Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Genome

  • Arabidopsi genome
  • bacterial genome
  • c genome
  • cell genome
  • cellular genome
  • cerevisiae genome
  • chicken genome
  • chimpanzee genome
  • chloroplast genome
  • complete genome
  • complete mitochondrial genome
  • cytoplasmic genome
  • dna genome
  • drosophila genome
  • ebv genome
  • entire genome
  • eukaryotic genome
  • full-length hbv genome
  • haploid genome
  • hav genome
  • hbv genome
  • hcv genome
  • host cell genome
  • host genome
  • human genome
  • individual genome
  • insect genome
  • large genome
  • mammalian genome
  • melanogaster genome
  • microbial genome
  • mitochondrial genome
  • mouse genome
  • nuclear genome
  • paternal genome
  • plant genome
  • plastid genome
  • rat genome
  • reference genome
  • rice genome
  • rna genome
  • saccharomyces cerevisiae genome
  • sequenced genome
  • small genome
  • species genome
  • vertebrate genome
  • viral genome
  • virus genome
  • wheat genome
  • whole genome
  • yeast genome

  • Terms modified by Genome

  • genome amplification
  • genome analysis
  • genome annotation
  • genome architecture
  • genome assembly
  • genome comparison
  • genome coverage
  • genome data
  • genome database
  • genome databases
  • genome diversity
  • genome duplication
  • genome dynamics
  • genome equivalent
  • genome evolution
  • genome expression
  • genome fragment
  • genome function
  • genome hybridization
  • genome instability
  • genome integrity
  • genome level
  • genome map
  • genome mapping
  • genome mining
  • genome organization
  • genome plasticity
  • genome project
  • genome rearrangement
  • genome regions
  • genome replication
  • genome research
  • genome scanning
  • genome screen
  • genome sequence
  • genome sequence data
  • genome sequence information
  • genome sequencing
  • genome sequencing project
  • genome size
  • genome stability
  • genome structure
  • genome u133 plus
  • genome variation
  • genome wide
  • genome wide association studies
  • genome wide association study

