, social, and behavioural functioning were less generalized. No clear relationship between neuroimaging and neuropsychological impairments was found. Interpretation, Children with SBH demonstrate cognitive, academic, social, and behavioural problems, with the greatest difficulties in processing speed and complex cognitive skills. [source]

    Genetic and pharmacological studies of GluR5 modulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex of adult mice

    Long-Jun Wu
    Abstract In the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), GluR5-containing kainate receptor mediated the small portion of excitatory postsynaptic current. However, little is known about its role in modulation of neurotransmitter release in this brain region. In the present study, we address this question by using selective GluR5 agonist and antagonist, as well as GluR5,/, mice. Our results showed that activation of GluR5 induced action potential-dependent GABA release, which is also required for the activation of voltage-dependent calcium channel and Ca2+ influx. The effect of GluR5 activation is selective to the GABAergic, but not glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Endogenous activation of GluR5 also enhanced GABA release to ACC pyramidal neurons and the corresponding postsynaptic tonic GABA current. Our results suggest the somatodendritic, but not presynaptic GluR5, in modulation of GABA release. The endogenous GluR5 activation and the subsequent tonic GABA current may play an inhibitory role in ACC-related brain functions. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 67: 146,157, 2007. [source]

    Genetic and perinatal factors as risk for childhood type 1 diabetes

    Karin Larsson
    Abstract The mechanisms by which gestational infections, blood incompatibility, birth weight, mother's age and other prenatal or neonatal events increase the risk for type 1 diabetes are not understood. Studies so far have been retrospective, and there is a lack of population-based prospective studies. The possibility of identifying children at type 1 diabetes risk among first-degree relatives has resulted in prospective studies aimed at identifying postnatal events associated with the appearance of autoantibody markers for type 1 diabetes and a possible later onset of diabetes. However, the majority (85%) of new onset type 1 diabetes children do not have a first-degree relative with the disease. Population-based studies are therefore designed to prospectively analyse pregnant mothers and their offspring. One such study is DiPiS (Diabetes Prediction in Skåne), which is examining a total of about 10 000 pregnancies expected every year in the Skåne (Scania) region of Sweden that has 1.1 million inhabitants. Blood samples from all mothers in this region are obtained during pregnancy and at the time of delivery. Cord blood is analysed for HLA high-risk alleles and for autoantibodies against the 65 kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), the protein tyrosine phosphatase,related IA-2 antigen (IA-2A) and insulin (IAA) as a measure of prenatal autoimmune exposure. Identifying high-risk children by genetic, autoimmune and gestational risk factors followed by prospective analyses will make it possible to test the hypothesis that gestational events may trigger beta cell autoimmunity as a prerequisite for childhood type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    ,Lipoproteins, glycoxidation and diabetic angiopathy'

    Alicia J. Jenkins
    Abstract The chronic vascular complications of diabetes (nephropathy, retinopathy and accelerated atherosclerosis) are a major cause of morbidity and premature mortality. In spite of the more widespread availability of intensive diabetes management, approximately one in three people with diabetes develop aggressive complications and over 70% die of atherosclerosis-related diseases. Genetic and acquired factors are likely to be contributory. Potential mediators of vascular damage may include the interrelated processes of lipoprotein abnormalities, glycation, oxidation and endothelial dysfunction. Lipoprotein abnormalities encompass alterations in lipid concentrations, lipoprotein composition and subclass distribution and lipoprotein-related enzymes. Nonenzymatic glycation and oxidative damage to lipoproteins, other proteins and to vascular structures may also be deleterious. As atherosclerosis is a chronic condition commencing in youth, and because clinical events may be silent in diabetes, surrogate measures of vascular disease are important for early identification of diabetic patients with or at high risk of vascular damage, and for monitoring efficacy of interventions. The increasing array of biochemical assays for markers and mediators of vascular damage, noninvasive measures of vascular health, and therapeutic options should enable a reduction in the excessive personal and economic burden of vascular disease in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2005
    S. Schinner
    Abstract Currently, we observe an epidemic expansion of diabetes mellitus. In subjects with Type 2 diabetes the resistance of fat, muscle and liver to insulin is the central pathophysiological event in the development of this disease. Genetic and environmental factors play a major role in this process, although the precise pathogenesis of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes is still largely unknown. However, recent studies have contributed to a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying this process. In this review we therefore summarize the current developments in understanding the pathophysiological process of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Among the many molecules involved in the intracellular processing of the signal provided by insulin, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2, the protein kinase B (PKB)-, isoform and the forkhead transcription factor Foxo1a (FKHR) are of particular interest in this context as recent data have provided strong evidence that dysfunction of these proteins results in insulin resistance in-vivo. Furthermore, we have now increasing evidence that the adipose tissue not only produces free fatty acids that contribute to insulin resistance, but also acts as a relevant endocrine organ producing mediators (adipokines) that can modulate insulin signalling. The identification of the molecular pathophysiological mechanisms of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes is essential for the development of novel and more effective therapies to better treat our patients with insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. [source]

