Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Engineering

Kinds of Generators

  • central pattern generators
  • distributed generators
  • pattern generators
  • photoacid generators
  • pulse generators
  • turbine generators
  • vortex generators
  • wind turbine generators

  • Selected Abstracts


    Article first published online: 9 OCT 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Article first published online: 9 OCT 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Article first published online: 9 OCT 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Finding Generators for Markov Chains via Empirical Transition Matrices, with Applications to Credit Ratings

    Robert B. Israel
    In this paper we identify conditions under which a true generator does or does not exist for an empirically observed Markov transition matrix. We show how to search for valid generators and choose the "correct" one that is the most compatible with bond rating behaviors. We also show how to obtain an approximate generator when a true generator does not exist. We give illustrations using credit rating transition matrices published by Moody's and by Standard and Poor's. [source]

    Upgrading Pacing Generators in the Era of Biventricular Pacing

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Neural generators of ERPs linked with Necker cube reversals

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Michael A. Pitts
    Abstract Multistable perception occurs when a single physical stimulus leads to two or more distinct percepts that spontaneously switch (reverse). Previous ERP studies have reported reversal negativities and late positive components associated with perceptual reversals. The goal of the current study was to localize the neural generators of the reversal ERP components in order to evaluate their correspondence with previous fMRI results and to better understand their functional significance. A Necker-type stimulus was presented for brief intervals while subjects indicated their perceptions. Local auto-regressive average source analyses and dipole modeling indicated that sources for the reversal negativity were located in inferior occipital-temporal cortex. Generators of the late positive component were estimated to reside in inferior temporal and superior parietal regions. [source]

    In Situ Synthesis of Trisubstituted Methanol Ligands and Their Potential as One-Pot Generators of Cubane-like Metal Complexes

    Brendan F. Abrahams Dr.
    Abstract Two different one pot routes to a variety of metal cubane compounds are reported; one route is based on an in situ benzilic acid type rearrangement and the other involves in situ nucleophilic attack at a ketone. Diketosuccinic acid in basic solution in the presence of certain divalent metal ions undergoes a benzilic acid type rearrangement to generate the carbon oxyanion, C(CO2,)3O,, which serves as a cubane-forming bridging ligand in a series of octanuclear complexes of composition [M8{C(CO2)3O}4](H2O)12 (M=Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn). At the heart of each of these highly symmetrical aggregates is an M4O4 cubane core, each oxygen component of which is provided by the alkoxo centre of a C(CO2,)3O, ligand. Reaction of 2,2,-pyridil, (2-C5H4N)COCO(2-C5H4N), and calcium nitrate in basic alcoholic solution, which proceeds by a similar benzilic acid type rearrangement, gives the cubane compounds, [Ca4L4(NO3)4] in which L=(2-C5H4N)2C(COOR)O, (R=Me or Et). Nucleophilic attack by bisulfite ion at the carbonyl carbon atom of 2,2,-dipyridyl ketone in the presence of certain divalent metals generates the electrically neutral complexes, [{(C5H4N)2SO3C(OH)}2M] (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn and Cd). Cubane-like complexes [M4{(C5H4N)2SO3C(O)}4] (M=Zn, Mn) can be obtained directly from 2,2,-dipyridyl ketone in one-pot reaction systems (sealed tube, 120,°C) if a base as weak as acetate ion is present to deprotonate the OH group of the initial [(C5H4N)2SO3C(OH)], bisulfite addition compound; the [(C5H4N)2SO3C(O)]2, ligand in this case plays the same cubane-forming role as the ligands C(COO,)3O, and (2-C5H4N)2C(COOR)O, above. When excess sodium sulfite is used in similar one-pot reaction mixtures, the monoanionic complexes, [M3Na{(C5H4N)2SO3C(O)}4], (M=Zn, Mn, Co) with an M3NaO4 cubane core, are formed directly from 2,2,-dipyridyl ketone. [source]

    Using particles for 3D texture sculpting

    ich Bene
    Abstract Particle systems have been used in computer graphics for many different purposes, including visual simulation of fur, grass, hair, and similar fuzzy textures and shapes. The underlying theories used in these algorithms are usually quite complex and are mostly based on simulation of diffuse-limited aggregation, cellular development, reaction-diffusion models, etc. This leads to high time complexity of these algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to show that collision detection and distance keeping among moving particles can generate similar realistic textures efficiently. This approach is easy to implement, sufficiently fast allowing for interactive modeling, and inherits the major features from the previously published techniques. We first construct a scene consisting of generators of particles, attractors, and cutters. The generators generate oriented particles, and the attractors attract or repulse them. When collision with the cutter is detected, the particle performs an action according to its state and position in the 3D space. Every particle has assigned a table of possible actions that is used for solving these critical states. Trajectories of the particles are then used as a resulting shape of the texture. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Augmenting LZ-77 with authentication and integrity assurance capabilities