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2009
    Michael C. Whitlock
    Healthy males are likely to have higher mating success than unhealthy males because of differential expression of condition-dependent traits such as mate searching intensity, fighting ability, display vigor, and some types of exaggerated morphological characters. We therefore expect that most new mutations that are deleterious for overall fitness may also be deleterious for male mating success. From this perspective, sexual selection is not limited to influencing those genes directly involved in exaggerated morphological traits but rather affects most, if not all, genes in the genome. If true, sexual selection can be an important force acting to reduce the frequency of deleterious mutations and, as a result, mutation load. We review the literature and find various forms of indirect evidence that sexual selection helps to eliminate deleterious mutations. However, direct evidence is scant, and there are almost no data available to address a key issue: is selection in males stronger than selection in females? In addition, the total effect of sexual selection on mutation load is complicated by possible increases in mutation rate that may be attributable to sexual selection. Finally, sexual selection affects population fitness not only through mutation load but also through sexual conflict, making it difficult to empirically measure how sexual selection affects load. Several lines of enquiry are suggested to better fill large gaps in our understanding of sexual selection and its effect on genetic load. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2008
    Christopher K. Ellison
    Hybrid breakdown, or outbreeding depression, is the loss of fitness observed in crosses between genetically divergent populations. The role of maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes in hybrid breakdown has not been widely examined. Using laboratory crosses of the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus, we report that the low fitness of F3 hybrids is completely restored in the offspring of maternal backcrosses, where parental mitochondrial and nuclear genomic combinations are reassembled. Paternal backcrosses, which result in mismatched mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, fail to restore hybrid fitness. These results suggest that fitness loss in T. californicus hybrids is completely attributable to nuclear,mitochondrial genomic interactions. Analyses of ATP synthetic capacity in isolated mitochondria from hybrid and backcross animals found that reduced ATP synthesis in hybrids was also largely restored in backcrosses, again with maternal backcrosses outperforming paternal backcrosses. The strong fitness consequences of nuclear,mitochondrial interactions have important, and often overlooked, implications for evolutionary and conservation biology. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2010
    Charles R. Marshall
    The genomes of taxa whose stem lineages branched early in metazoan history, and of allied protistan groups, provide a tantalizing outline of the morphological and genomic changes that accompanied the origin and early diversifications of animals. Genome comparisons show that the early clades increasingly contain genes that mediate development of complex features only seen in later metazoan branches. Peak additions of protein-coding regulatory genes occurred deep in the metazoan tree, evidently within stem groups of metazoans and eumetazoans. However, the bodyplans of these early-branching clades are relatively simple. The existence of major elements of the bilaterian developmental toolkit in these simpler organisms implies that these components evolved for functions other than the production of complex morphology, preadapting the genome for the morphological differentiation that occurred higher in metazoan phylogeny. Stem lineages of the bilaterian phyla apparently required few additional genes beyond their diploblastic ancestors. As disparate bodyplans appeared and diversified during the Cambrian explosion, increasing complexity was accommodated largely through changes in cis -regulatory networks, accompanied by some additional gene novelties. Subsequently, protein-coding genic richness appears to have essentially plateaued. Some genomic evidence suggests that similar stages of genomic evolution may have accompanied the rise of land plants. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2009
    Nolan C. Kane
    While speciation can be found in the presence of gene flow, it is not clear what impact this gene flow has on genome- and range-wide patterns of differentiation. Here we examine gene flow across the entire range of the common sunflower, H. annuus, its historically allopatric sister species H. argophyllus and a more distantly related, sympatric relative H. petiolaris. Analysis of genotypes at 26 microsatellite loci in 1015 individuals from across the range of the three species showed substantial introgression between geographically proximal populations of H. annuus and H. petiolaris, limited introgression between H. annuus and H. argophyllus, and essentially no gene flow between the allopatric pair, H. argophyllus and H. petiolaris. Analysis of sequence divergence levels among the three species in 1420 orthologs identified from EST databases identified a subset of loci showing extremely low divergence between H. annuus and H. petiolaris and extremely high divergence between the sister species H. annuus and H. argophyllus, consistent with introgression between H. annuus and H. petiolaris at these loci. Thus, at many loci, the allopatric sister species are more genetically divergent than the more distantly related sympatric species, which have exchanged genes across much of the genome while remaining morphologically and ecologically distinct. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2005
    Kai M. A. Chan
    Abstract Accurate phylogenies are crucial for understanding evolutionary processes, especially species diversification. It is commonly assumed that "good" species are sufficiently isolated genetically that gene genealogies represent accurate phylogenies. However, it is increasingly clear that good species may continue to exchange genetic material through hybridization (introgression). Many studies of closely related species reveal introgression of some genes without others, often with more rapid introgression of maternally inherited chloroplast or mitochondrial DNA (cpDNA, mtDNA). We seek a general explanation for this biased introgression using simple models of common reproductive isolating barriers (RIBs). We compare empirically informed models of prezygotic isolation (for pre- and postinsemination mechanisms of both female choice and male competition) with postzygotic isolation and demonstrate that rate of introgression depends critically upon type of RIB and mode of genetic inheritance (maternal versus biparental versus paternal). Our frequency-dependent prezygotic RIBs allow much more rapid introgression of biparentally and maternally inherited genes than do commonly modeled postzygotic RIBs (especially maternally inherited DNA). After considering the specific predictions in the context of empirical observations, we conclude that our model of prezygotic RIBs is a general explanation for biased introgression of maternally inherited genomic components. These findings suggest that we should use extreme caution when interpreting single gene genealogies as species phylogenies, especially for cpDNA and mtDNA. [source]

    Relevance between lipid metabolism-associated genes and rat liver regeneration

    Cunshuan Xu
    Aim:, Lipids are important in constituting cell structure and participating in many biological processes, particularly in energy supplementation to cells. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the action of lipid metabolism-associated genes on rat liver regeneration (LR). Methods:, Lipid metabolism-associated genes were obtained by collecting website data and retrieving related articles, and their expression changes in the regenerating rat liver were checked by the Rat Genome 230 2.0 array. Results:, In total, 280 genes involved in lipid metabolism were proven to be LR-associated by comparing the gene expression discrepancy between the partial-hepatectomy and sham-operation groups. The initial and total expression numbers of these genes occurring in the initial phase, G0/G1 transition, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and structure,functional rebuilding of LR were 128, 33, 135, 6, and 267, 147, 1026, 306, respectively, illustrating that these genes were initially expressed mainly in the initiation stage and functioned in different phases. Upregulation (850 times) and downregulation (749 times), as well as 25 types of expression patterns, showed that the physiological and biochemical activities were diverse and complicated in LR. Conclusion:, According to the results of the chip detection, it was presumed that fatty acid synthesis at 24,66 h, leukotriene and androgen synthesis at 16,168 h, prostaglandin synthesis at 2,96 h, triglyceride synthesis at 18,24 h, glycosphingolipid synthesis at 0.5,66 h, metabolism of phosphatidyl inositol and sphingomyelin at 2,16 h, and cholesterol catabolism at 30,168 h were enhanced. Throughout almost the whole LR, the genes participating in estrogen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone synthesis, and triglyceride catabolism were upregulated, while phospholipid and glycosphingolipid catabolism were downregulated. [source]