    ,-Amyloid immunization approaches for Alzheimer's disease

    Bruno P. Imbimbo
    Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the third leading cause of death in the U.S. and the leading cause of dementia in the elderly population. Until recently, there was little hope of efficiently combating this devastating disease. The deposition of ,-amyloid (A,) is the major pathological hallmark of AD brains. Genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological evidence support the hypothesis that A, plays a key role in the development of the disease. Thus, in the last 5 years a number of pharmacological strategies have been developed to interfere with the A, cascade. The most revolutionary of these approaches was proposed in 1999 by scientists at Elan Pharmaceuticals, which immunized against A, transgenic mice with spontaneously developing A, pathology. The immunization was achieved by subcutaneous injections of a preaggregated form of the synthetic human 42-amino acid A, emulsified with Freund's adjuvant, an immune stimulant. The vaccination caused a near complete inhibition of A, plaque formation in younger animals and a marked reduction of the A, burden in older animals. The effects on A, plaques were accompanied by a reduction of A,-associated astrogliosis and neuritic dystrophy. These results were later confirmed by other groups with similar vaccination protocols, which also demonstrated that the A, immunization of transgenic animals normalize or reduce the cognitive impairment associated with A, pathology. Interestingly, effective removal of brain A, plaques was also obtained by peripherally administering A, antibodies. The mechanism with which the vaccine increases A, clearance is not fully understood. Centrally, the vaccine appears to activate A, phagocytosis by microglial monocytes. Peripherally, serum A, antibodies bind and sequester A,, thus altering its equilibrium between CNS and plasma. The dramatic results obtained in animal models of AD raised unprecedented hopes for both a preventive and a curative intervention for this devastating disorder. A vaccine preparation for human use (AN-1792) composed of preaggregated human A,42 peptide and a highly purified saponin derivative (QS-21) was developed by Elan Pharmaceuticals and Wyeth Ayerst and tested in AD patients. Unfortunately, a Phase IIa study aimed at evaluating the safety and immunological activity of AN-1792 in 360 AD patients was discontinued because 15 subjects receiving the vaccine developed serious signs of CNS inflammation. Both central activation of cytotoxic T cells and autoimmune reactions were proposed as potential mechanisms of toxicity. Other therapeutic A, vaccination strategies are being pursued, including immuno-conjugates and monoclonal antibodies. The future of these and other A, immunization approaches depend on a clear understanding of the mechanism of A, clearance and additional insight into the role of inflammation in the AD brain. Drug Dev. Res. 56:150,162, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Peer substance involvement modifies genetic influences on regular substance involvement in young women

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2010
    Arpana Agrawal
    ABSTRACT Aims Peer substance involvement (PSI) is a robust correlate of adolescent substance use. A small number of genetically informative studies suggest that shared genetic and environmental factors contribute to this association. We examine mechanisms by which PSI influences the etiology of regular substance involvement (RSI), particularly in women. Design Population-based cohort study of twin women from the US Midwest. Participants 2176 twin women. Measurements To examine the relationship between self-reported PSI during adolescence and a composite RSI representing regular tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use during young adulthood, using genetically informative correlation, moderation and joint correlation-moderation models. Findings There was evidence for a significant additive genetic X environment interaction. PSI was moderately heritable (h2 = 0.25). Genetic, shared and non-shared influences on RSI overlapped with influences on PSI (genetic correlation of 0.43). Even after controlling for these shared genetic influences, RSI was more heritable in those reporting greater PSI. Conclusions While young women may select peers based on certain dispositional traits (e.g. permissiveness towards substance use), the social milieu constructed by PSI does modify the architecture of increased RSI in those individuals with increasing levels of PSI being associated with stronger expression of heritable influences. [source]