    Mikhail J. Atallah
    Abstract The formidable dissemination capability allowed by the current network technology makes it increasingly important to devise new methods to ensure authenticity and integrity. Nowadays it is common practice to distribute documents in compressed form. In this paper, we propose a simple variation on the classic LZ-77 algorithm that allows one to hide, within the compressed document, enough information to warrant its authenticity and integrity. The design is based on the unpredictability of a certain class of pseudo-random number generators, in such a way that the hidden data cannot be retrieved in a reasonable amount of time by an attacker (unless the secret bit-string key is known). Since it can still be decompressed by the original LZ-77 algorithm, the embedding is completely ,transparent' and backward-compatible, making it possible to deploy it without disrupting service. Experiments show that the degradation in compression due to the embedding is almost negligible. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The role of inhibitory neurotransmission in locomotor circuits of the developing mammalian spinal cord

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2009
    H. Nishimaru
    Abstract Neuronal circuits generating the basic coordinated limb movements during walking of terrestrial mammals are localized in the spinal cord. In these neuronal circuits, called central pattern generators (CPGs), inhibitory synaptic transmission plays a crucial part. Inhibitory synaptic transmission mediated by glycine and GABA is thought to be essential in coordinated activation of muscles during locomotion, in particular, controlling temporal and spatial activation patterns of muscles of each joint of each limb on the left and right side of the body. Inhibition is involved in other aspects of locomotion such as control of speed and stability of the rhythm. However, the precise roles of neurotransmitters and their receptors mediating inhibitory synaptic transmission in mammalian spinal CPGs remain unclear. Moreover, many of the inhibitory interneurones essential for output pattern of the CPG are yet to be identified. In this review, recent advances on these issues, mainly from studies in the developing rodent spinal cord utilizing electrophysiology, molecular and genetic approaches are discussed. [source]

    Toward a better understanding of the pathophysiology of OCD SSRI responders: QEEG source localization

    T. G. Bolwig
    Objective:, To demonstrate the utility of three-dimensional source localization of the scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) for the identification of the most probable underlying brain dysfunction in patients with obsessive,compulsive disorder (OCD). Method:, Eyes-closed resting EEG data was recorded from the scalp locations of the International 10/20 System. Variable resolution electromagnetic tomography (VARETA) was applied to artifact-free EEG data. This mathematical algorithm estimates the source generators of EEG recorded from the scalp. Results:, An excess in the alpha range was found with sources in the corpus striatum, in the orbito-frontal and temporo-frontal regions in untreated OCD patients. This abnormality was seen to decrease following successful treatment with paroxetine. Conclusion:, The VARETA findings of an activation/deactivation pattern in cortical and subcortical structures in paroxetine-responsive patients are in good accordance with data obtained in previously published positron emission tomography studies related to current hypotheses of a thalamo-striatal-frontal feedback loop being relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of OCD. [source]

    Experimental study of a doubly-fed rotary frequency converter

    Yasutoshi Takemoto
    Abstract Wind power generation using an unlimited, natural energy has been getting attention regarding environmental issues in recent years, and the installed capacity of wind power generation system is increasing at a rapid pace, resulting in deterioration of power quality especially in frequency and voltage. This fact will be a big problem in restricting large capacity of wind farms. This paper proposes a new frequency converter: rotary frequency converter (RFC) to moderate the electric output from wind generation, which is to be installed between a set of wind generators and a grid, providing a smoothed electric output, promoting the wind power generation introduction. This mainly consists of a synchronous machine and the adjustable-speed machine. Independent controls of input/output voltage, active power, and reactive power offer electrical separation between the two networks. Experimental study of a prototype model and its characteristics, especially dynamic control, is discussed in this paper. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 170(4): 26,34, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/eej.20922 [source]

    Active coordinated operation of a distribution network system for many connections of distributed generators