    Genome scan of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera for genetic variation associated with crop rotation tolerance

    N. J. Miller
    Abstract:, Crop rotation has been a valuable technique for control of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera for almost a century. However, during the last two decades, crop rotation has ceased to be effective in an expanding area of the US corn belt. This failure appears to be due to a change in the insect's oviposition behaviour, which, in all probability, has an underlying genetic basis. A preliminary genome scan using 253 amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) markers sought to identify genetic variation associated with the circumvention of crop rotation. Samples of D. v. virgifera from east-central Illinois, where crop rotation is ineffective, were compared with samples from Iowa at locations that the behavioural variant has yet to reach. A single AFLP marker showed signs of having been influenced by selection for the circumvention of crop rotation. However, this marker was not diagnostic. The lack of markers strongly associated with the trait may be due to an insufficient density of marker coverage throughout the genome. A weak but significant general heterogeneity was observed between the Illinois and Iowa samples at microsatellite loci and AFLP markers. This has not been detected in previous population genetic studies of D. v. virgifera and may indicate a reduction in gene flow between variant and wild-type beetles. [source]

    Identification of Candidate Genes for Alcohol Preference by Expression Profiling of Congenic Rat Strains

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2007
    Lucinda G. Carr
    Background: A highly significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 4 that influenced alcohol preference was identified by analyzing crosses between the iP and iNP rats. Congenic strains in which the iP chromosome 4 QTL interval was transferred to the iNP (NP.P) exhibited the expected increase in alcohol consumption compared with the iNP background strain. This study was undertaken to identify genes in the chromosome 4 QTL interval that might contribute to the differences in alcohol consumption between the alcohol-naïve congenic and background strains. Methods: RNA from 5 brain regions from each of 6 NP.P and 6 iNP rats was labeled and analyzed separately on an Affymetrix Rat Genome 230 2.0 microarray to look for both cis -regulated and trans -regulated genes. Expression levels were normalized using robust multi-chip average (RMA). Differential gene expression was validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Five individual brain regions (nucleus accumbens, frontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum) were analyzed to detect differential expression of genes within the introgressed QTL interval, as well as genes outside that region. To increase the power to detect differentially expressed genes, combined analyses (averaging data from the 5 discrete brain regions of each animal) were also carried out. Results: Analyses within individual brain regions that focused on genes within the QTL interval detected differential expression in all 5 brain regions; a total of 35 genes were detected in at least 1 region, ranging from 6 genes in the nucleus accumbens to 22 in the frontal cortex. Analysis of the whole genome detected very few differentially expressed genes outside the QTL. Combined analysis across brain regions was more powerful. Analysis focused on the genes within the QTL interval confirmed 19 of the genes detected in individual regions and detected 15 additional genes. Whole genome analysis detected 1 differentially expressed gene outside the interval. Conclusions: Cis -regulated candidate genes for alcohol consumption were identified using microarray profiling of gene expression differences in congenic animals carrying a QTL for alcohol preference. [source]

    Genome (re-)annotation and open-source annotation pipelines

    Roland J. Siezen
    First page of article [source]

    Genome scan in the mosquito Aedes rusticus: population structure and detection of positive selection after insecticide treatment