    Genetic and environmental influences on cannabis use initiation and problematic use: a meta-analysis of twin studies

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2010
    Karin J. H. Verweij
    ABSTRACT Background Because cannabis use is associated with social, physical and psychological problems, it is important to know what causes some individuals to initiate cannabis use and a subset of those to become problematic users. Previous twin studies found evidence for both genetic and environmental influences on vulnerability, but due to considerable variation in the results it is difficult to draw clear conclusions regarding the relative magnitude of these influences. Methods A systematic literature search identified 28 twin studies on cannabis use initiation and 24 studies on problematic cannabis use. The proportion of total variance accounted for by genes (A), shared environment (C) and unshared environment (E) in (i) initiation of cannabis use and (ii) problematic cannabis use was calculated by averaging corresponding A, C and E estimates across studies from independent cohorts and weighting by sample size. Results For cannabis use initiation, A, C and E estimates were 48%, 25% and 27% in males and 40%, 39% and 21% in females. For problematic cannabis use A, C and E estimates were 51%, 20% and 29% for males and 59%, 15% and 26% for females. Confidence intervals of these estimates are considerably narrower than those in the source studies. Conclusions Our results indicate that vulnerability to both cannabis use initiation and problematic use was influenced significantly by A, C and E. There was a trend for a greater C and lesser A component for cannabis use initiation compared to problematic use for females. [source]

    Genetic and expression analysis of all non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human deoxyribonuclease I-like 1 and 2 genes

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 12 2010
    Misuzu Ueki
    Abstract Members of the human DNase I family, DNase I-like 1 and 2 (DNases 1L1 and 1L2), with physiological role(s) other than those of DNase I, possess three and one non-synonymous SNPs in the genes, respectively. However, only limited population data are available, and the effect of these SNPs on the catalytic activity of the enzyme remains unknown. Genotyping of all the non-synonymous SNPs was performed in three ethnic groups including six different populations using the PCR-RFLP method newly developed. Asian and African groups including Japanese, Koreans, Ghanaians and Ovambos were typed as a single genotype at each SNP, but polymorphism at only SNP V122I in DNase 1L1 was found in Caucasian groups including Germans and Turks; thus a Caucasian-specific allele was identified. The DNase 1L1 and 1L2 genes show relatively low genetic diversity with regard to these non-synonymous SNPs. The level of activity derived from the V122I, Q170H and D227A substituted DNase 1L1 corresponding to SNPs was similar to that of the wild-type, whereas replacement of the Asp residue at position 197 in the DNase 1L2 protein with Ala, corresponding to SNP D197A, reduced its activity greatly. Thus, SNP V122I in DNase 1L1 exhibiting polymorphism exerts no effect on the catalytic activity, and furthermore SNP D197A in DNase 1L2, affecting its catalytic activity, shows no polymorphism. These findings permit us to postulate that the non-synonymous SNPs identified in the DNase 1L1 and 1L2 genes may exert no influence on the activity levels of DNases 1L1 and 1L2 in human populations. [source]

    Genetic and non-genetic influences on the development of co-occurring alcohol problem use and internalizing symptomatology in adolescence: a review

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2009
    Luca Saraceno
    ABSTRACT Aims Alcohol problem use during adolescence has been linked to a variety of adverse consequences, including cigarette and illicit drug use, delinquency, adverse effects on pubertal brain development and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In addition, heavy alcohol-drinking adolescents are at increased risk of comorbid psychopathology, including internalizing symptomatology (especially depression and anxiety). A range of genetic and non-genetic factors have been implicated in both alcohol problem use as well as internalizing symptomatology. However, to what extent shared risk factors contribute to their comorbidity in adolescence is poorly understood. Design We conducted a systematic review on Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science to identify epidemiological and molecular genetic studies published between November 1997 and November 2007 that examined risk factors that may be shared in common between alcohol problem use and internalizing symptomatology in adolescence. Findings Externalizing disorders, family alcohol problems and stress, as well as the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) S-allele, the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) low-activity alleles and the dopamine D2 receptor (DDR2) Taq A1 allele have been associated most frequently with both traits. An increasing number of papers are focusing upon the role of gene,gene (epistasis) and gene,environment interactions in the development of comorbid alcohol problem use and internalizing symptomatology. Conclusions Further research in adolescents is warranted; the increasing availability of large longitudinal genetically informative studies will provide the evidence base from which effective prevention and intervention strategies for comorbid alcohol problems and internalizing symptomatology can be developed. [source]

