Gender Differences (gender + difference)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Gender Differences

  • observed gender difference
  • possible gender difference
  • significant gender difference

  • Selected Abstracts


    Jonna P. ESTUDILLO
    First page of article [source]


    Hans Bonesrønning
    I21; J160 ABSTRACT This paper adds to the debate about the sources of the gender gaps in student outcomes by highlighting explanations related to interactions between teachers and students. The evidence comes from the lower secondary school in Norway. The teachers' grading practices are the focal point of the analysis. First, it is shown that girls are exposed to easier grading than boys. Thereafter, evidence is provided that both boys and girls are negatively affected when the teacher practises easy grading. The boys' responses to easy grading are more uniformly negative than the girls' responses. Some exploratory analyses that make use of information about the students' school motivations are provided to make sense of these findings. [source]

    How Much of the Gender Difference in Child School Enrolment Can Be Explained?

    Evidence from Rural India
    I21; O15 Abstract There are significant gender differences in child schooling in the Indian states though very few studies explain this gender difference. Unlike most existing studies we take account of the implicit and explicit opportunity costs of schooling and use a bivariate probit model to jointly determine a child's participation in school and market jobs. Results obtained from the World Institute of Development Economics Research (WIDER) villages in West Bengal suggest that indicators of household resources, parental preferences, returns to and opportunity costs of domestic work significantly affect child school enrolment. While household resources have similar effects on enrolment of boys and girls, other arguments tend to explain a part of the observed gender difference. Even after taking account of all possible arguments, there remains a large variation in gender differences in child schooling that cannot be explained by differences in male and female characteristics in our sample. [source]

    Gender Differences in Time Availability: Evidence from France

    François-Xavier Devetter
    The aim of the article is to examine differences in work time from a gender perspective. To this end, a concept broader than mere duration of work time is constructed. This concept, which we call time availability, encompasses not only the volume of hours worked but also the scheduling and predictability of those hours. It is measured by a synthetic indicator showing the extent to which a given group of workers exceeds the societal time norm. After a presentation of the French context, we show that women seem to have less time availability, particularly at the ages that are most decisive in career terms. But these differences do not concern the same aspects of time availability. Thus the time constraints experienced mainly by women are less socially visible and hence undervalued by employers. This lower visibility comes, for a large part, from the social perception of women professionals. [source]

    Gender Differences in Perceived Disciplinary Fairness

    Nina D. Cole
    This exploratory study coded and analysed 120 behaviours on videotaped data of 111 male and 30 female managers engaged in disciplinary discussions with one of their unionized employees. Four categories of behaviour were coded: non-verbal communication, speech characteristics, leadership and interactional justice. A factor analysis of the results generated 14 factors, ten of which were correlated with experts' ratings of disciplinary fairness. Female managers exhibited significantly higher levels of seven of the ten behavioural factors. Female managers also made more supportive interruptions than male managers and took more time for the disciplinary discussion, both of which were positively correlated with disciplinary fairness. The results suggest that leadership and communication styles commonly found in females may lead them to be better equipped than male managers to manage employee discipline situations. [source]

    Gender Differences in Treatment-Seeking Chronic Headache Sufferers

    HEADACHE, Issue 7 2001
    Dawn A. Marcus MD
    Objective.,To identify gender differences within a group of patients seeking treatment for chronic headache. Previous studies of the general population have reported differences in headache symptoms, frequency, disability, and psychological distress, with women affected with more severe and disabling symptoms than men. This study evaluated these features in a population seeking treatment. Methods.,Two hundred fifty-eight consecutive patients with headache attending a university headache clinic were evaluated with questionnaires about headache symptoms and psychological distress. Comparisons between men and women were made for headache symptoms, severity, frequency, trigger factors, comorbid depression and anxiety, and response to treatment. Results.,There were no gender differences in headache symptoms, frequency, severity, and duration. Headache triggers were gender-specific, with men more likely to endorse exercise and women more likely to endorse stress and exposure to odors. Psychological comorbidity was similar among men and women seeking treatment, with a mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 10 and a mean Spielberger trait anxiety score of 39 for both men and women. Disability was greater in men, with 46% reporting restrictions in activities more than 3 days per week because of headache compared with 29% of women. In addition, men were more likely to contribute headache control to external figures than women. Conclusions.,Patients seeking treatment for chronic headache do not have the same gender-specific differences that have been reported in general population surveys. Men who seek treatment for headache are more likely to have significant disability, and are equally likely to have symptoms of depression and anxiety as women who seek treatment. Clinical and research investigations of headache triggers need to be gender-specific. [source]