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Abstract Identification of genes involved in local adaptation is particularly challenging for species functioning as a network of interconnected populations undergoing frequent extinctions,recolonizations, because populations are submitted to contrasted evolutionary pressures. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, population genetic structure of the mosquito Aedes rusticus was analysed in five geographical areas of the French Rhône-Alpes region. We included a number of sites that were treated with the bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) for more than 15 years. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the genetic variability was found within populations (96%), with no significant variation among geographical areas, although variation among populations within areas (4%) was significant. The global genetic differentiation index FST was low (0.0366 ± 0.167). However, pairwise FST values were significant and no isolation-by-distance at the regional level was observed, suggesting a metapopulation structure in this species. Bti -treatment had no effect on genetic structure and on within-population genetic diversity. Potential signatures of positive selection associated with Bti -treatment were detected for five loci, even though toxicological bioassays performed on field-collected larvae showed no significant difference in mortality between Bti -treated and nontreated sites. The difficulty of detecting moderate resistance in field-collected larvae together with possible differential persistence of toxins in the environment may explain our inability to detect a toxicological response to Bti in treated sites. The evidence for positive selection occurring at several genomic regions suggests a first step towards Bti resistance in natural mosquito populations treated with this bio-insecticide. Furthermore, this signal was detectable using genomic tools before any toxicological evidence for resistance could be identified. [source]

    Presumptive pre-sertoli cells express genes involved in cell proliferation and cell signalling during a critical window in early testis differentiation

    Aron T. Cory
    In mammals, the pre-Sertoli cell of the male genital ridge is the first cell type to display sex specific differentiation and differential gene expression. The genetic cascade driving the differentiationof pre-Sertoli cells and ultimately testis formationis beginning to be unravelled, but many questions remain. A better understanding of the transcriptome of pre-Sertoli cells immediately after sex determination is essential in order to further understand this differentiationprocess. A mouse model expressing Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) under the control of a hybrid mouse/pig SRY promoter (HybSRYp-RFP) was used to purify cells from embryonic day 12.0 (e12.0) male genital ridges. To compare the transcriptomes of HybSRYp-RFP cell populations versus age matched whole female genital ridges, RNA was extracted and used to generate molecular probes that were hybridized onto Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 micro-arrays. The expression of genes considered markers for pre-Sertoli cells, including Sox9, Mis, Dhh and Fgf9 were identified within the HybSRYp-RFP expressing cell population, while markers for germ cells (Oct4, SSEA-1) and endothelial cells (Ntrk3) were not identified. In contrast, markers for ovarian somatic cell expression, including Fst and Bmp2, were identified as overexpressed within the ovarian cell population. In a general fashion, genes identified as 2.5-fold over expressed in HybSRYp-RFP expressing cells coded notably for cell signalling and extra cellular proteins. The expression of Sox10, Stc2, Fgf18, Fgf13 and Wnt6 were further characterized via whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) on male and female genital ridges between e11.5 and e14.5. Sox10, Fgf18, Fgf13 and Stc2 gene expression was detected within the male genital ridges while Wnt6 was found diffusely within both the male and female genital ridges. These data represent the earliest comprehensive microarray expression analysis of purified presumptive pre-Sertoli cells available to date. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 74: 1491,1504, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Construction of a Primary RH Panel of Italian Ryegrass Genome via UV-Induced Protoplast Fusion

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    A. Cheng
    Abstract: Symmetric and asymmetric somatic hybrids were produced via protoplast fusion between common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. "Jinan 177" and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The ryegrass without or with UV irradiation was used as a donor, providing a small amount of chromatin. In these somatic hybrids, most ryegrass chromosomes have been confirmed preferential elimination and the somatic hybrid calli and plants showed wheat-like morphology. Some of the hybrid lines were used for the analysis of distribution and heredity of donor DNA in the hybrid genome and the possibility of establishing a radiation hybrid (RH) panel of the ryegrass in the present experiment. These hybrids, subcultured for two and three years, retained the ryegrass DNA examined by RFLP and GISH analysis, respectively. Distribution of the ryegrass DNA in the wheat genomes of 20 single-cell individuals, randomly selected from hybrid cell lines produced, were analyzed by 21 ryegrass genome specific SSR markers. The average frequencies of molecular marker retention in symmetric hybrid lines (UV 0), as well as asymmetric hybrid lines from UV 30 s and 1 min were 10.88, 15.48 and 33.86, respectively. It was suggested that the UV dose increased the introgression of donor DNA into wheat genome. The ryegrass SSR fragments in most asymmetric hybrid cell lines remained stable over a period of 2 , 3 years. This revealed that those asymmetric somatic hybrids are suitable for the introgression of ryegrass DNA into wheat, and for RH panel and RH mapping. [source]

