Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of George

  • henry george
  • hurricane george

  • Terms modified by George

  • george bank
  • george bush
  • george hospital
  • george island
  • george medical university
  • george respiratory questionnaire
  • george w. bush
  • george washington

  • Selected Abstracts

    An Intraday Examination of the Components of the Bid,Ask Spread

    FINANCIAL REVIEW, Issue 4 2002
    Thomas H. McInish
    Using transactions data for a sample of NYSE stocks, we decompose the bid,ask spread (BAS) into order,processing (OP) and asymmetric information (AI) components using the techniques of George, Kaul, and Nimalendran (1991) and Madhavan, Richardson, and Roomans (1997). McInish and Wood (1992) demonstrate that the intraday behavior of BASs can be explained by variables measuring activity, competition, risk, and information. We investigate whether these variables explain the behavior of the OP and AI components of the spread over the trading day. We conclude that, on balance, the variables that determine the aggregate BAS also determine its intraday components. [source]

    The Cult of St George in Medieval England , By Jonathan Good

    HISTORY, Issue 318 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Clinical use of the adult attachment interview in parent,infant psychotherapy

    Miriam Steele
    This article provides an illustration of how the use of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985) can be extended beyond the research arena to its use as a clinical instrument in parent,infant psychotherapy. The article is based on the ongoing work of the Parent,Infant Project team at the Anna Freud Centre, London, where psychoanalytically trained therapists routinely administer the AAI early in the therapeutic process. In the first part of the article, we introduce the thinking behind the use of the AAI as a clinical tool and its particular relevance to the field of parent,infant psychotherapy. In the second part, we track the accruing clinical picture built up from a case example of the initial clinical sessions with a father who attended the Parent,Infant Project with his partner and two young children, and from the father's AAI. The discussion of the AAI material illustrates the distinct, yet related, interpretations of the parent,infant psychotherapist and the independent AAI coder as each made sense of the father's interview transcript. The resulting dialogue, between the psychodynamic-clinical and the attachment-research based approaches to the AAI, aims to highlight the added value the interview provides to the clinical understanding and process in parent,infant psychotherapy, which may ultimately help bridge the gap between the research and clinical domains. [source]

    Argyria associated with colloidal silver supplementation

    Jeffrey K. McKenna MD
    A 65-year-old male presented for skin examination and was incidentally noted to have discoloration of the fingernails. These findings were completely asymptomatic. The patient had been taking colloidal silver supplementation (Silverzone‘ 140 p.p.m. silver Gifts of Nature, St. George, UT, USA) for 2 years as therapy for diabetes. He first noticed the onset of nail discoloration 1 year ago. His past medical history included type II diabetes and hypertension. His current medications were metformin, glyburide, and benazepril. Physical examination revealed slate-gray discoloration involving the lunulae of the fingernails (Fig. 1). The skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae were unaffected. Figure 1. Slate-blue pigmentation of the lunula of an affected nail [source]

    Teaching Foreign Policy with Memoirs

    Terry L. Deibel
    Excerpts from the memoirs of high foreign policy officials, if carefully selected and structured, can be a valuable resource in the teaching of diplomatic history, American foreign policy, and international relations. Two decades of teaching a memoirs-only course to mid-career military officers and foreign affairs professionals in a seminar discussion format reveals many of their advantages. Memoirs are interesting reading that rarely fail to engage a reader's attention; they impart detailed knowledge of historical events; they provide a rich understanding of process and the neglected area of policy implementation; like case studies, they let students build vicarious experience in policymaking and execution; and they often provide what Alexander George called "policy-relevant generalizations." While lack of objectivity can be a serious drawback of first-person accounts, it provides its own lessons on the nature of history and can be offset by using multiple accounts of the same events and by combining memoirs with documents and historical works, or countering analytical studies. Although picking the most interesting and worthwhile excerpts, getting them in students' hands, and accommodating their length within the boundaries of a standard college course are additional challenges, professors who take them on should find that memoirs add a new level of excitement and realism to their courses. [source]

    Understanding consumption within a care home: an interpretation of George's experiences of life and death

    Tim Stone
    We are witnessing perhaps the most important shift in the history of mankind , the rapid ageing of the earth's population. This trend raises such issues as elderly care giving and living arrangements in old age. By virtue, the author suggests that managing service provision for elderly consumers within care homes is going to become an increasingly important issue as more consumers live longer and require care. Moreover, given the paucity of literature related to elderly consumers' understandings of such institutions this research aims to illuminate and distil this issue. Based on interpretive methods the author reveals that elderly consumers such as George actively consume life and death related experiences in order to create a meaningful existence within the context of a care home. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    MODERN THEOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    The theological revivification of the concept of gift and gift exchange in the last two decades has provoked questions on how notions of divine superabundance can be translated into economics. In this article, I relate the thinking of Paul Ricoeur, John Milbank, Philip Goodchild and Albino Barrera to a specific economic reform that entails seeing land enclosure as inimical to the stability and fairness of an economy. I refer to the political economy of Henry George (1839,97) which takes land value taxation to be its centrally defining principle for a just economy. [source]

    The Henry George Theorem and the Entrepreneurial Process: Turning Henry George on his Head

