Gene Flow (gene + flow)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Gene Flow

  • contemporary gene flow
  • extensive gene flow
  • high gene flow
  • interspecific gene flow
  • limited gene flow
  • low gene flow
  • male gene flow
  • male-mediated gene flow
  • ongoing gene flow
  • restricted gene flow

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2010
    Yong Feng Zhou
    Species delimitation detected by molecular markers is complicated by introgression and incomplete lineage sorting between species. Recent modeling suggests that fixed genetic differences between species are highly related to rates of intraspecific gene flow. However, it remains unclear whether such differences are due to high levels of intraspecific gene flow overriding the spread of introgressed alleles or favoring rapid lineage sorting between species. In pines, chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNAs are normally paternally and maternally inherited, respectively, and thus their relative rates of intraspecific gene flow are expected to be high and low, respectively. In this study, we used two pine species with overlapping geographical distributions in southeast China, P. massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, as a model system to examine the association between organelle gene flow and variation within and between species. We found that cpDNA variation across these two pine species is more species specific than mtDNA variation and almost delimits taxonomic boundaries. The shared mt/cp DNA genetic variation between species shows no bias in regard to parapatric versus allopatric species' distributions. Our results therefore support the hypothesis that high intraspecific gene flow has accelerated cpDNA lineage sorting between these two pine species. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2010
    V. Vaughan Symonds
    Polyploidy is a major feature of angiosperm evolution and diversification. Most polyploid species have formed multiple times, yet we know little about the genetic consequences of recurrent formations. Among the clearest examples of recurrent polyploidy are Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus (Asteraceae), each of which has formed repeatedly in the last ,80 years from known diploid progenitors in western North America. Here, we apply progenitor-specific microsatellite markers to examine the genetic contributions to each tetraploid species and to assess gene flow among populations of independent formation. These data provide fine-scale resolution of independent origins for both polyploid species. Importantly, multiple origins have resulted in considerable genetic variation within both polyploid species; however, the patterns of variation detected in the polyploids contrast with those observed in extant populations of the diploid progenitors. The genotypes detected in the two polyploid species appear to represent a snapshot of historical population structure in the diploid progenitors, rather than modern diploid genotypes. Our data also indicate a lack of gene flow among polyploid plants of independent origin, even when they co-occur, suggesting potential reproductive barriers among separate lineages in both polyploid species. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2009
    Nolan C. Kane
    While speciation can be found in the presence of gene flow, it is not clear what impact this gene flow has on genome- and range-wide patterns of differentiation. Here we examine gene flow across the entire range of the common sunflower, H. annuus, its historically allopatric sister species H. argophyllus and a more distantly related, sympatric relative H. petiolaris. Analysis of genotypes at 26 microsatellite loci in 1015 individuals from across the range of the three species showed substantial introgression between geographically proximal populations of H. annuus and H. petiolaris, limited introgression between H. annuus and H. argophyllus, and essentially no gene flow between the allopatric pair, H. argophyllus and H. petiolaris. Analysis of sequence divergence levels among the three species in 1420 orthologs identified from EST databases identified a subset of loci showing extremely low divergence between H. annuus and H. petiolaris and extremely high divergence between the sister species H. annuus and H. argophyllus, consistent with introgression between H. annuus and H. petiolaris at these loci. Thus, at many loci, the allopatric sister species are more genetically divergent than the more distantly related sympatric species, which have exchanged genes across much of the genome while remaining morphologically and ecologically distinct. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2000
    Patrick D. Danley
    Abstract Within the past two million years, more than 450 species of haplochromine cichlids have diverged from a single common ancestor in Lake Malawi. Several factors have been implicated in the diversification of this monophyletic clade, including changes in lake level and low levels of gene flow across limited geographic scales. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of recent lake-level fluctuations on patterns of allelic diversity in the genus Metriaclima, to describe the patterns of population structure within this genus, and to identify barriers to migration. This was accomplished through an analysis of allele frequencies at four microsatellite loci. Twelve populations spanning four species within Metriaclima were surveyed. The effect of lake-level fluctuations can be seen in the reduced genetic diversity of the most recently colonized sites; however, genetic diversity is not depressed at the species level. Low levels of population structure exist among populations, yet some gene flow persists across long stretches of inhospitable habitat. No general barrier to migration was identified. The results of this study are interpreted with respect to several speciation models. Divergence via population bottlenecks is unlikely due to the large allelic diversity observed within each species. Genetic drift and microallopatric divergence are also rejected because some gene flow does occur between adjacent populations. However, the reduced levels of gene flow between populations does suggest that minor changes in the selective environment could cause the divergence of populations. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2000
    Michael A. D. Goodisman
    Abstract., Recent studies of the introduced fire ant Solenopsis invicta suggest that introduced polygyne (with multiple queens per nest) populations are strongly influenced by male-mediated gene flow from neighboring monogyne (single queen per nest) populations and selection acting on a single locus, general protein-9 (Gp-9). This investigation formally tests this hypothesis and determines if these processes can account for the genotypic structure of polygyne S. invicta. To increase the statistical power of this test, we considered the genotypes of polygyne queens and workers at both Gp-9 and the closely linked, selectively neutral locus Pgm-3. We then constructed and analyzed a novel mathematical model to delimit the effects of monogyne male gene flow and selection on the joint genotypes at the Pgm-3/Gp-9 superlocus. Using this framework, a hierarchical maximum-likelihood method was developed to estimate the best-fitting gene flow and selection parameters based on the fit of our model to data from both the current study and an earlier one of the same population. In each case, selection on polygyne queens and workers alone, with no monogyne male gene flow, provides the most parsimonious explanation for the observed genotype frequencies. The apparent discrepancy between this result and the empirical evidence for monogyne male gene flow indicates that undocumented factors, such as other forms of selection in polygyne males or workers, are operating in introduced polygyne S. invicta. [source]