    Genetic and environmental interactions on oral cancer in Southern Thailand

    Suparp Kietthubthew
    Abstract Many countries are interested in understanding the relationship between genetic susceptibility and their prevalent environmental cancers for disease prevention. In Thailand we conducted a population-based case-control study of 53 matched pairs to assess the risk of oral cancer in relation to genetic polymorphism of the glutathione-S-transferase genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) in cigarette smokers, alcohol drinkers, and betel quid chewers. Interaction of the genes with other potential risk factors such as local bean consumption were also elucidated. Homozygous deletion of GSTM1 has a frequency of 56.6% (n = 30 over 53) among the patients and 30.2% (16/53) among the controls. This gene is associated with a 2.6-fold higher risk for development of oral cancer (95% CI 1.04,6.5). Among the null GSTM1 individuals, those who smoke, consume alcohol, and/or chew betel quid have a significantly increased risk for oral cancer with an odd ratio (OR) = 4.0 (95% CI = 1.2,13.7), OR = 7.2 (95% CI = 1.5,33.8), and OR = 4.4 (95% CI = 1.1,17.8), respectively. Interactions between any two of the lifestyle habits for oral cancer risk, however, are not found. The frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype is 34.0% (18/53) among the patients and 47.2% (25/53) among our controls. There is no association between the GSTT1 null allele and oral cancer risk. In conclusion, our study provides data to indicate that individuals who have homozygous deletion of the GSTM1 gene have increased risk for oral cancer. The risk increases further when these individuals are exposed to environmental toxicants such as chemicals in cigarette smoke, alcohol, and betel quid. These baseline data can be applied to a larger population-based study, both to verify the observation and to conduct mechanistic investigations. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 37:111,116, 2001 © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Genetic, immunological and biochemical evidence for a Rnf complex in the acetogen Acetobacterium woodii

    Eva Biegel
    Summary Acetogenic bacteria grow by the oxidation of various substrates coupled to the reduction of carbon dioxide (acetogenesis) or other electron acceptors but the mechanisms of energy conservation are still enigmatic. Here, we report the presence of a rnf gene cluster rnfCDGEAB in Acetobacterium woodii that is speculated to encode a novel, energy-conserving ferredoxin:NAD+ -oxidoreductase complex composed of at least six different subunits. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the genes constitute an operon. RnfC and RnfG were heterologously produced and antibodies were generated. Western blot analyses demonstrated that these subunits were produced and are associated with the cytoplasmic membrane. The subunits were present in cells respiring with either carbon dioxide or caffeate. A preparation with NADH dehydrogenase activity was obtained from detergent solubilized membranes that contained RnfC and RnfG. [source]

    Genetic and functional properties of uncultivated thermophilic crenarchaeotes from a subsurface gold mine as revealed by analysis of genome fragments

    Takuro Nunoura
    Summary Within a phylum Crenarchaeota, only some members of the hyperthermophilic class Thermoprotei, have been cultivated and characterized. In this study, we have constructed a metagenomic library from a microbial mat formation in a subsurface hot water stream of the Hishikari gold mine, Japan, and sequenced genome fragments of two different phylogroups of uncultivated thermophilic Crenarchaeota: (i) hot water crenarchaeotic group (HWCG) I (41.2 kb), and (ii) HWCG III (49.3 kb). The genome fragment of HWCG I contained a 16S rRNA gene, two tRNA genes and 35 genes encoding proteins but no 23S rRNA gene. Among the genes encoding proteins, several genes for putative aerobic-type carbon monoxide dehydrogenase represented a potential clue with regard to the yet unknown metabolism of HWCG I Archaea. The genome fragment of HWCG III contained a 16S/23S rRNA operon and 44 genes encoding proteins. In the 23S rRNA gene, we detected a homing-endonuclease encoding a group I intron similar to those detected in hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota and Bacteria, as well as eukaryotic organelles. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree based on the 23S rRNA gene sequence reinforced the intermediate phylogenetic affiliation of HWCG III bridging the hyperthermophilic and non-thermophilic uncultivated Crenarchaeota. [source]

    Genetic and demographic responses of mercury-exposed mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) populations: Temporal stability and reproductive components of fitness