    Gender Differences in a Comparison of Two Tested Etiological Models of Cigarette Smoking Among Elementary School Students,

    Randall C. Swaim
    The theory of reasoned action (TRA), theory of planned behavior (TPB), and a revised TPB were evaluated using manifest variable structural equation modeling among 4th - through 6th -grade students for effectiveness in predicting lifetime cigarette use. TRA was an adequate model for female students, but not male students. TPB resulted in improved model fit over TRA for both male and female students, and a revised TPB model improved fit marginally among female students. Tests for differences across gender indicated that the relationship between intention to use and lifetime cigarette use was stronger among female compared to male students. The results indicate that the TPB is an effective model for predicting lifetime cigarette use among late elementary-school-aged children. [source]

    Women in a Man's World: Gender Differences in Leadership at the Military Academy

    Matthew J. Morgan
    This study responds to a deficiency of research on military leadership gender differences in spite of widespread interest in women in the military in policymaking and academic circles of various fields. Although scholarship in the field of women's leadership in recent years has asserted that there are stylistic differences between male and female leaders, there were few major differences in this study of 12 specific areas of leadership rated by 3 types of raters. Of the 36 possible occurrences of a statistically significant gender difference, only 6 manifested themselves in the cadet leader ratings. As a whole, evidence supports minimal gender differences in leadership performance or style in the West Point Class of 1998. [source]

    Predictors of Teens' Attitudes Toward Condoms: Gender Differences in the Effects of Norms

    Yuko Mizuno
    Using data collected from a telephone survey of adolescents aged 15 to 19, we studied predictors of condom attitudes. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 348 sexually active teens. Multiple regression revealed that holding other variables constant being females, African American, perceiving that more of their friends were using condoms (i. e., perceived normative behavior). and stronger perceived normative pressure were significantly associated with favorable condom attitudes. Furthermore, significant interaction effects pointed to gender differences in the association between two types of norms and attitudes toward condoms. Perceived normative behavior had a greater effect on the attitudes of female adolescents. Perceived normative pressure had a greater effect on the attitudes of male adolescents. [source]

    Gender Differences in Various Types of Idiopathic Ventricular Tachycardia

    Gender Differences in Idiopathic VT.Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate gender differences in the incidence and age distribution of various types of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT). Methods and Results: We conducted a search of the medical literature on idiopathic VT. According to their site of origin, we divided the VTs into three types: right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT-VT), left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT-VT), and left ventricular (LV) septum (LV-VT). We reviewed 68 articles and a total of 748 patients. Among RVOT-VT patients, there were more females than males (311 vs 153, male/female ratio 0.49). In LV-VT, males prevailed over females (175 vs 52, male/female ratio 3.37), whereas LVOT-VT was distributed almost equally between males (n = 33) and females (n = 24). To determine the age distribution, we assessed 419 patients from 51 studies. In both males and females, the highest incidence of RVOT-VT occurred in the third to fifth decade of life (males, mean 43.5 ± 18.7; females, mean 40.9 ± 13.8 years). LV-VT occurred at a younger age in both males and females than did RVOT-VT (mean 33.0 ± 13.9 and 25.7 ± 12.0 years, respectively, P < 0.0001 vs RVOT-VT). LV-VT occurred at a younger age in females than males (P < 0.005). Conclusion: Gender-specific differences exist in the incidence and age distribution of the various types of idiopathic VT. Studies on gender-specific differences in arrhythmia will lead to a better understanding of its mechanism(s) and provide valuable information for the development of optimal treatment strategies. [source]

    Gender Differences in Idiopathic Ventricular Tachycardia: Enhancing the Differences