    Joining the Pillars of Hercules: mtDNA Sequences Show Multidirectional Gene Flow in the Western Mediterranean

    S. Plaza
    Summary Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) performed in Western Mediterranean populations has shown that both shores share a common set of mtDNA haplogroups already found in Europe and the Middle East. Principal co-ordinates of genetic distances and principal components analyses based on the haplotype frequencies show that the main genetic difference is attributed to the higher frequency of sub-Saharan L haplogroups in NW Africa, showing some gene flow across the Sahara desert, with a major impact in the southern populations of NW Africa. The AMOVA demonstrates that SW European populations are highly homogeneous whereas NW African populations display a more heterogeneous genetic pattern, due to an east-west differentiation as a result of gene flow coming from the East. Despite the shared haplogroups found in both areas, the European V and the NW African U6 haplogroups reveal the traces of the Mediterranean Sea permeability to female migrations, and allowed for determination and quantification of the genetic contribution of both shores to the genetic landscape of the geographic area. Comparison of mtDNA data with autosomal markers and Y-chromosome lineages, analysed in the same populations, shows a congruent pattern, although female-mediated gene flow seems to have been more intense than male-mediated gene flow. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2007
    S. Bergek
    Gene flow between coexisting or nearby populations normally prevents genetic divergence and local adaptation. Despite this, there are an increasing number of reports of sympatric sister taxa, indicating potential divergence and speciation in the face of gene flow. A large number of such reported cases involve lake-dwelling fish, which are expected to run into few physical barriers to dispersal within their aquatic habitat. However, such cases may not necessarily reflect sympatric speciation if cryptic dispersal barriers are common in lakes and other aquatic systems. In this study, we examined genetic differentiation in perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) from nine locations in a single, small lake (24 km2), using microsatellites. We detected significant genetic differentiation in all but two pairwise comparisons. These patterns were not consistent with divergence by distance or the existence of kin groups. Instead, they suggest that cryptic barriers to dispersal exist within the lake, allowing small-scale genetic divergence. Such an observation suggests that allopatric (or parapatric) divergence may be possible, even in small, apparently homogenous environments such as lakes. This has important consequences for how we currently view evidence from nature for sympatric speciation. [source]

    Adaptation, migration or extirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations

    Sally N. Aitken
    Abstract Species distribution models predict a wholesale redistribution of trees in the next century, yet migratory responses necessary to spatially track climates far exceed maximum post-glacial rates. The extent to which populations will adapt will depend upon phenotypic variation, strength of selection, fecundity, interspecific competition, and biotic interactions. Populations of temperate and boreal trees show moderate to strong clines in phenology and growth along temperature gradients, indicating substantial local adaptation. Traits involved in local adaptation appear to be the product of small effects of many genes, and the resulting genotypic redundancy combined with high fecundity may facilitate rapid local adaptation despite high gene flow. Gene flow with preadapted alleles from warmer climates may promote adaptation and migration at the leading edge, while populations at the rear will likely face extirpation. Widespread species with large populations and high fecundity are likely to persist and adapt, but will likely suffer adaptational lag for a few generations. As all tree species will be suffering lags, interspecific competition may weaken, facilitating persistence under suboptimal conditions. Species with small populations, fragmented ranges, low fecundity, or suffering declines due to introduced insects or diseases should be candidates for facilitated migration. [source]

    Genetic evidence for `leaky' cohorts in the semivoltine stonefly Peltoperla tarteri (Plecoptera: Peltoperlidae)

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
    1.,Genetic techniques are being used increasingly to address questions about dispersal and gene flow of freshwater invertebrates. However, population genetic structure can be affected by factors other than dispersal. Many stream insects have long life cycles that result in the simultaneous existence of multiple cohorts throughout the larval development period. If larval development is fixed, successive cohorts may be reproductively isolated and, as a result, genetically distinct. In such cases, significant levels of genetic differentiation between cohorts could confound estimates of dispersal based on population genetic structure. 2.,Peltoperla tarteri is a stonefly that can be abundant in Appalachian headwater streams. Although P. tarteri is univoltine at the type locality (Big Paint Hollow, WV, U.S.A.), the study populations in southwestern Virginia, U.S.A., were semivoltine. This semivoltine life cycle results in the simultaneous existence of multiple cohorts with the potential for significant genetic differentiation among them. 3.,Levels of genetic differentiation among P. tarteri cohorts were analysed with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data from the non-coding origin of replication or `control' region from 93 individuals from two successive cohorts (collected in 1998 and 1999). 4.,Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated no genetic differentiation among cohorts (FST=0.0), and gene flow among cohorts was very high (Nm=,). 5.,High levels of gene flow among cohorts suggest that larval development of P. tarteri is not fixed. Gene flow among cohorts most likely occurs as a result of a cohort split in which some individuals complete development in one or three years instead of two. [source]

    Genetic structure of two populations of the Namibian giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis

    Rick A. Brenneman
    Abstract Two geographically distinct populations of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) were sampled for this study, the northern Namib Desert and Etosha National Park. Population genetic parameters and relationships within subpopulations were estimated to better understand the genetic architecture of this isolated subspecies. Gene flow between the geographically separated populations can be attributed to recent translocation of giraffe between the two populations. Inbreeding estimates in the six subpopulations studied were low though we found evidence that genetic drift may be affecting the genetic diversity of the isolated populations in northern Namibia. Population dynamics of the sampling locations was inferred with relationship coefficient analyses. Recent molecular systematics of the Namibian giraffe populations indicates that they are distinct from the subspecies Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa and classified as G. c. angolensis. Based on genetic analyses, these giraffe populations of northern Namibia, the desert-dwelling giraffe and those protected in Etosha National Park, are a distinct subspecies from that previously assumed; thus we add data on G. c. angolensis to our scientific knowledge of this giraffe of southern Africa. Résumé Deux populations de girafes (Giraffa camelopardalis) distinctes sur le plan géographique ont servi d'échantillons pour cette étude, celle du nord du Désert du Namib et celle du Parc National d'Etosha. Nous avons estimé les paramètres génétiques des populations et les relations au sein des sous-populations pour mieux comprendre l'architecture génétique de cette sous-espèce isolée. Les flux génétiques entre les populations séparées géographiquement peuvent être attribués à la récente translocation de girafes entre ces deux populations. L'inbreeding estimé dans les six sous-populations étudiées était faible, encore que nous ayons découvert des preuves que la dérive génétique pourrait bien affecter la diversité génétique des populations isolées dans le nord de la Namibie. La dynamique des populations des endroits où furent faits les échantillonnages fut déduite en fonction de l'analyse des coefficients. La nouvelle systématique moléculaire des populations de girafes de Namibie indique qu'elles sont distinctes de la sous-espèce Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa et classées comme G.c. angolensis. Selon les analyses génétiques, ces populations de girafes du nord de la Namibie, les girafes qui vivent dans le désert et celles qui sont protégées dans le Parc National d'Etosha sont une sous-espèce distincte de celle que l'on croyait auparavant, et nous ajoutons ainsi des données sur G.c. angolensisà la connaissance scientifique de cette girafe d'Afrique australe. [source]

    High gene flow promotes the genetic homogeneity of the fish goby Pomatoschistus marmoratus (Risso, 1810) from Mar Menor coastal lagoon and adjacent marine waters (Spain)

    MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Carlos Vergara-Chen
    Abstract The extreme environmental variability of coastal lagoons suggests that physical and ecological factors could contribute to the genetic divergence among populations occurring in lagoon and open-coast environments. In this study we analysed the genetic variability of lagoon and marine samples of the sand goby, Pomatoschistus marmoratus (Risso, 1810) (Pisces: Gobiidae), on the SW Spain coast. A fragment of mitochondrial DNA control region (570 bp) was sequenced for 196 individuals collected in five localities: Lo Pagan, Los Urrutias and Playa Honda (Mar Menor coastal lagoon), and Veneziola and Mazarrón (Mediterranean Sea). The total haplotype diversity was h = 0.9424 ± 0.0229, and the total nucleotide diversity was , = 0.0108 ± 0.0058. Among-sample genetic differentiation was not significant and small-scale patterns in the distribution of haplotypes were not apparent. Gene flow and dispersal-related life history traits may account for low genetic structure at a small spatial scale. The high genetic diversity found in P. marmoratus increases its potential to adapt to changing conditions of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon. [source]

    Divergence with gene flow between Ponto-Caspian refugia in an anadromous cyprinid Rutilus frisii revealed by multiple gene phylogeography

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Abstract The Black and Caspian Seas have experienced alternating periods of isolation and interconnection over many Milankovitch climate oscillations and most recently became separated when the meltwater overflow from the Caspian Sea ceased at the end of the last glaciation. Climate-induced habitat changes have indisputably had profound impacts on distribution and demography of aquatic species, yet uncertainties remain about the relative roles of isolation and dispersal in the response of species shared between the Black and Caspian Sea basins. We examined these issues using phylogeographical analysis of an anadromous cyprinid fish Rutilus frisii. Bayesian coalescence analyses of sequence variation at two nuclear and one mitochondrial genes suggest that the Black and Caspian Seas supported separate populations of R. frisii during the last glaciation. Parameter estimates from the fitted isolation-with-migration model showed that their separation was not complete, however, and that the two populations continued to exchange genes in both directions. These analyses also suggested that majority of migrations occurred during the Pleistocene, showing that the variation shared between the Black and Caspian Seas is the result of ancient dispersal along the temporary natural connections between the basins, rather than of incomplete lineage sorting or recent human-mediated dispersal. Gene flow between the refugial populations was therefore an important source of genetic variation, and we suggest that it facilitated the evolutionary response of the populations to changing climate. [source]

    Genetic structure and gene flow in French populations of two Ostrinia taxa: host races or sibling species?