    DOE genomics: Applications to in situ subsurface bioremediation

    REMEDIATION, Issue 1 2006
    Robert T. AndersonArticle first published online: 22 DEC 200
    Microbial communities can greatly affect the mobility and fate of subsurface contaminants, yet relatively little is known about the functioning of microorganisms in subsurface environments. Major advances in DNA sequencing capability and the advent of genome-enabled studies have produced key insights into how microorganisms adapt to environmental conditions and/or biotransform subsurface contaminants starting from analyses of genome content. These techniques enable the researcher to detect how an organism responds to its environment and, potentially, to devise better methods to promote specific microbial activity in subsurface environments. The U.S. Department of Energy sponsors genome research through the Genomics:GTL program. One of the applications of this research is to better understand and control biological processes influencing the mobility of contaminants of concern to DOE such as metals and radionuclides. Genome and gene expression techniques have led to new insights into the functioning of subsurface microbial communities, but the true potential of these techniques is still to be revealed. As genome-enabled science progresses, techniques for evaluating gene expression patterns of whole communities will advance the understanding and development of optimized in situ bioremediation and more realistic simulations of microbial contaminant biotransformation. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.* [source]

    Large-Scale Characterization of Introns in the Pneumocystis carinii Genome


    Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of Pneumocystis carinii: Implications for Biological Function and Identification of Potential Drug Targets


    Identification of a Second rRNA Gene Unit in the Perkinsus andrewsi Genome

    ABSTRACT. Perkinsus species are parasitic protozoa of mollusks, currently classified within the Perkinsozoa, a recently established phylum that is basal to the Apicomplexa and Dinozoa. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and their intergenic spacers have been used to support the taxonomy of Perkinsus species, the description of new species, and to develop molecular probes for their detection and identification. We previously described ultrastructure, behavior in culture, and partial sequence of the rRNA locus of a Perkinsus species isolated from the baltic clam Macoma balthica. The rRNA genes and intergenic spacers of this Perkinsus isolate differed from those described in the currently accepted species to a degree that led to its designation as a new species, Perkinsus andrewsi. In this study, we identify an additional rRNA gene unit (rRNA-B) in the P. andrewsi holotype, and report the complete sequences of both rRNA gene units. Except for the 5. 8S, all regions of the rRNA-B gene unit exhibited sequence differences from that initially described (rRNA-A). Each rRNA gene unit is arranged in a "head-to-tail" tandem repeat. This is the first report demonstrating two distinct rRNA units in a Perkinsus species. [source]

    Inter-Strain Variability of Insertion/Deletion Events in the Encephalitozoon cuniculi Genome: A Comparative KARD-PFGE Analysis

    ABSTRACT. We applied a two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis procedure to the genomes of two karyotype variants assigned to two different strains of the microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi, termed D (strain III) and F (strain II). Data obtained for BssHII and Mlul restriction fragment length polymorphisms in each chromosome are compiled and compared to the reference strain I variant A. Six Insertion/Deletion (InDels) are found in subterminal position, some of these being characteristic of either D or F. Like in strain I, the terminal fragments extending between each telomere and rDNA locus are conserved in length for each chromosome. They are however smaller than in reference variant. This size reduction is estimated to be 2.5 kbp for the strain III isolate and 3.5 kbp for the strain II isolate. We hypothesize that for the three E. cuniculi strains, all chromosome extremities are prone to a constant process of sequence homogenization through mitolic recombination between conserved regions. [source]

    Hush Puppy: A New Mouse Mutant With Pinna, Ossicle, and Inner Ear Defects,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 1 2005
    FRCSEd, Henry Pau MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Deafness can be associated with abnormalities of the pinna, ossicles, and cochlea. The authors studied a newly generated mouse mutant with pinna defects and asked whether these defects are associated with peripheral auditory or facial skeletal abnormalities, or both. Furthermore, the authors investigated where the mutation responsible for these defects was located in the mouse genome. Methods: The hearing of hush puppy mutants was assessed by Preyer reflex and electrophysiological measurement. The morphological features of their middle and inner ears were investigated by microdissection, paint-filling of the labyrinth, and scanning electron microscopy. Skeletal staining of skulls was performed to assess the craniofacial dimensions. Genome scanning was performed using microsatellite markers to localize the mutation to a chromosomal region. Results: Some hush puppy mutants showed early onset of hearing impairment. They had small, bat-like pinnae and normal malleus but abnormal incus and stapes. Some mutants had asymmetrical defects and showed reduced penetrance of the ear abnormalities. Paint-filling of newborns' inner ears revealed no morphological abnormality, although half of the mice studied were expected to carry the mutation. Reduced numbers of outer hair cells were demonstrated in mutants' cochlea on scanning electron microscopy. Skeletal staining showed that the mutants have significantly shorter snouts and mandibles. Genome scan revealed that the mutation lies on chromosome 8 between markers D8Mit58 and D8Mit289. Conclusion: The study results indicate developmental problems of the first and second branchial arches and otocyst as a result of a single gene mutation. Similar defects are found in humans, and hush puppy provides a mouse model for investigation of such defects. [source]