    Gender Differences in the Expression of Galanin and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in Oestrogen-Induced Prolactinomas of Fischer 344 Rats

    G. G. Piroli
    Abstract We have previously described a sexual dimorphism in oestrogen-induced anterior pituitary tumorigenesis in Fischer 344 rats, with female tumours averaging twice the size of those of males. Neonatal androgenization of female Fischer 344 rats with 100 µg of testosterone propionate reverted that effect, causing a ,male-like' phenotype. The peptides galanin and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are possible mediators of oestrogen effects on the anterior pituitary, including hyperprolactinemia and lactotroph proliferation. To further extend our previous findings, we investigated the expression of galanin and VIP in the anterior pituitary of control and oestrogenized male, female and neonatally androgenized female Fischer 344 rats. At 3 months of age, rats were deprived of their gonads and divided into control and diethylstilbestrol (DES)-treated groups. In the anterior pituitary of control rats, galanin and VIP immunoreactive cells were absent. However, in DES-treated rats, pituitaries from normal ovariectomized females showed higher number of galanin and VIP positive cells than pituitaries from neonatally androgenized ovariectomized females and gonadectomized males. This pattern correlated with changes in anterior pituitary weight and serum prolactin. Our study suggests that sexual differences in oestrogen-induced pituitary tumorigenesis could be due to the differential expression of galanin and VIP. Furthermore, our data support the fact that neonatal exposure to androgens, as in normal males and androgenized females, may condition the response of the pituitary gland to oestrogens in adult life. [source]

    Naturally Occurring Differences in Maternal Care are Associated with the Expression of Oxytocin and Vasopressin (V1a) Receptors: Gender Differences

    D. D. Francis
    Abstract Variations in maternal care have been associated with long-term changes in neurochemistry and behaviour in adult rats. Rats receiving high levels of licking and grooming as pups are less fearful and more maternal than rats receiving low levels of maternal licking and grooming. Central pathways for oxytocin and vasopressin have been implicated in the neurobiology of anxiety and social behaviours. We assessed whether variations in maternal care were associated with differences in oxytocin receptors (OTR) or vasopressin (V1a) receptors in the brains of adult offspring. In the central nucleus of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, OTR binding was increased in adult females, but not adult males, that had received high levels of maternal licking and grooming as pups. Conversely, amygdala V1a receptor binding was increased in males, but not females, that had received high levels of maternal licking and grooming. These findings suggest that variations in maternal care may influence the expression of oxytocin and vasopressin receptors in a gender-specific manner. [source]

    Gender Differences in the Correlates of Self-Referent Word Use: Authority, Entitlement, and Depressive Symptoms

    Lisa A. Fast
    ABSTRACT Past research shows that self-focused attention is robustly positively related to depression, and women are more likely than men to self-focus in response to depressed mood (e.g., R. Ingram, 1990; S. Nolen-Hoeksema, 1987). The goal of the current study was to further delineate gender differences in the correlates of self-focus as measured through the frequency of spontaneous use of self-referencing words. The frequency of such word use during a life history interview was correlated with self-reports, observations by clinically trained interviewers, and personality judgments by acquaintances. Results indicated that the relationship between self-reference and observations of depressive symptoms was stronger for women than men, and the relationship between self-reference and narcissistic authority and entitlement was stronger for men than for women. Acquaintance ratings supported these correlates. These findings illuminate the importance of using multiple measures and paying attention to gender differences in research on self-focus. [source]

    Gender Differences in Alcohol Treatment: An Analysis of Outcome From the COMBINE Study