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 20 2007
    Abstract Most models of ecological speciation concern phytophagous insects in which speciation is thought to be driven by host shifts and subsequent adaptations of populations. Despite the ever-increasing number of studies, the current evolutionary status of most models remains incompletely resolved, as estimates of gene flow between taxa remain extremely rare. We studied the population genetics of two taxa of the Ostrinia genus , one feeding mainly on maize and the other on mugwort and hop , occurring in sympatry throughout France. The actual level of divergence of these taxa was unknown because the genetic structure of populations had been investigated over a limited geographical area and the magnitude of gene flow between populations had not been estimated. We used 11 microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic structure of populations throughout France and the extent of gene flow between the two Ostrinia taxa at several sites at which they are sympatric. We observed clear genetic differentiation between most populations collected on the typical respective hosts of each taxon. However, populations displaying intermediate allelic frequencies were found on hop plants in southern France. Individual assignments revealed that this result could be accounted for by the presence of both taxa on the same host. Gene flow, estimated by determining the proportion of hybrids detected, was low: probably < 1% per generation, regardless of site. This indicates that the two Ostrinia taxa have reached a high level of genetic divergence and should be considered sibling species rather than host races. [source]

    Phylogeography and environmental correlates of a cap on reproduction: teat number in a small marsupial, Antechinus agilis

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    Abstract Natural selection should optimize litter size in response to the distribution and abundance of resources during breeding. In semelparous, litter-bearing antechinuses, teat number limits litter size. Consequently adaptation has been inferred in explaining intraspecific, geographic variability in teat number for several Antechinus spp. The phylogeography of teat number variation and associated genetic divergence were assessed in A. agilis using nine microsatellites and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data. Six-teat Otway Range animals were divergent in microsatellite allele identity and frequencies: samples from three Otway six-teat sites demonstrated significantly greater similarity genetically to those from six-teat animals ,250 km to the west, than to nearby Otway 10-teat samples, or to the six-teat animals at Wilsons Promontory. Gene flow between Otway phenotypes appears to have been limited for sufficient time to enable different microsatellite alleles to evolve. Nonetheless, nuclear genetic evidence suggested only incomplete reproductive isolation, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes showed no association with teat number. Other populations across the range were no more genetically differentiated from one another than expected from geographic separation. Principal components and distance-based redundancy analyses found an association between environmental variables and geographic distribution of A. agilis teat number , six-teat animals inhabit more temperate forests, whilst those with more teats experience greater seasonality. The apparent restricted breeding between phenotypically distinct animals, together with phylogenetically separate groups of six-teat animals in different locations with similar environments, are consistent with the hypothesis that adaptation to different habitats drives teat number variation in A. agilis. [source]

    Low level of gene flow from cultivated beets (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) into Danish populations of sea beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. maritima (L.) Arcangeli)

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
    Abstract Gene flow from sugar beets to sea beets occurs in the seed propagation areas in southern Europe. Some seed propagation also takes place in Denmark, but here the crop,wild gene flow has not been investigated. Hence, we studied gene flow to sea beet populations from sugar beet lines used in Danish seed propagation areas. A set of 12 Danish, two Swedish, one French, one Italian, one Dutch, and one Irish populations of sea beets, and four lines of sugar beet were analysed. To evaluate the genetic variation and gene flow, eight microsatellite loci were screened. This analysis revealed hybridization with cultivated beet in one of the sea beet populations from the centre of the Danish seed propagation area. Triploid hybrids found in this population were verified with flow cytometry. Possible hybrids or introgressed plants were also found in the French and Italian populations. However, individual assignment test using a Bayesian method provided 100% assignment success of diploid individuals into their correct subspecies of origin, and a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MC MC) approach revealed clear distinction of individuals into groups according to their subspecies of origin, with a zero level of genetic admixture among subspecies. This underlines that introgression beyond the first hybridization is not extensive. The overall pattern of genetic distance and structure showed that Danish and Swedish sea beet populations were closely related to each other, and they are both more closely related to the population from Ireland than to the populations from France, the Netherlands, and Italy. [source]

    Microsatellite variation within and among North American lineages of Phragmites australis

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 7 2003
    K. Saltonstall
    Abstract Over the past century, the spread of the common reed (Phragmites australis) has had a dramatic impact on wetland communities across North America. Although native populations of Phragmites persist, introduced invasive populations have dominated many sites and it is not clear if the two types can interbreed. This study compares patterns of differentiation in 10 microsatellite loci among North American and European Phragmites individuals with results obtained from sequencing of noncoding chloroplast DNA. Three population lineages (native, introduced and Gulf Coast) were previously identified in North America from chloroplast DNA and similar structuring was found in the nuclear genome. Each lineage was distinguished by unique alleles and allele combinations and the introduced lineage was closely related to its hypothesized source population in Europe. Size homoplasy and diagnostic base substitutions distinguishing lineages were evident at several loci, further emphasizing that native, introduced and Gulf Coast North American Phragmites lineages are genetically distinct. Gene flow between lineages was low and invasive introduced populations do not represent a hybrid population type. [source]

    Population genetic structure of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis across Nigeria suggests range expansion

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 11 2001
    D. Y. Onyabe
    Abstract Ten microsatellite loci, four located within and six outside chromosome inversions, were employed to study the genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis across the ecological zones of Nigeria (arid savannah in the north gradually turns into humid forest in the south). Regardless of location within or outside inversions, genetic variability at all loci was characterized by a reduction in both the number of alleles per locus and heterozygosity from savannah to forest. Across all loci, all but one allele in the forest also occurred in the savannah, whereas at least 78 alleles in the savannah were missing in the forest. Genetic differentiation increased with geographical distance; consequently, genetic distances between zones exceeded those within zones. The largest genetic distances were between localities at the extremes of the transect (range FST = 0.196,0.258 and RST = 0.183,0.468) and were as large as those between A. arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae s.s. Gene flow across the country was very low, so that Nm between the extremes of the transect was < 1. These data suggest that A. arabiensis has extended its range from the savannah into the forest during which it experienced a reduction in effective population size due to sequential founder effects. Gene flow post range expansion appears too restricted by geographical distance to homogenize the gene pool of A. arabiensis across Nigeria. [source]