    Christopher Paul Tatara
    Abstract Two previous mesocosm studies showed changes in glucosephosphate isomerase-2 (Gpi-2) allele frequencies in mosquitofish populations exposed to mercury for 111 d or two years. A previous selection component analysis of single-generation populations exposed for 111 d to 18 ,/L Hg suggested that female sexual selection and fecundity selection could contribute to changes in Gpi-2 allele frequencies. The present multigeneration study was conducted to determine the stability of Gpi-2 allele frequencies over four years of mercury exposure, measure the reproductive fitness of Gpi-2 genotypes inhabiting control and mercury-contaminated mesocosms to determine a mechanism explaining changes in Gpi-2 allele frequencies, investigate differences in the demographic characteristics of mercury-exposed and control populations, and investigate the water quality of the mesocosms to determine if variables other than mercury show concordant patterns among mesocosms. Differences in Gpi-2 allele frequencies between control and mercury-exposed populations were stable over four years (, eight generations) of mercury exposure. Mercury-exposed female mosquitofish had a lower probability of being gravid than control females (p = 0.001). Mercury-exposed females also had lower fecundity (total number of eggs and embryos) than control females (p = 0.036). Unlike the results of the more intense mercury exposures in the single generation study, no strong evidence was found that Gpi-2 genotype influenced fecundity or the probability of being gravid in both control and mercury-exposed females. The quantification of fitness components is difficult but has the potential to enhance our understanding of how toxicants alter allele frequencies in exposed populations. [source]

    Revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies: Report of the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology, 2005,2009

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2010
    Anne T. Berg
    Summary The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Commission on Classification and Terminology has revised concepts, terminology, and approaches for classifying seizures and forms of epilepsy. Generalized and focal are redefined for seizures as occurring in and rapidly engaging bilaterally distributed networks (generalized) and within networks limited to one hemisphere and either discretely localized or more widely distributed (focal). Classification of generalized seizures is simplified. No natural classification for focal seizures exists; focal seizures should be described according to their manifestations (e.g., dyscognitive, focal motor). The concepts of generalized and focal do not apply to electroclinical syndromes. Genetic, structural,metabolic, and unknown represent modified concepts to replace idiopathic, symptomatic, and cryptogenic. Not all epilepsies are recognized as electroclinical syndromes. Organization of forms of epilepsy is first by specificity: electroclinical syndromes, nonsyndromic epilepsies with structural,metabolic causes, and epilepsies of unknown cause. Further organization within these divisions can be accomplished in a flexible manner depending on purpose. Natural classes (e.g., specific underlying cause, age at onset, associated seizure type), or pragmatic groupings (e.g., epileptic encephalopathies, self-limited electroclinical syndromes) may serve as the basis for organizing knowledge about recognized forms of epilepsy and facilitate identification of new forms. [source]

    Semantic Differences in Sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) Alarm Calls: A Reflection of Genetic or Cultural Variants?

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 9 2006
    Claudia Fichtel
    In this study, we compared the usage of alarm calls and anti-predator strategies between a captive and a wild lemur population. The wild lemur population was studied earlier in Western Madagascar (Fichtel & Kappeler 2002). The captive population was studied in outdoor enclosures of the Duke University Primate Center. Alarm calls and anti-predator behavior were elicited by conducting experiments with both vocal and visual dummies. We scored the subjects' immediate behavioral responses, including alarm calls, from video recordings made during the experiments. In principle, both populations have a mixed alarm call system with functionally referential alarm calls for aerial predators and general alarm calls for terrestrial and aerial predators and for situations associated with high arousal, such as group encounters. Although wild and captive sifakas exhibit the same alarm call system and use the same alarm call types, we discovered striking differences in the usage and perception of some of the alarm calls. We argue that these differences indicate either an evolutionary drift in the meaning of these calls or reflect cultural variation. The latter possibility is consistent with our understanding of the ontogeny of call usage and comprehension. [source]

    Identification of pro-interleukin 16 as a novel target of MAP kinases in activated T lymphocytes