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2010
    Shelly F. Greenfield
    Background:, Relatively few studies have examined gender differences in the effectiveness of specific behavioral or pharmacologic treatment of alcohol dependence. The aim of this study is to assess whether there were gender differences in treatment outcomes for specific behavioral and medication treatments singly or in combination by conducting a secondary analysis of public access data from the national, multisite NIAAA-sponsored COMBINE study. Methods:, The COMBINE study investigated alcohol treatment among 8 groups of patients (378 women, 848 men) who received medical management (MM) with 16 weeks of placebo, naltrexone (100 mg/day), acamprosate (3 g/day), or their combination with or without a specialist-delivered combined behavioral intervention. We examined efficacy measures separately for men and women, followed by an overall analysis that included gender and its interaction with treatment condition in the analyses. These analyses were performed to confirm whether the findings reported in the parent trial were also relevant to women, and to more closely examine secondary outcome variables that were not analyzed previously for gender effects. Results:, Compared to men, women reported a later age of onset of alcohol dependence by approximately 3 years, were significantly less likely to have had previous alcohol treatment, and drank fewer drinks per drinking day. Otherwise, there were no baseline gender differences in drinking measures. Outcome analyses of 2 primary (percent days abstinent and time to first heavy drinking day) and 2 secondary (good clinical response and percent heavy drinking days) drinking measures yielded the same overall pattern in each gender as that observed in the parent COMBINE study report. That is, only the naltrexone by behavioral intervention interaction reached or approached significance in women as well as in men. There was a naltrexone main effect that was significant in both men and women in reduction in alcohol craving scores with naltrexone-treated subjects reporting lower craving than placebo-treated subjects. Conclusions:, This gender-focused analysis found that alcohol-dependent women responded to naltrexone with COMBINE's Medical Management, similar to the alcohol-dependent men, on a wide range of outcome measures. These results suggest that clinicians can feel comfortable prescribing naltrexone for alcohol dependence in both men and women. In this study, it is also notable that fewer women than men reported receiving any alcohol treatment prior to entry into the COMBINE study. Of note, women tend to go to primary health care more frequently than to specialty substance abuse programs for treatment, and so the benefit we confirm for women of the naltrexone and MM combination has practical implications for treating alcohol-dependent women. [source]

    A Multilevel Analysis of Gender Differences in Psychological Distress Over Time

    Amanda L. Botticello
    Females have higher rates of depression than males, a disparity that emerges in adolescence and persists into adulthood. This study uses hierarchical linear modeling to assess the effects of school context on gender differences in depressive symptoms among adolescents based on two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=9,709 teens, 127 schools). Analysis indicates significant school-level variation in both overall symptom levels and the average gender gap in depression net of prior symptoms and individual-level covariates. Aggregate levels of depressive symptomatology were positively associated with contextual-level socioeconomic status (SES) disadvantage. A cross-level contingency emerged for the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms with school SES and aggregate perceived community safety such that the gender "gap" was most apparent in contexts characterized by low SES disadvantage and high levels of perceived safety. These results highlight the importance of context to understanding the development of mental health disparities. [source]

    He Said, She Said: Gender Differences in Mother , Adolescent Conversations about Sexuality

    Eva S. Lefkowitz
    This study examined gender differences in self-reported and observed conversations about sexual issues. Fifty mother ,adolescent dyads reported on their conversations about sexual issues and participated in videotaped conversations about dating and sexuality in a laboratory setting. Gender differences (more mother , daughter than mother ,son) were found in the extent of sexual communication based on adolescents' reports, but no gender differences were found based on mothers' reports, or on observations of conversations. Aspects of laboratory interactions, however, did distinguish mother, daughter and mother , son dyads, and related to self-report measures. Girls' reported sexuality communication frequency related to behavior in the laboratory setting. During mother , son conversations, one person usually took on the role of questioner, whereas the other did not. In contrast, there was evidence for mutuality of positive emotions for mother , daughter dyads, but not for mother , son dyads. [source]

    Gender Differences in Formal On-the-Job Training: Incidence, Duration, and Intensity

    LABOUR, Issue 4 2008
    Patrick Lee O'Halloran
    This paper explores whether there is a gender gap in the incidence, duration, intensity, and number of events of on-the-job training. Overall, women appear to receive a higher incidence of on-the-job training whereas men receive on-the-job training of longer duration. Including measures intended to capture the extent of labor force attachment and expected tenure fails to reduce the gender gap in the duration of on-the-job training. Therefore, the gender gap in the duration of on-the-job training must be attributed to differences in unobserved worker characteristics that differ by gender or discrimination. [source]

    Gender Differences in Perceived Work Demands, Family Demands, and Life Stress among Married Chinese Employees