    Yasuhiro Hayashi
    Abstract Recently, the total number of distributed generators (DGs) such as photovoltaic generation system and wind turbine generation system connected to an actual distribution network has increased drastically. The distribution network connected to many distributed generators must be operated keeping reliability of power supply, power quality, and loss minimization. In order to accomplish active distribution network operation to take advantage of many connections of DGs, a new coordinated operation of distribution system with many connections of DGs is necessary. In this paper, the authors propose a coordinated operation of distribution network system connected to many DGs by using newly proposed sectionalizing switch control, sending voltage control, and computation of available DG connection capability. In order to check the validity of the proposed coordinated operation of distribution system, numerical simulations using the proposed coordinated distribution system operation are carried out in a practical distribution network model. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 167(3): 46,57, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/eej.20655 [source]

    Evaluation of cost and reliability of power systems with large numbers of distributed generators

    Yutaka Sasaki
    Abstract The authors have proposed the Flexible, Reliable and Intelligent ENergy Delivery System (called "FRIENDS"), which is a new concept for future power distribution systems. Also, a "micro grid" which is a similar concept to FRIENDS has been developed. In a micro grid, an independent distribution system can be constituted by a number of distributed generators. In this paper, FRIENDS, Micro grid, and conventional distribution systems are compared quantitatively in supply reliability and system cost through time sequential Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, for cost evaluation, interruption costs are included to show risk incurred by unsupplied energy. Finally, the authors search for preferable form with install and operation of distributed generators and network composition according to social cost including interruption cost and system cost. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 167(2): 28,37, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/eej.20659 [source]

    Computation of locational and hourly maximum output of a distributed generator connected to a distribution feeder

    Yasuhiro Hayashi
    Abstract Recently, the total number of distributed generation such as photovoltaic generation systems and wind turbine generation systems connected to a distribution network has drastically increased. Distributed generation using renewable energy can reduce the distribution loss and emission of CO2. However, the distribution network with the distributed generators must be operated while maintaining the reliability of the power supply and power quality. In this paper, the authors propose a computational method to determine the maximum output of a distributed generator under operational constraints [(1) voltage limit, (2) line current capacity, and (3) no reverse flow to bank] at arbitrary connection points and hourly periods. In the proposed method, a three-phase iterative load flow calculation is applied to evaluate the above operational constraints. The three-phase iterative load flow calculation has two simple procedures: (Procedure 1) addition of load currents from the terminal node of the feeder to root one, and (Procedure 2) subtraction of voltage drop from the root node of the feeder to terminal one. In order to check the validity of the proposed method, numerical simulations are performed for a distribution system model. Furthermore, the characteristics of locational and hourly maximum output of a distributed generator connected to a distribution feeder are analyzed using several numerical examples. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 167(2): 38,47, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/eej.20610 [source]

    New control for HVDC system connected to large windfarm

    Kenichi Tanomura
    Abstract HVDC consisting of self-commutated inverters is able to be applied for power transmission connecting from a remote large windfarm to a weak AC system. Most self-commutated HVDC is applied for connection between two AC systems that have synchronous power sources, but it is not suitable for a windfarm that consists of induction generators without synchronous power source. This paper presents new control for the self-commutated HVDC system connected to a large windfarm of induction generators. The effect of the proposed control is shown by EMTP simulation. ©2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 166(4): 31,39, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/eej.20539 [source]

    Coordinated voltage control of transformer taps with provision for hierarchical structure in power system

    Yoshiki Nakachi
    Abstract Participation of distributed generators (DGs), such as wind turbines, cogeneration systems, etc., is a natural trend from an ecological point of view and will continue to increase. The outputs of these DGs mainly depend on weather conditions but do not correspond to the changes of electrical load demand necessarily. On the other hand, due to deregulation of the electric power market, the power flow in a power system will uncertainly vary with several power transactions. Thus, complex power flow by DGs or transactions will cause voltage deviation. It will be difficult to sustain the voltage quality by using conventional voltage/reactive power control in the near future. In this paper, in order to avoid such voltage deviation and to decrease the frequency of transformer tap operations, the coordinated voltage control scheme of transformer taps on account of hierarchical structure in the power system is proposed. In the proposed scheme, integral of voltage deviation at each layer bus is applied to decide the timing of each transformer tap operation. Numerical simulations confirm that the proposed scheme is able to respond to every condition on voltage deviation. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 166(4): 48,55, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/eej.20531 [source]

    Effects of output power fluctuation on short-circuit current of induction-type wind power generators