    Arian Laurence
    Abstract T lymphocyte activation is controlled by a coordinated web of tyrosine and serine kinases. There is a large body of information about tyrosine kinase substrates in T cells but analysis of serine kinase substrates has been more difficult. Recently we described an antiserum that recognizes serine-phosphorylated peptides corresponding to the substrate sequences for AGC serine kinases. This antiserum, termed PAP-1 (phospho antibody for proteomics-1), has proven useful for probing the serine phosphoproteome of antigen receptor-activated T lymphocytes. The present study shows that PAP-1 can also be used to explore serine kinases activated by cytokines and chemokines in T cells. Using PAP-1, together with proteomic analysis, the precursor form of the cytokine IL-16 (ProIL-16) was shown to be phosphorylated on Ser144 in antigen receptor-, SDF1,- and IL-2-activated T cells. Genetic and pharmacological-inhibitor experiments showed that the phosphorylation of ProIL-16 is dependent on activation of the kinases Erk1/2. IL-16 is secreted by mitogen-activated T cells, and the biochemical link between ProIL-16 and Erk1/2, revealed by studies with PAP-1, prompted analysis of the role of MAP kinases in this response. We show that TCR-mediated secretion of IL-16 is dependent on MAP kinases. The present study thus reveals how phosphoproteomic analysis opens previously unrecognized avenues for research, and yields novel insights about targets for MAP kinases in T lymphocytes. [source]

    Vasopressin modulates lateral septal network activity via two distinct electrophysiological mechanisms

    G. Allaman-Exertier
    Abstract The lateral septal area is rich in vasopressin V1A receptors and is densely innervated by vasopressinergic axons, originating mainly from the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the amygdala. Genetic and behavioral studies provide evidence that activation of vasopressin receptors in this area plays a determinant role in promoting social recognition. What could be the neuronal mechanism underlying this effect? Using rat brain slices and whole-cell recordings, we found that lateral septal neurons are under the influence of a basal GABAergic inhibitory input. Vasopressin, acting via V1A but not V1B receptors, greatly enhanced this input in nearly all neurons. The peptide had no effect on miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents, indicating that it acted on receptors located in the somatodendritic membrane, rather than on axon terminals, of GABAergic interneurons. Cell-attached recordings showed that vasopressin can cause a direct excitation of a subpopulation of lateral septal neurons by acting via V1A but not V1B receptors. The presence in the lateral septum of V1A but not of V1B receptors was confirmed by competition binding studies using light microscopic autoradiography. In conclusion, vasopressin appears to act in the lateral septum in a dual mode: (i) by causing a direct excitation of a subpopulation of neurons, and (ii) by causing an indirect inhibition of virtually all lateral septal neurons. This modulation by vasopressin of the lateral septal circuitry may be part of the neuronal mechanism by which the peptide, acting via V1A receptors, promotes social recognition. [source]

    Personality and marital satisfaction: a behavioural genetic analysis

    Erica L. Spotts
    Previous research has found that genetic and nonshared environmental factors influence marital quality (Spotts et al., 2004). The current study explored personality as a source for these genetic and environmental individual differences. A sample of 752 Swedish twin women and their spouses were used. Genetic and environmental influences were found for self-report measures of marital quality, but only environmental factors contributed to the variance of observational measures of marital quality. Wives' personality characteristics accounted for genetic and nonshared environmental variance in the wives' own marital satisfaction, their husbands' marital satisfaction, and the agreement between the spouses on the quality of their marriage. Genetic influences on the correlation between wives' genetically influenced personality characteristics and their husbands' marital satisfaction indicate a gene,environment correlation. Contrary to expectations, husbands' personality did not explain large portions of wives' marital satisfaction beyond that explained by wives' personality. This study emphasizes the importance of spousal personality to the well-being of marriages, and results are discussed within the context of three different theories regarding associations between personality and marital quality. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Genetic and environmental determinants of temperament: a comparative study based on Polish and German samples

    odzimierz Oniszczenko
    This study of 1555 adult mono- and dizygotic twins reared together estimates the heritability of temperament traits in a Polish and a German sample. We test whether the etiology of temperament traits differs between the two cultures and between different temperament traits. We assessed temperament traits with the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour,Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI), the Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS), the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS-R), and the Emotionality,Activity,Sociability Temperament Survey (EAS-TS). Taking error of measurement into account, genetic sources of variance explained about 50% of the variance of temperament traits. We found neither reliable cultural differences nor robust differences in the etiology of the traits. However, the four questionnaires differed systematically with respect to the proportion of genetic and environmental influences on their scales. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Elevated zinc induces siderophore biosynthesis genes and a zntA -like gene in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Silvia Rossbach
    Abstract Zinc-regulated genes were analyzed in Pseudomonas fluorescens employing mutagenesis with a reporter gene transposon. Six mutants responded with increased gene expression to elevated concentrations of zinc. Genetic and biochemical analysis revealed that in four of the six mutants the transposon had inserted into genes essential for the biosynthesis of the siderophore pyoverdine. The growth of one of the mutants was severely impaired in the presence of elevated concentrations of cadmium and zinc ions. In this mutant, the transposon had inserted in a gene with high similarity to P-type ATPases involved in zinc and cadmium ion transport. Four mutants reacted with reduced gene expression to elevated concentrations of zinc. One of these mutants was sensitive to zinc, cadmium and copper ions. The genetic region targeted in this mutant did not show similarity to any known gene. [source]