    Jaepil Choi
    abstract Although gender-based division of labour and the identity theory of stress suggest that the relationship between work and family demands and life stress may vary as a function of gender, it is largely unknown whether these arguments are also valid in China. To address this gap in the existing literature, the current study investigates the gender differences in perceived work and family demands, and the effects of these perceived demands on the life stress of Chinese male and female employees. The study of 153 married Chinese employees found that Chinese women perceived a higher level of family demands than did Chinese men, whereas there was no significant gender difference in the perception of work demands. In addition, while perceived family demands were similarly related to life stress differently for men and women, perceived work demands were associated more strongly with the life stress of men than that of women. [source]

    Gender Differences in the Affective Processing of Pain: Brain Neuroscience and Training in "Biopsychosocial" Pain Medicine

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 9 2010
    Rollin M. Gallagher MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Age and Gender Differences in Mate Selection Criteria for Various Involvement Levels

    Bram P. Buunk
    The present study investigated mate preferences for five different levels of relationship involvement,marriage, serious relationship, falling in love, casual sex, and sexual fantasies,among individuals of 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 years of age. Consistent with an evolutionary perspective, men preferred mates who were higher in physical attractiveness than themselves, whereas women preferred mates who were higher in income, education, self,confidence, intelligence, dominance, and social position than themselves. The lower the level of relationship involvement, the lower were the preferred levels of education, physical attractiveness, and, particularly for males, preferred intelligence in comparison to oneself. For sexual fantasies, men and women preferred mates who were higher in physical attractiveness than those they preferred for real partners. There were few age differences in mate preferences, although older individuals set higher standards for a potential mate's education. [source]

    Implications of Racial and Gender Differences In Patterns of Adolescent Risk Behavior for HIV And Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Carolyn Tucker Halpern
    CONTEXT: Sexual and substance use behaviors covary in adolescence. Prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) differs according to race and gender, yet few studies have systematically investigated risk behavior patterns by subgroup, particularly with nationally representative data. METHODS: A priori considerations and K-means cluster analysis were used to group 13,998 non-Hispanic black and white participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave 1, according to self-reported substance use and sexual behavior. Multinomial logit analyses examined racial and gender differences by cluster. RESULTS: Among 16 clusters, the two defined by the lowest risk behaviors (sexual abstinence and little or no substance use) comprised 47% of adolescents; fewer than 1% in these groups reported ever having received an STD diagnosis. The next largest cluster,characterized by sexual activity (on average, with one lifetime partner) and infrequent substance use,contained 15% of participants but nearly one-third of adolescent with STDs. Blacks were more likely than whites to be in this group. Black males also were more likely than white males to be in three small clusters characterized by high-risk sexual behaviors (i.e., having had sex with a male or with at least 14 partners, or for drugs or money). Black females generally were the least likely to be in high-risk behavior clusters but the most likely to report STDs. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents' risk behavior patterns vary by race and gender, and do not necessarily correlate with their STD prevalence. Further investigation of adolescents' partners and sexual networks is needed. [source]

    Gender Differences in Agency Head Salaries: The Case of Public Educaton

    Kenneth J. Meier
    This study demonstrates a quantitative approach to assessing gender discrimination in public salaries at the individual level. Using data from more than 1,000 school districts in Texas over a period of four years, the results show that gender differences in superintendents' salaries are subtle rather than systematic. Female superintendents who replace male superintendents receive lower compensation. Local district wealth also interacts with gender to affect salaries. [source]

    Implication of Gender Differences in Heroin-Assisted Treatment: Results from the German Randomized Controlled Trial

    Francisco José Eiroá-Orosa MSc
    Despite a lower prevalence of opioid dependence among females, drug-related problems and risk factors such as prostitution have a negative effect for women in treatment. This study was conducted with the purpose of analyzing gender differences in the German trial on heroin-assisted treatment (HAT), which compared HAT with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Significant baseline gender differences were found, with females showing a greater extent of mental distress. Differences in retention and outcome were significant for male patients, but no differences between treatment options were found for female patients. Ongoing prostitution was found to influence drug use outcomes. Other outcome criteria may need to be stressed when assessing the effect of HAT for women.,(Am J Addict 2010;00:1,7) [source]