    Differentially expressed genes during bovine intramuscular adipocyte differentiation profiled by serial analysis of gene expression

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 4 2010
    Y. Mizoguchi
    Summary Beef marbling or intramuscular fat deposition is an economically important carcass trait in Japanese Black cattle. To investigate genes involved in intramuscular adipogenesis, differential gene expression during adipogenesis in a clonal bovine intramuscular preadipocyte (BIP) cell line was profiled with serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). We sequenced 75 283 tags for the proliferation phase (day 0) and 81 878 tags for the differentiation phase (4 days after adipogenic stimulation: day 4). A comparison of the unique SAGE tag frequencies between the day 0- and day 4-libraries revealed that 878 (2.8%) of the 30 989 unique putative transcripts were expressed at significantly different levels (P < 0.05); 401 tags (1.4%) were up-regulated and 477 tags (1.2%) were down-regulated in the day 4-library relative to the day 0-library. We confirmed up-regulation of 10 tags of the genes that were up-regulated in the previous subtraction cloning studies in BIP cells [Animal Science Journal, 76 (2005) 479]. Of the 878 differentially expressed tags, 377 were identified in the bovine RefSeq library and 356 were assigned a bovine draft genomic sequence. Fifteen tags were mapped in previously detected beef marbling quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions [Mammalian Genome, 18 (2007) 125]. These genes may be involved in the adipogenic processes of beef marbling. [source]

    Mapping quantitative trait loci regulating chicken body composition traits

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 6 2009
    Y. Gao
    Summary Genome scans were conducted on an F2 resource population derived from intercross of the White Plymouth Rock with the Silkies Fowl to detect QTL affecting chicken body composition traits. The population was genotyped with 129 microsatellite markers and phenotyped for 12 body composition traits on 238 F2 individuals from 15 full-sib families. In total, 21 genome-wide QTL were found to be responsible for 11 traits, including two newly studied traits of proventriculus weight and shank girth. Three QTL were genome-wide significant: at 499 cm on GGA1 (explained 3.6% of phenotypic variance, P < 0.01) and 51 cm on GGA5 (explained 3.3% of phenotypic variance, P < 0.05) for the shank & claw weight and 502 cm on GGA1 (explained 1.4% of phenotypic variance, P < 0.05) for wing weight. The QTL on GGA1 seemed to have pleiotropic effects, also affecting gizzard weight at 490 cm, shank girth at 489 cm and intestine length at 481 cm. It is suggested that further efforts be made to understand the possible pleiotropic effects of the QTL on GGA1 and that on GGA5 for two shank-related traits. [source]

    Genome scan for the degree of white spotting in dairy cattle

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 6 2009
    L. Liu
    Summary White spotting is one of the most distinguishing visual characters in dairy cattle. There is considerable variation within and between breeds of cattle. The objective of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the degree of white spotting in dairy cattle based on an F2 experimental design using Holstein-Friesian and Jersey crossbred cows. The genome scan was implemented using half-sib and line-of-descent approaches with high density markers. Significant QTL were found on chromosomes 6, 18 and 22. The mapped region on BTA6 confirmed the widely conserved KIT locus affecting mammalian pigmentation. Haplotype information linked the highly significant QTL on BTA22 to the Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene, which has been reported to be associated with pigmentation traits in some other mammals. [source]

    Relationships among calpastatin single nucleotide polymorphisms, calpastatin expression and tenderness in pork longissimus,

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 5 2009
    A. K. Lindholm-Perry
    Summary Genome scans in the pig have identified a region on chromosome 2 (SSC2) associated with tenderness. Calpastatin is a likely positional candidate gene in this region because of its inhibitory role in the calpain system that is involved in postmortem tenderization. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in calpastatin were identified and used to genotype a population (n = 1042) of Duroc,Landrace,Yorkshire swine for association with longissimus lumborum slice shear force (SSF) measured at days 7 and 14 postmortem. Three genetic markers residing in the calpastatin gene were significantly associated with SSF (P < 0.0005). Haplotypes constructed from markers in the calpastatin gene were significantly associated with SSF (F -ratio = 3.93; P -value = 0.002). The levels of normalized mRNA expression of calpastatin in the longissimus lumborum of 162 animals also were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and were associated with the genotype of the most significant marker for SSF (P < 0.02). This evidence suggests that the causative variation alters expression of calpastatin, thus affecting tenderness. In summary, these data provide evidence of several significant, publicly available SNP markers associated with SSF that may be useful to the swine industry for marker assisted selection of animals that have more tender meat. [source]