    Context-specific regulation of LINE-1

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 10 2007
    Ivo Teneng
    The present study was conducted to evaluate the contextual specificity of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) activation by cellular stress and the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) transcription factor and oxidative stress in the gene activation response. Activation of the AHR by the genotoxic carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) increased L1 expression in human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells, human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC), mouse vascular smooth muscle cells (mVSMC) and mouse embryonic kidney cells (mK4). In contrast, challenge with a different AHR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD), or UV irradiation (10,20 J/m2), induced L1 only in HeLa cells. Transactivation of the mouse L1Md-A5 promoter was observed in all cell types challenged with BaP, while TCDD was without effect, and UV only activated L1 in HeLa cells. Genetic and pharmacological experiments implicated the AHR and oxidative stress as contextual determinants of L1 inducibility by cellular stress. [source]

    Genetic and functional interaction between Ryh1 and Ypt3: two Rab GTPases that function in S. pombe secretory pathway

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 3 2006
    Yi He
    We have previously isolated ypt3-i5 mutant and showed that Ypt3 GTPase functions in the fission yeast secretory pathway. Here, the same genetic screen led to the isolation of ryh1-i6, a mutant allele of the ryh1+ gene encoding a homolog of Rab6. The ryh1-i6 mutant showed phenotypes that support its role in retrograde traffic from endosome to the Golgi. Interestingly, ryh1+ gene deletion was synthetically lethal with ypt3-i5 mutation. Consistently, the over-expression of the GDP-conformational mutant, Ryh1T25 N, inhibited the growth of ypt3-i5 mutant but had no effect on that of wild-type cells. Furthermore, the over-expression of the Ryh1T25N mutant inhibited the acid phosphatase glycosylation and exacerbated the cell wall integrity of ypt3-i5 mutant, but had no effect on those of wild-type cells. GFP-Ryh1 and GFP-Ypt3 both localized at the Golgi/endosome, but showed distinct subcellular localizations. The localization of GFP-Ryh1 in ypt3-i5 mutant and that of GFP-Ypt3 in ryh1-i6 mutant were distinct from those in wild-type cells. In addition, Ryh1 as well as Ypt3 were shown to be involved in acid phosphatase secretion. These results suggest that Ryh1 is involved in the secretory pathway and may have a potential overlapping function with Ypt3 in addition to its role in recycling. [source]

    Genetic and phenotypic effects of phonological short-term memory and grammatical morphology in specific language impairment

    M. Falcaro
    Deficits in phonological short-term memory and aspects of verb grammar morphology have been proposed as phenotypic markers of specific language impairment (SLI) with the suggestion that these traits are likely to be under different genetic influences. This investigation in 300 first-degree relatives of 93 probands with SLI examined familial aggregation and genetic linkage of two measures thought to index these two traits, non-word repetition and tense marking. In particular, the involvement of chromosomes 16q and 19q was examined as previous studies found these two regions to be related to SLI. Results showed a strong association between relatives' and probands' scores on non-word repetition. In contrast, no association was found for tense marking when examined as a continuous measure. However, significant familial aggregation was found when tense marking was treated as a binary measure with a cut-off point of ,1.5 SD, suggestive of the possibility that qualitative distinctions in the trait may be familial while quantitative variability may be more a consequence of non-familial factors. Linkage analyses supported previous findings of the SLI Consortium of linkage to chromosome 16q for phonological short-term memory and to chromosome 19q for expressive language. In addition, we report new findings that relate to the past tense phenotype. For the continuous measure, linkage was found on both chromosomes, but evidence was stronger on chromosome 19. For the binary measure, linkage was observed on chromosome 19 but not on chromosome 16. [source]