    Gender Differences in Predictors of Treatment Attrition with High Dose Naltrexone in Cocaine and Alcohol Dependence

    Jesse J. Suh PsyD
    Recently, we reported that naltrexone at 150 mg/day significantly decreased cocaine and alcohol use for men but not women with co-occurring cocaine and alcohol dependence. The present study is an exploratory investigation of predictors that explain the different gender responses to naltrexone, with a particular focus on differential predictors of treatment attrition. No significant predictors were associated with treatment discontinuation in men. Women, however, were more likely to discontinue treatment when reporting severe pre-treatment psychiatric problems or nausea while in treatment. Further research on the impact of pre-treatment and in-treatment gender differences with naltrexone is warranted. [source]

    Gender Differences in Response to Sertraline Pharmacotherapy in Type A Alcohol Dependence

    Helen M. Pettinati Ph.D.
    We previously established that Babor Type A "lower-risk / severity" alcoholics (n = 55) had better treatment response to fourteen weeks of sertraline (200 mg/ day) than placebo, a finding not present for Type B "higher-risk /severity" alcoholics (n = 45). This exploratory study extended these results by examining the original sample for gender differences in response to sertraline pharmacotherapy. Type A alcoholic men, but not Type A alcoholic women, had consistently better outcomes with sertraline compared to placebo on several common drinking measures: time to relapse, days drinking, days drinking heavily, drinks per drinking day, and number of those continually abstinent. There were no significant differences in drinking with sertraline compared to placebo in Type B alcoholic men or women. [source]

    EDITORIAL: Gender Differences Mirrored: Andro-Pause, a Palindromic Meno-Pause, or Just a Lean-Pause?

    Mario Maggi

    Gender Differences in ECG Parameters and Their Clinical Implications

    Arthur J. Moss M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Gender Differences in the Across-Time Associations of the Job Demands-Control-Support Model and Depressive Symptoms: A Three-Wave Study

    Galit Armon
    We used a full-panel longitudinal design to investigate, separately for women and men, the hypotheses that changes in the components of the Job Demands-Control-Support (JDC-S) model predict changes in depression symptoms levels over time and that the reversed prediction would also be found. Our study was conducted on a multi-occupational sample of apparently healthy employees (N = 692, 68% men) using three waves of data gathering, replicating our tests on two time lags of 18 months and 3 years on average. We controlled for neuroticism and other potential confounding variables. For both time lags, support for our hypotheses was found for the men only. We did not find systematic differences between the time lags, nor did we find a predominance of one of the unidirectional effects examined. We outline the theoretical and practical implications of our findings, including their relevance for efforts to combat depressive symptoms by changing job characteristics. [source]

    Anticipation of Acute Stress in Isoprenaline-Sensitive and , Resistant Rats: Strain and Gender Differences

    Anna Yamamotová
    The effect of stress anticipation was studied in two inbred Wistar rat strains with high and low sensitivity to isoprenaline. The animals were exposed to tail-flick and 4-hr water immersion restraint stress on two consecutive days. On the first day stress was applied to one group and the next day to the anticipation group. The changes in adrenal, heart and spleen weights, tail-flick latency, incidence of gastric ulcers, and the antioxidant defense system in the sensorimotor cortex were compared with two non-stressed control groups. Anticipatory stress decreased adrenal weights. The content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was increased both in acute and anticipatory stress; superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and antioxidative capacity were increased in anticipatory stress only. Stress anticipation decreased the pain threshold in the isoprenaline-sensitive and increased in the isoprenaline-resistant rats and led to more frequent gastric ulcers in the isoprenaline-resistant group. Significant sex differences were observed both in adrenal weights and TBARS content. The relative adrenal weights were negatively correlated with the TBARS content. We suggest that the outcome of anticipatory stress may depend upon the relation between the hormonal and antioxidant functions of the adrenals and that anticipation-induced activation of antioxidant enzymes may ameliorate the acute stress response. Anticipation itself was found to be a stronger stressor than physical acute stress. [source]