    Identifying Modifier Loci in Existing Genome Scan Data

    E. W. Daw
    Summary In many genetic disorders in which a primary disease-causing locus has been identified, evidence exists for additional trait variation due to genetic factors. These findings have led to studies seeking secondary ,modifier' loci. Identification of modifier loci provides insight into disease mechanisms and may provide additional screening and treatment targets. We believe that modifier loci can be identified by re-analysis of genome screen data while controlling for primary locus effects. To test this hypothesis, we simulated multiple replicates of typical genome screening data on to two real family structures from a study of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. With this marker data, we simulated two trait models with characteristics similar to one measure of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Both trait models included 3 genes. In the first, the trait was influenced by a primary gene, a secondary ,modifier' gene, and a third very small effect gene. In the second, we modeled an interaction between the first two genes. We examined power and false positive rates to map the secondary locus while controlling for the effect of the primary locus with two types of analyses. First, we examined Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) simultaneous segregation and linkage analysis as implemented in Loki, for which we calculated two scoring statistics. Second, we calculated LOD scores using an individual-specific liability class based on the quantitative trait value. We found that both methods produced scores that are significant on a genome-wide level in some replicates. We conclude that mapping of modifier loci in existing samples is possible with these methods. [source]

    A Bidirectional Corridor in the Sahel-Sudan Belt and the Distinctive Features of the Chad Basin Populations: A History Revealed by the Mitochondrial DNA Genome

    Summary The Chad Basin was sparsely inhabited during the Stone Age, and its continual settlement began with the Holocene. The role played by Lake Chad in the history and migration patterns of Africa is still unclear. We studied the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variability in 448 individuals from 12 ethnically and/or economically (agricultural/pastoral) different populations from Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. The data indicate the importance of this region as a corridor connecting East and West Africa; however, this bidirectional flow of people in the Sahel-Sudan Belt did not erase features peculiar to the original Chad Basin populations. A new sub-clade, L3f2, is described, which together with L3e5 is most probably autochthonous in the Chad Basin. The phylogeography of these two sub-haplogroups seems to indicate prehistoric expansion events in the Chad Basin around 28,950 and 11,400 Y.B.P., respectively. The distribution of L3f2 is virtually restricted to the Chad Basin alone, and in particular to Chadic speaking populations, while L3e5 shows evidence for diffusion into North Africa at about 7,100 Y.B.P. The absence of L3f2 and L3e5 in African-Americans, and the limited number of L-haplotypes shared between the Chad Basin populations and African-Americans, indicate the low contribution of the Chad region to the Atlantic slave trade. [source]

    Nonparametric Inference for Local Extrema with Application to Oligonucleotide Microarray Data in Yeast Genome

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2006
    Peter X.-K.
    Summary Identifying local extrema of expression profiles is one primary objective in some cDNA microarray experiments. To study the replication dynamics of the yeast genome, for example, local peaks of hybridization intensity profiles correspond to putative replication origins. We propose a nonparametric kernel smoothing (NKS) technique to detect local hybridization intensity extrema across chromosomes. The novelty of our approach is that we base our inference procedures on equilibrium points, namely those locations at which the first derivative of the intensity curve is zero. The proposed smoothing technique provides both point and interval estimation for the location of local extrema. Also, this technique can be used to test for the hypothesis of either one or multiple suspected locations being the true equilibrium points. We illustrate the proposed method on a microarray data set from an experiment designed to study the replication origins in the yeast genome, in that the locations of autonomous replication sequence (ARS) elements are identified through the equilibrium points of the smoothed intensity profile curve. Our method found a few ARS elements that were not detected by the current smoothing methods such as the Fourier convolution smoothing. [source]