    Genetic variation and population structure in the endangered greater horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 8 2000
    Stephen J. Rossiter
    Abstract Following a dramatic decline last century, the British population of the endangered greater horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum is highly fragmented. To examine the consequences of fragmentation and limited dispersal on patterns of genetic structure and variation, we used microsatellite markers to screen bats from around 50% of the known maternity colonies in Britain, and two areas from continental Europe. Analyses revealed that Welsh and English colonies were genetically isolated. This, and lower variability in Britain than north France, may result from either genetic drift, or the species' colonization history. Gene flow among most neighbouring colonies was not generally restricted, with one exception. These findings have important implications for the ongoing conservation management of this species. [source]

    Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the assessment of gene flow and genetic diversity in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)

    M. J. Burns
    Abstract Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an important subsistence crop in India where traditional landraces and improved hybrids are grown alongside each other. Gene flow may result in genetic erosion of these landraces and their wild relatives, whilst transgene escape from future genetically engineered varieties is another potential hazard. To assess the impact of these factors gene flow needs to be measured. A set of 10 simple sequence repeat markers have been developed, which exhibit polymorphism across a range of pigeonpea varieties. Use of these markers also offers an efficient system for the assessment of genetic diversity within populations of pigeonpea. [source]

    Metric and nonmetric dental variation and the population structure of the Ainu

    Tsunehiko Hanihara
    Gene flow and genetic drift are important factors affecting geographic variations in human phenotypic traits. In the present study, the effects of gene flow from an outside source on the pattern of within- and among-group variation of the Ainu from Sakhalin Island and three local groups of Hokkaido are examined by applying an R-matrix approach to metric and nonmetric dental data. The comparative samples consist of their ancestral and neighboring populations, such as the Neolithic Jomon, the subsequent Epi-Jomon/Satsumon, the Okhotsk culture people who migrated from Northeast Asia to the northeastern part of Hokkaido during a period 1600,900 years B.P., and modern non-Ainu Japanese. The results obtained by using the census population sizes of the regional groups of the Ainu as an estimate of relative effective population size suggest the possibility of an admixture between the Okhotsk culture people and the indigenous inhabitants in Hokkaido, at least in the coastal region along the Sea of Okhotsk. Such gene flow from Northeast Asian continent may have exerted an effect on the genetic structure of the contemporary Ainu. The present findings indicate that the population structure, as represented by genetic drift and gene flow, tend to be obscured in the results obtained by standard statistical methods such as Mahalanobis' generalized distance and Smith's MMDs. The present extension of the R-matrix approach to metric and nonmetric dental data provide results that can be interpreted in terms of a genetically, archaeologically, and prehistorically suggested pattern of gene flow and isolation. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Haplotype Trees and Modern Human Origins

    Alan R. Templeton
    Abstract A haplotype is a multisite haploid genotype at two or more polymorphic sites on the same chromosome in a defined DNA region. An evolutionary tree of the haplotypes can be estimated if the DNA region had little to no recombination. Haplotype trees can be used to reconstruct past human gene-flow patterns and historical events, but any single tree captures only a small portion of evolutionary history, and is subject to error. A fuller view of human evolution requires multiple DNA regions, and errors can be minimized by cross-validating inferences across loci. An analysis of 25 DNA regions reveals an out-of-Africa expansion event at 1.9 million years ago. Gene flow with isolation by distance was established between African and Eurasian populations by about 1.5 million years ago, with no detectable interruptions since. A second out-of-Africa expansion occurred about 700,000 years ago, and involved interbreeding with at least some Eurasian populations. A third out-of-Africa event occurred around 100,000 years ago, and was also characterized by interbreeding, with the hypothesis of a total Eurasian replacement strongly rejected (P < 10,17). This does not preclude the possibility that some Eurasian populations could have been replaced, and the status of Neanderthals is indecisive. Demographic inferences from haplotype trees have been inconsistent, so few definitive conclusions can be made at this time. Haplotype trees from human parasites offer additional insights into human evolution and raise the possibility of an Asian isolate of humanity, but once again not in a definitive fashion. Haplotype trees can also indicate which genes were subject to positive selection in the lineage leading to modern humans. Genetics provides many insights into human evolution, but those insights need to be integrated with fossil and archaeological data to yield a fuller picture of the origin of modern humans. Yrbk Phys Anthropol 48:33,59, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Genetic status of an endemic marine mammal, the Australian fur seal, following historical harvesting

    M. L. Lancaster
    Abstract Genetic variation, and the way in which it is partitioned among populations, has implications for a species' survival and evolutionary potential. Such information is particularly important for the successful conservation and management of species that have experienced past human impacts and potential losses of genetic diversity. Overharvesting of the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus in the 18th and 19th centuries resulted in severe population reductions and elimination of an estimated 17 of 26 colonies. Currently, the subspecies is recovering and c. 20 000 pups are produced annually at 13 colony sites, most of which are situated in Bass Strait in south-eastern Australia. Genetic analysis of samples collected from pups captured at nine colonies revealed no difference in allelic diversity or heterozygosity at five microsatellite loci and no differences in haplotype diversity within a 344 bp region of the mitochondrial DNA control region. There was some evidence for isolation by distance but the program structure predicted a single cluster of individuals. Gene flow among colonies appears to be substantial at present, indicating that the Australian fur seal is currently a single, panmictic unit. [source]

    Gene flow and melanism in garter snakes revisited: a comparison of molecular markers and island vs. coalescent models