    Teruhisa Kumano
    Abstract Effects of the fluctuation inherent in wind speed are studied by a probabilistic method. The random variation in wind speed is responsible for random behavior in output power and internal voltage of a wind power generator. In case of fault occurrence at the instant of high internal voltage, the resultant short-circuit current will be big, and vice versa. The DC component is also affected. According to the study, 2.4% and 1.3% increase of short-circuit current in AC and DC components are observed respectively in a large variation case. This implies that the wind speed variation should be considered for accurate short-circuit study. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 166(3): 27,36, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/eej.20721 [source]

    Autonomous dispersed control system for independent micro grid

    Kensuke Kawasaki
    Abstract In this paper, we show an autonomous dispersed control system for independent micro grid of which performance has been substantiated in China by Shikoku Electric Power Co. and its subsidiary companies under the trust of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization). For the control of grid interconnected generators, the exclusive information line is very important to save fuel cost and maintain high frequency quality of the electric power supply, but it is relatively expensive in such small micro grids. We contrived an autonomous dispersed control system without any exclusive information line for dispatching control and adjusting supply control. We have confirmed through the substantiation project in China that this autonomous dispersed control system for an independent micro grid has a very satisfactory characteristic from the viewpoint of less fuel consumption and high electric quality. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 166(1): 28,35, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/eej.20618 [source]

    Transient stability simulation of wind generator expressed by two-mass model

    Yoshikazu Shima
    Abstract Recently, wind power generation is increasing worldwide. In wind power stations, induction machines are mostly used as generators. Since induction generators have a stability problem similar to the transient stability of synchronous machines, it is important to analyze the transient stability of power systems including wind generators. Although there have been some reports analyzing the transient stability problem, wind turbine and wind generator are, in most cases, modeled as a one-mass shaft system having total inertia constant. This paper presents simulation analyses of transient stability of power system including induction generator which is expressed by a two-mass shaft model and analyzes an effect of shaft system modeling on the transient stability characteristics. Simulations are performed by PSCAD/EMTDC in this study. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 162(3): 27,37, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/eej.20394 [source]

    State criterion of wind turbine generator operation using tower shadow effect (Part 2)

    Tadashi Naitoh
    Abstract In order to obtain wind energy effectively, the pole-change-type induction generators are used as the wind turbine generators. Otherwise, the pole-change-type induction generator causes the voltage dips at pole changing time. To maintain the power quality, it is important to know the state change of the generator operation. Therefore, the authors have studied a state criterion of generator using the tower shadow effect, which is the active power oscillation caused by a rotation torque drop when the tower and the turbine blade overlap each other. In this paper, an improved identification method of oscillation frequency, which is the criterion of wind turbine generator operation, is proposed. The proposed method is applied to measured data and good results are obtained. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 162(1): 25,31, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/eej.20395 [source]

    Output power leveling of wind turbine generators using pitch angle control for all operating regions in wind farm

    Tomonobu Senjyu
    Abstract Effective utilization of renewable energies such as wind energy instead of fossil fuels is desirable. Wind energy is not constant and windmill output is proportional to the cube of the wind speed, which causes the generated power of wind turbine generators (WTGs) to fluctuate. In order to reduce the output power fluctuation of wind farms, this paper presents an output power leveling control strategy for a wind farm based on both the average wind farm output power and the standard deviation of the wind farm output power, a cooperative control strategy for WTGs, and pitch angle control using a generalized predictive controller (GPC) in all WTG operating regions. Simulation results using an actual detailed model for wind farm systems show the effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 158(4): 31, 41, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience. DOI 10.1002/eej.20448 [source]

    Service restoration method considering simultaneous disconnection of distributed generators by one-bank fault of distribution system

    Hirotaka Takano
    Abstract Distributed generators (DGs) such as fuel cells and solar cells are going to be installed in the demand side of distribution systems. The DGs can reduce distribution loss by appropriate allocation. However, there are several problems installing DGs such as service restoration of distribution system with DGs and so on. When one bank fault of distribution substation occurs in distribution system, since DGs are simultaneously disconnected from the system, it is not easy to restore isolated load by one bank switching in distribution substation. Therefore, a service restoration method to determine restoration configuration and restoration procedures (switching procedure from normal configuration to restoration configuration) taking into account simultaneous disconnection of DGs is needed. In this paper, the authors propose a computation method to determine the optimal restoration configuration and the restoration procedure considering simultaneous disconnection of DGs by one bank fault of distribution system. In the proposed algorithm, after all of the restoration configuration candidates are effectively enumerated under the operational constraints, the optimal configuration to restore the isolated load is selected among enumerated configuration candidates. After determining the optimal restoration configuration, the optimal restoration procedures are obtained by greedy algorithm. Numerical simulations are carried out for a real scale system model with 237 sectionalizing switches (configuration candidates are 2237) and 21 DGs (total output is 5250 kW which is 3% of total load) in order to examine the validity of the proposed algorithm. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electron Comm Jpn, 91(8): 44,55, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/ecj.10133 [source]