    Genome-based insights into the evolution of enterococci

    W. Van Schaik
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 527,532 Abstract It is now 15 years since the first genome of a free-living organism was sequenced. Subsequent to this milestone, a veritable avalanche of genome sequence data has revolutionized many aspects of microbiology. In this review, we discuss recent progress on the genomics of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, which are the two enterococcal species that cause the large majority of enterococcal infections. We focus on the genome-based analysis of enterococcal diversity and phylogeny. Studies based on comparative genome hybridization have shown that both species exhibit considerable inter-strain genomic diversity, which is mainly linked to the variable presence of phages, plasmids, pathogenicity islands and conjugative elements. We also discuss how the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies allows for a comprehensive characterization of the gene repertoire of multiple isolates, which can be used for extremely robust analyses of diversity and population structure. [source]

    Reprogramming of genetic networks during initiation of the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome,

    Maia L. Green
    Abstract Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are birth defects that result from maternal alcohol use. We used a non a priori approach to prioritize candidate pathways during alcohol-induced teratogenicity in early mouse embryos. Two C57BL/6 substrains (B6J, B6N) served as the basis for study. Dosing pregnant dams with alcohol (2× 2.9 g/kg ethanol spaced 4 hr on day 8) induced FASD in B6J at a higher incidence than B6N embryos. Counter-exposure to PK11195 (4 mg/kg) significantly protected B6J embryos but slightly promoted FASD in B6N embryos. Microarray transcript profiling was performed on the embryonic headfold 3 hr after the first maternal alcohol injection (GEO data series accession GSE1074). This analysis revealed metabolic and cellular reprogramming that was substrain-specific and/or PK11195-dependent. Mapping ethanol-responsive KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways revealed down-regulation of ribosomal proteins and proteasome, and up-regulation of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway in B6N embryos; and significant up-regulation of tight junction, focal adhesion, adherens junction, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton (and near-significant up-regulation of Wnt signaling and apoptosis) pathways in both substrains. Expression networks constructed computationally from these altered genes identified entry points for EtOH at several hubs (MAPK1, ALDH3A2, CD14, PFKM, TNFRSF1A, RPS6, IGF1, EGFR, PTEN) and for PK11195 at AKT1. Our findings are consistent with the growing view that developmental exposure to alcohol alters common signaling pathways linking receptor activation to cytoskeletal reorganization. The programmatic shift in cell motility and metabolic capacity further implies cell signals and responses that are integrated by the mitochondrial recognition site for PK11195. Developmental Dynamics 236:613,631, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Analysis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa oprD gene from clinical and environmental isolates

    Jean-Paul Pirnay
    Summary Genomes are constantly evolving. Our report highlights the wide mutational diversity of clinical as well as environmental isolates, compared with the laboratory strain(s), through the systematic genetic analysis of a chromosomal porin gene (oprD) in relation to a specific antibiotic resistance. Mutational inactivation of the oprD gene is associated with carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The sequence of the oprD gene of 55 Pseudomonas aeruginosa natural isolates obtained from across the world , from sources as diverse as patients and rhizospheres , was analysed. A microscale mosaic structure for this gene , resulting from multiple intra- and possibly interspecies recombinational events , is reported. An array of independent and seemingly fast-occurring defective oprD mutations were found, none of which had been described before. A burn wound isolate demonstrated unusually high overall sequence variability typical of mutator strains. We also present evidence for the existence of OprD homologues in other fluorescent pseudomonads. [source]

    Integrative analysis of cancer pathway progression and coherence

    Ertugrul Dalkic
    Abstract We analyzed the cancer pathways in the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) database. The database provides a collective of signaling pathway members involved in cancer progression. However, the KEGG cancer pathways, unlike signaling pathways, have not been analyzed extensively with gene expression and mutation data. We transformed the colorectal cancer pathway into discrete X and Y scales and analyzed the relative expression levels of adenoma and carcinoma samples as well as the distribution of mutation targets. The X scale corresponds to the downstream location in a pathway, whereas the Y scale corresponds to the stage of the tumor. The gene expression values of the early stage pathway members are significantly higher than of the rest of the pathway members in colorectal adenoma tissues. The colorectal cancer pathway shows some degree of coherence in the carcinoma samples. The correlated gene pairs responsible for the coherence of the colorectal cancer pathway in the carcinoma samples are supported, in part, by the literature and may suggest novel regulatory associations. Finally, there are more mutation targets in the nucleus as well as the late tumor stages of the KEGG colorectal cancer pathway. [source]

    Book Review:Acquiring Genomes: A Theory of the Origins of Species

    BIOESSAYS, Issue 11 2003
    Stanley Shostak
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]