    Within populations, the stochastic effect of genetic drift and deterministic effect of natural selection are potentially weakened or altered by gene flow among populations. The influence of gene flow on Lake Erie populations of the common garter snake has been of particular interest because of a discontinuous colour pattern polymorphism (striped vs. melanistic) that is a target of natural selection. We reassessed the relative contributions of gene flow and genetic drift using genetic data and population size estimates. We compared all combinations of two marker systems and two analytical approaches to the estimation of gene flow rates: allozymes (data previously published), microsatellite DNA (new data), the island model (FST -based approach), and a coalescence-based approach. For the coalescence approach, mutation rates and sampling effects were also investigated. While the two markers produced similar results, gene flow based on FST was considerably higher (Nm > 4) than that from the coalescence-based method (Nm < 1). Estimates of gene flow are likely to be inflated by lack of migration-drift equilibrium and changing population size. Potentially low rates of gene flow (Nm < 1), small population size at some sites, and positive correlations of number of microsatellite DNA alleles and island size and between M, mean ratio of number of alleles to range in allele size, and island size suggest that in addition to selection, random genetic drift may influence colour pattern frequencies. © 2003 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2003, 79, 389,399. [source]

    Population structure, gene flow and evolutionary relationships in four species of the genera Tomocerus and Pogonognathellus (Collembola, Tomoceridae)

    Genetic diversity and gene flow at 10 allozyme loci were investigated in 13 natural populations of four species of the collembolan genera Tomocerus and Pogonognathellus. Levels of observed heterozygosity were found to vary from 0.033 in P. longicornis to 0.120 in T. vulgaris. Average Nei's genetic distances (D) ranged from D = 0.222 between populations of P. ftavescens to D = 0.647 between populations of T. vulgaris. Genetic distances between species were always 1.000 and the highest value (D = 4.321) was between P. longicomis and one population of T. vulgaris. Values of Fsr were very high in all species (from 0.567 to 0.696) and levels of gene flow (Nm) derived from FST and the private allele method were low (Nm <1). Gene flow was significandy higher only in two subsets of populations of T. vulgaris. The Plio-Pleistocenic geological rearrangements and the effect of stochastic events, such as genetic drift, are invoked to explain the different levels of genetic divergence between and within species. Distance- and character-based approaches were used to reconstruct evolutionary relationships between and within species. While the monophyly of all species was confirmed, the results did not univocally support the monophyly of the two genera, leaving the question of their generic or subgeneric status unresolved. [source]

    Forks in the Road: Choices in Procedures for Designing Wildland Linkages

    análisis de sensibilidad; conectividad; corredor de vida silvestre; enlace; diseño de reservas Abstract:,Models are commonly used to identify lands that will best maintain the ability of wildlife to move between wildland blocks through matrix lands after the remaining matrix has become incompatible with wildlife movement. We offer a roadmap of 16 choices and assumptions that arise in designing linkages to facilitate movement or gene flow of focal species between 2 or more predefined wildland blocks. We recommend designing linkages to serve multiple (rather than one) focal species likely to serve as a collective umbrella for all native species and ecological processes, explicitly acknowledging untested assumptions, and using uncertainty analysis to illustrate potential effects of model uncertainty. Such uncertainty is best displayed to stakeholders as maps of modeled linkages under different assumptions. We also recommend modeling corridor dwellers (species that require more than one generation to move their genes between wildland blocks) differently from passage species (for which an individual can move between wildland blocks within a few weeks). We identify a problem, which we call the subjective translation problem, that arises because the analyst must subjectively decide how to translate measurements of resource selection into resistance. This problem can be overcome by estimating resistance from observations of animal movement, genetic distances, or interpatch movements. There is room for substantial improvement in the procedures used to design linkages robust to climate change and in tools that allow stakeholders to compare an optimal linkage design to alternative designs that minimize costs or achieve other conservation goals. Resumen:,Los modelos son utilizados comúnmente para identificar tierras que mantengan la habilidad de la vida silvestre para moverse entre bloques de tierras silvestres a través de una matriz de tierras que habían sido incompatibles con el movimiento de vida silvestre. Ofrecemos 16 opciones y supuestos que se originan en el diseño de enlaces para facilitar el movimiento o el flujo de genes de especies focales entre 2 o más bloques de tierras silvestres predefinidos. Recomendamos el diseño de enlaces que sirvan a múltiples (y solo a una) especies focales que funjan como una sombrilla colectiva para todas las especies nativas y los procesos ecológicos, que explícitamente admitan supuestos no comprobados y que utilicen análisis de incertidumbre para ilustrar efectos potenciales de la incertidumbre del modelo. La mejor forma de mostrar tal incertidumbre a los interesados es mediante mapas de los enlaces modelados bajo diferentes suposiciones. También recomendamos modelar a habitantes de corredores (especies que requieren más de una generación para mover sus genes entre bloques de tierra silvestre) de manera diferente que las especies pasajeras (un individuo se puede mover entre bloques de tierras silvestres en unas cuantas semanas). Identificamos un problema, que denominamos el problema de traducción subjetiva, que surge porque un analista debe decidir subjetivamente cómo traducir medidas de selección de recursos a resistencia. Este problema puede ser sobrepuesto mediante la estimación de la resistencia a partir de observaciones de movimientos de animales, distancias genéticas o movimientos entre fragmentos. Hay espacio para la mejora sustancial de los procedimientos utilizados para diseñar enlaces robustos ante el cambio climático y en herramientas que permiten que los interesados comparen un diseño óptimo con diseños alternativos que minimicen costos o alcancen otras metas de conservación. [source]