    Coexistence of symptomatic focal and absence seizures: Video-EEG and EEG-fMRI evidence of overlapping but independent epileptogenic networks

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2009
    Serge Chassagnon
    Summary The distinction between typical absences and hypomotor seizures in patients having frontal lesions is difficult. In focal epilepsy, generalized-like interictal discharges can reflect either a coexistent generalized epileptic trait or a secondary bilateral synchrony. Using combined measures of the EEG and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activity, we studied a 50-year-old patient with both absence-like and symptomatic focal motor seizures. Focal activity induced activation in the lesional area and deactivation in the contralateral central cortex. Generalized spike-and-wave discharges (GSWDs) resulted also in perilesional activation, and multifocal symmetrical cortical and thalamic activations, and deactivation in associative cortical areas. Although the central cortex was involved during both types of epileptic activity, electroencephalography (EEG),functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed distinct neuronal networks at the time of the focal or generalized discharges, allowing a clear-cut differentiation of the generators. Whether the patient had distinct epileptic syndromes or distinct electrographic patterns from the lesional trigger remains debatable. [source]

    Ictal Pattern of EEG and Muscular Activation in Symptomatic Infantile Spasms: A Videopolygraphic and Computer Analysis

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2002
    Francesca Bisulli
    Summary: ,Purpose: To investigate ictal muscular phenomena characterizing symptomatic infantile spasms (ISs) and their relation to ictal EEG. Methods: Four children with severe encephalopathy, neurologic impairment, and refractory ISs related to different dysplastic lesions, underwent videopolygraphic recordings collecting surface electromyogram (EMG) activity from several cranial and limb muscles to evaluate the pattern of muscular recruitment, duration, and side-to-side asymmetry of ISs. Acquired data were stored for off-line analysis by a computerized polygraphic system. Results: Spasms were characterized by a complex pattern of muscular activation. A constant or rostrocaudal propagation pattern was lacking in all patients. Intervals between the onset of EMG activity in different muscles in each spasm were very long: ,100,200 ms. Two patients, with hemispheric cortical dysplasia and agenesis of the corpus callosum, had asymmetric and asynchronous spasms in which the EMG onset of the muscles contralateral to the affected hemisphere constantly anticipated that of the ipsilateral ones. Backaveraging of EEG activity disclosed a high-amplitude EEG complex on the same side as the dysplastic lesion, preceding or succeeding the contralateral muscle activity onset. In the other two patients with diffuse cortical dysplasia, no EEG transient was related to EMG activity onset. Conclusions: Despite clinical similarity between spasms in the same patient, our data demonstrate the complexity and heterogeneity of these motor phenomena. Our findings cannot be explained simply in terms of cortical or reticular generators like other motor phenomena such as cortical myoclonus or startle reflex. [source]

    Effects of urethane anaesthesia on sensory processing in the rat barrel cortex revealed by combined optical imaging and electrophysiology

    Ian M. Devonshire
    Abstract The spatiotemporal dynamics of neuronal assemblies evoked by sensory stimuli have not yet been fully characterised, especially the extent to which they are modulated by prevailing brain states. In order to examine this issue, we induced different levels of anaesthesia, distinguished by specific electroencephalographic indices, and compared somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) with voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) responses in the rat barrel cortex evoked by whisker deflection. At deeper levels of anaesthesia, all responses were reduced in amplitude but, surprisingly, only VSDI responses exhibited prolonged activation resulting in a delayed return to baseline. Further analysis of the optical signal demonstrated that the reduction in response amplitude was constant across the area of activation, resulting in a global down-scaling of the population response. The manner in which the optical signal relates to the various neuronal generators that produce the SEP signal is also discussed. These data provide information regarding the impact of anaesthetic agents on the brain, and show the value of combining spatial analyses from neuroimaging approaches with more traditional electrophysiological techniques. [source]

    Xenopus embryonic spinal neurons recorded in situ with patch-clamp electrodes , conditional oscillators after all?