    Susceptibility of Common and Rare Plant Species to the Genetic Consequences of Habitat Fragmentation

    diversidad genética; endogamia; fragmentación de hábitat; sistema reproductivo; tamaño poblacional Abstract:,Small plant populations are more prone to extinction due to the loss of genetic variation through random genetic drift, increased selfing, and mating among related individuals. To date, most researchers dealing with genetic erosion in fragmented plant populations have focused on threatened or rare species. We raise the question whether common plant species are as susceptible to habitat fragmentation as rare species. We conducted a formal meta-analysis of habitat fragmentation studies that reported both population size and population genetic diversity. We estimated the overall weighted mean and variance of the correlation coefficients among four different measures of genetic diversity and plant population size. We then tested whether rarity, mating system, and plant longevity are potential moderators of the relationship between population size and genetic diversity. Mean gene diversity, percent polymorphic loci, and allelic richness across studies were positively and highly significantly correlated with population size, whereas no significant relationship was found between population size and the inbreeding coefficient. Genetic diversity of self-compatible species was less affected by decreasing population size than that of obligate outcrossing and self-compatible but mainly outcrossing species. Longevity did not affect the population genetic response to fragmentation. Our most important finding, however, was that common species were as, or more, susceptible to the population genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation than rare species, even when historically or naturally rare species were excluded from the analysis. These results are dramatic in that many more plant species than previously assumed may be vulnerable to genetic erosion and loss of genetic diversity as a result of ongoing fragmentation processes. This implies that many fragmented habitats have become unable to support plant populations that are large enough to maintain a mutation-drift balance and that occupied habitat fragments have become too isolated to allow sufficient gene flow to enable replenishment of lost alleles. Resumen:,Las poblaciones pequeñas de plantas son más propensas a la extinción debido a la pérdida de variación genética por medio de la deriva génica aleatoria, el incremento de autogamia y la reproducción entre individuos emparentados. A la fecha, la mayoría de los investigadores que trabajan con erosión genética en poblaciones fragmentadas de plantas se han enfocado en las especies amenazadas o raras. Cuestionamos si las especies de plantas comunes son tan susceptibles a la fragmentación del hábitat como las especies raras. Realizamos un meta análisis formal de estudios de fragmentación que reportaron tanto tamaño poblacional como diversidad genética. Estimamos la media general ponderada y la varianza de los coeficientes de correlación entre cuatro medidas de diversidad genética y de tamaño poblacional de las plantas. Posteriormente probamos si la rareza, el sistema reproductivo y la longevidad de la planta son moderadores potenciales de la relación entre el tamaño poblacional y la diversidad genética. La diversidad genética promedio, el porcentaje de loci polimórficos y la riqueza alélica en los estudios tuvieron una correlación positiva y altamente significativa con el tamaño poblacional, mientras que no encontramos relación significativa entre el tamaño poblacional y el coeficiente de endogamia. La diversidad genética de especies auto compatibles fue menos afectada por la reducción en el tamaño poblacional que la de especies exogámicas obligadas y especies auto compatibles, pero principalmente exogámicas. La longevidad no afectó la respuesta genética de la población a la fragmentación. Sin embargo, nuestro hallazgo más importante fue que las especies comunes fueron tan, o más, susceptibles a las consecuencias genéticas de la fragmentación del hábitat que las especies raras, aun cuando las especies histórica o naturalmente raras fueron excluidas del análisis. Estos resultados son dramáticos porque muchas especies más pueden ser vulnerables a la erosión genética y a la pérdida de diversidad genética como consecuencia de los procesos de fragmentación que lo se asumía previamente. Esto implica que muchos hábitats fragmentados han perdido la capacidad para soportar poblaciones de plantas lo suficientemente grandes para mantener un equilibrio mutación-deriva y que los fragmentos de hábitat ocupados están tan aislados que el flujo génico es insuficiente para permitir la reposición de alelos perdidos. [source]

    Population Size, Genetic Variation, and Reproductive Success in a Rapidly Declining, Self-Incompatible Perennial (Arnica montana) in The Netherlands

    Sheila H. Luijten
    In 26 populations in The Netherlands we investigated the relationship between population size and genetic variation using allozyme markers. Genetic variation was low in A. montana ( He = 0.088). There were positive correlations between population size and the proportion of polymorphic loci, the number of effective alleles, and expected heterozygosity, but not with observed heterozygosity. There was a significantly positive correlation between population size and the inbreeding coefficient. Generally, small populations showed heterozygote excess, which decreased with increasing population size. Possibly, the heterozygous individuals in small populations are survivors from the formerly larger populations with relatively high fitness. The F statistics showed a moderately high level of differentiation among populations ( FST = 0.140 ± 0.02), implying a low level of gene flow. For three out of four allozyme loci, we found significant inbreeding ( FIS = 0.104 ± 0.03). Only 14 of 26 populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at all four polymorphic loci. In a subset of 14 populations of various size, we investigated natural seed production and offspring fitness. Population size was positively correlated with seed set, seedling size, number of flowering stems and flowerheads, adult survival, and total relative fitness, but not with the number of florets per flowerhead, germination rate, or the proportion of germination. Offspring performance in the greenhouse was not associated with genetic diversity measured on their mothers in the field. We conclude that the fitness of small populations is significantly reduced, but that there is as yet no evidence that this was caused by inbreeding. Possibly, the self-incompatibility system of A. montana has been effective in reducing selfing rates and inbreeding depression. Resumen:Arnica montana es una especie de planta rara, en declinación rápida y autoincompatible. En 26 poblaciones de los Países Bajos investigamos la relación entre el tamaño poblacional y la variación genética mediante el uso de alozimas marcadoras. La variación genética fue baja en A. montana ( He = 0.088). Existió una correlación positiva entre el tamaño poblacional y la proporción de emplazamientos polimórficos, el número de alelos efectivos y la heterocigocidad esperada, pero no con la heterocigocidad observada. Existió una correlación positiva significativa entre el tamaño poblacional y el coeficiente de endogamia. Generalmente, las poblaciones pequeñas mostraron una heterocigocidad excesiva con disminuciones en el tamaño poblacional. Posiblemente, los individuos heterocigóticos de poblaciones pequeñas son sobrevivientes de poblaciones anteriormente grandes con una adaptabilidad relativamente alta. Las pruebas de F mostraron un nivel de diferenciación moderadamente alto entre poblaciones ( FST = 0.140 ± 0.02) lo que implica un nivel bajo de flujo de genes. Para tres de cuatro de los emplazamientos de alozimas encontramos una endogamia significativa ( FIS = 0.104 ± 0.03). Solamente 14 de las 26 poblaciones estuvieron en equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg para los cuatro emplazamientos polimórficos. En un subconjunto de 14 poblaciones de varios tamaños, investigamos la producción natural de semillas y la adaptabilidad de la descendencia. El tamaño poblacional estuvo positivamente correlacionado con el juego de semillas, el tamaño del almácigo, el número de tallos en flor y de inflorescencias, la supervivencia de adultos y la adaptabilidad total relativa, pero no con el número de flores por inflorescencia, la tasa de germinación ni la proporción de la germinación. El rendimiento de la descendencia en invernaderos no estuvo asociado con la diversidad genética medida en sus madres en el campo. Concluimos que la adaptabilidad de poblaciones pequeñas está significativamente reducida, pero no existe aún evidencia de que esto sea ocasionado por endogamia. Es posible que el sistema de autoincompatibilidad de A. montana haya sido efectivo en la reducción de tasas de autofecundación y depresión de la endogamia. [source]

    Direction of movements in Hungarian Barn Owls (Tyto alba): gene flow and barriers

    Róbert Mátics
    Abstract. An analysis of dispersal directions of the barn owl showed that all individuals immigrating to Hungary came from W-NW-N. It was shown that immigrating owls breed in Hungary. There is no prevailing direction in emigration from Hungary. The time of fledging does not influence the direction of movement and there is no difference between sexes concerning dispersal direction. The percentages of emigrating owls is greater than that of immigrating ones. These percentages did not differ in relation to most of the analysed countries (Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Poland and countries of the former Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia) but it differed in relation to Austria. The degree and direction of introgression into and from the transition zone and the recent distribution of the phenotypes are discussed based on the comparative analysis of published European data. These suggest that the subspecies Tyto alba alba and Tyto alba guttata disappear by introgression, to form a phenotypically very variable species. [source]

    Subpopulations of Cryptocephalus beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): geographically close but genetically far

    R. W. Piper
    Abstract. The leaf beetles Cryptocephalus coryli, C. decemmaculatus and C. nitidulus are of conservation concern and are included on the UK Biodiversity Action Plan. The distinctiveness of the disjunct remaining populations of these beetles was compared to that of more continuously distributed Cryptocephalus species. This was carried out with a view to defining evolutionary significant units (ESUs) in the rare species. A portion of the cytochrome b gene, an intergenic spacer and partial tRNA was analysed from 93 specimens of Cryptocephalus beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Considerable sequence divergence was apparent in all the species, even at an intersite scale when the distances between sampled localities were very small (< 1 km). Intrapopulation, intersite and interpopulation divergence observed in the rare species was reflected in the species that have a more continuous distribution, implying that dispersal ability in these species is poor and gene flow can be impeded by relatively trivial barriers to dispersal. The evidence suggests that the disjunct populations of the rare Cryptocephalus species can, tentatively, be considered as ESUs. This has important implications for management strategies and reintroductions. [source]

    Patterns of isozyme variation as indicators of biogeographic history in Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don) Florín

    A. C. Premoli
    Abstract. The effects of Pleistocene glaciations on the genetic characteristics of the most austral conifer in the world, Pilgerodendron uviferum, were analysed with specific reference to the hypothesis that the species persisted locally in ice-free areas in temperate South America. It was expected that genetic variation would decrease with latitude, given that ice fields were larger in southern Patagonia and thus refugia were probably located towards the northern distributional limit of the species as suggested by the fossil record. In addition, an increase in among-population genetic divergence was expected with increasing distance to putative glacial refugia. We examined the relationship between location and within-population variability indices of 20 Pilgerodendron populations derived from isozyme analyses. We analysed possible refugia hypotheses by the distribution of allele frequencies using multivariate discriminant analysis. The degree of genetic differentiation with geographical distance between all population pairs was investigated by Mantel tests. Results indicated that Pilgerodendron populations are highly monomorphic, probably reflecting past population bottlenecks and reduced gene flow. Southernmost populations tend to be the least genetically variable and were therefore probably more affected by glacial activity than northern ones. Populations located outside ice limits seem to have been isolated during the glacial period. The presence of centres of genetic diversity, together with the lack of a significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances and the absence of geographical patterns of allelic frequencies at most analysed alleles, may indicate that Pilgerodendron did not advance southward after the last glaciation from a unique northern refugium, but spread from several surviving populations in ice-free areas in Patagonia instead. [source]