    Simon P. Aiken
    Abstract The central pattern generator for swimming Xenopus embryo is organized as two half-centres linked by reciprocal inhibition. Microelectrode recordings suggest that Xenopus neurons are poorly excitable, necessitating a key role for postinhibitory rebound in the operation of the central pattern generator. However the Xenopus central pattern generator seems unusual in that the component neurons apparently have no intrinsic or conditional rhythmogenic properties. We have re-examined the firing properties of Xenopus embryo spinal neurons by making patch-clamp recordings in situ from intact spinal cord. Recordings made from 99 neurons were divided into three groups. Central pattern generator neurons overwhelmingly (44/51) fired trains of action potentials in response to current injection. Just over half of the sensory interneurons (13/22) also fired trains of action potentials. Neurons that received no synaptic inputs during swimming mostly fired just one or two action potentials (22/26). Thirty-four neurons were identified morphologically. Commissural (8/12) and descending (6/6) interneurons, key components of the spinal central pattern generator, fired repetitive trains of action potentials during current injection. Neurons that were not part of the central pattern generator did not demonstrate this preponderance for repetitive firing. Analysis of the interspike intervals during current injection revealed that the majority of central pattern generators, descending and commissural interneurons, could readily fire at frequencies up to twice that of swimming. We suggest that Xenopus neurons can be considered as conditional oscillators: in the presence of unpatterned excitation they exhibit an ability to fire rhythmically. This property makes the Xenopus embryonic central pattern generator more similar to other model central pattern generators than has hitherto been appreciated. [source]

    The generation of rhythmic activity in dissociated cultures of rat spinal cord

    Jürg Streit
    Abstract Locomotion in vertebrates is controlled by central pattern generators in the spinal cord. The roles of specific network architecture and neuronal properties in rhythm generation by such spinal networks are not fully understood. We have used multisite recording from dissociated cultures of embryonic rat spinal cord grown on multielectrode arrays to investigate the patterns of spontaneous activity in randomised spinal networks. We were able to induce similar patterns of rhythmic activity in dissociated cultures as in slice cultures, although not with the same reliability and not always with the same protocols. The most reliable rhythmic activity was induced when a partial disinhibition of the network was combined with an increase in neuronal excitability, suggesting that both recurrent synaptic excitation and neuronal excitability contribute to rhythmogenesis. During rhythmic activity, bursts started at several sites and propagated in variable ways. However, the predominant propagation patterns were independent of the protocol used to induce rhythmic activity. When synaptic transmission was blocked by CNQX, APV, strychnine and bicuculline, asynchronous low-rate activity persisted at ,,50% of the electrodes and ,,70% of the sites of burst initiation. Following the bursts, the activity in the interval was transiently suppressed below the level of intrinsic activity. The degree of suppression was proportional to the amount of activity in the preceding burst. From these findings we conclude that rhythmic activity in spinal cultures is controlled by the interplay of intrinsic neuronal activity and recurrent excitation in neuronal networks without the need for a specific architecture. [source]

    Dislocations as Active Components in Novel Silicon Devices,

    Martin Kittler
    Abstract The electrical and optical properties of dislocations in Si are reviewed, namely dislocation-related recombination and luminescence, transport of minority and majority carriers along dislocations or the electric field around dislocations. It is shown that Si wafer direct bonding allows well-controlled formation of dislocation networks, giving rise to adjustable dislocation properties. Ideas for novel Si devices utilizing dislocations as active components are presented. In particular, dislocation-based light emitters at about 1.5,µm wavelength are demonstrated. Concepts for dislocation-based conductive channels and fast FETs, manipulators of biomolecules or thermo-electric generators are sketched. [source]

    Optimal methodology for distribution systems reconfiguration based on OPF and solved by decomposition technique

    H. M. Khodr
    Abstract This paper presents a new and efficient methodology for distribution network reconfiguration integrated with optimal power flow (OPF) based on a Benders decomposition approach. The objective minimizes power losses, balancing load among feeders and subject to constraints: capacity limit of branches, minimum and maximum power limits of substations or distributed generators, minimum deviation of bus voltages and radial optimal operation of networks. The Generalized Benders decomposition algorithm is applied to solve the problem. The formulation can be embedded under two stages; the first one is the Master problem and is formulated as a mixed integer non-linear programming problem. This stage determines the radial topology of the distribution network. The second stage is the Slave problem and is formulated as a non-linear programming problem. This stage is used to determine the feasibility of the Master problem solution by means of an OPF and provides information to formulate the linear Benders cuts that connect both problems. The model is programmed in GAMS. The effectiveness of the proposal is demonstrated through two examples extracted from the literature. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]