    Laurence S. Moss
    This chapter offers an interpretation of the Henry George Theorem (HGT) that brings it squarely into the study and analysis of entrepreneurship somewhat loosening its ties to the subfield of urban economics. I draw on the pioneering work of Spencer Heath whose insights about the viability of proprietary communities were developed further by his grandson, Spencer Heath MacCallum who, in 1970, recognized that private real estate developers sometimes make their capital gains (mostly) by creating useful public spaces that others enjoy. I also draw inspiration from Fred Foldvary's effort in 1994 to synthesize the pubic goods problem in economics with the Henry George Theorem in urban economics. While the real estate owner,developer does emerge on my pages in a somewhat more favourable light than as originally portrayed by Henry George in his Progress and Poverty in 1879, I offer a realistic appraisal of the duplicitous behaviours required of such entrepreneurs. in the context of the modern regulatory state. Real estate development remains a ,hot button' item in local politics, and real estate developers must become genuine ,political entrepreneurs' if they are to complete their projects in a timely way and capture business profits. It is a complicated story that the HGT helps make intelligible in terms of human action. [source]

    Henry George Under the Microscope: Comments on "Henry George's Political Critics"

    Article first published online: 20 OCT 200, Richard Giles
    The annual supplement of the AJES for 2008 titled Henry George: Political Ideologue, Social Philosopher, and Economic Theorist had as its first and longest essay "Henry George's Political Critics" by Professor Michael Hudson. It offered a multitude of criticisms, most of which Prof. Hudson seemed to agree with. All purported to be criticisms of George as a political strategist, though some seem more to originate from Hudson's disagreement with theoretical positions George was bound to take. The purpose of this short paper is to show that Professor Hudson's long article fails to do what it seems intended to do. That is, it fails to show that trade unionists and especially socialists were "natural allies" of the Georgist movement, that it was George's fault that that they were not, and that George "allied" his movement irrevocably to "capital," rejecting its "natural allies." [source]

    Henry George's Political Critics

    Michael Hudson
    Twelve political criticisms of George were paramount after he formed his own political party in 1887: (1) his refusal to join with other reformers to link his proposals with theirs, or to absorb theirs into his own campaign; (2) his singular focus on ground rent to the exclusion of other forms of monopoly income, such as that of the railroads, oil and mining trusts; (3) his almost unconditional support of capital, even against labor; (4) his economic individualism rejecting a strong role for government; (5) his opposition to public ownership or subsidy of basic infrastructure; (6) his refusal to acknowledge interest-bearing debt as the twin form of rentier income alongside ground rent; (7) the scant emphasis he placed on urban land and owner-occupied land; (8) his endorsement of the Democratic Party's free-trade platform; (9) his rejection of an academic platform to elaborate rent theory; (10) the narrowness of his theorizing beyond the land question; (11) the alliance of his followers with the right wing of the political spectrum; and (12) the hope that full taxation of ground rent could be achieved gradually rather than requiring a radical confrontation involving a struggle over control of government. [source]

    Henry George and Classical Growth Theory: A Significant Contribution to Modeling Scale Economies

    John Whitaker
    It is widely recognized that the analysis of economic growth in Henry George's Progress and Poverty was considerably influenced by the British classical tradition, especially the writings of Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and John Stuart Mill. What has been less clearly perceived is that George made significant extensions to the classical theory. This paper's aim is to provide an interpretation, and to some extent a "rational reconstruction," of George's positive analysis, largely leaving aside the striking normative lessons he drew from it. George's unsatisfactory treatment of capital is disposed of in Section I, while Section II,the core of the paper,follows George's lead in aggregating capital and labor into a single productive factor which is employed in a given natural environment. Section III adds the complication of improvement in the arts of production, and Section IV deals briefly with George's views on land speculation. Section V assesses, comparing George with his contemporary Alfred Marshall. [source]

    Recollections of Alex George

    Juliette George
    First page of article [source]

    A tale of two books: Bessarion's In Calumniatorem Platonis and George of Trebizond's Comparatio Philosophorum Platonis et Aristotelis1

    John Monfasani
    The two central Latin works of the Plato-Aristotle Controversy of the Fifteenth Century were George of Trebizond's Comparatio Philosophorum Platonis et Aristotelis and Cardinal Bessarion's In Calumniatorem Platonis in response to George. The Renaissance fortuna of Bessarion's work is well known and reflects the relative success it enjoyed. George's Comparatio, however, had a much harder time of it. The story of its eventually printing in 1523 involves us tracing the history of MS Vat. Lat. 3382 of the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana through Central Europe until its arrival in Venice. The key figure in the printing proved to be the imperial official Jacopo Bannisio. A marginal note by the Englishman Robert Ridley in a copy of Bessarion's work now at Yale University reporting a conversation he had with Jacques LefŤvre d'Etaples in Paris provides interesting insights on how LefŤvre and others viewed the conflict between Bessarion and George as well as on the fortuna of George's Comparatio. [source]

    The Poet and the Warrior: The Symbolist Context of Myth in Stefan George's Early Verse

    THE GERMAN QUARTERLY, Issue 2 2009
    Natasha Grigorian
    The article is the first study of its kind to analyze the mythical strata in the early verse of Stefan George (1868,1933) in the context of French and international Symbolism. Parallels are drawn primarily with the work of Morťas and Heredia, whose inspiration was vital for George in his pioneering adaptation of the French Symbolist credo to German poetry. A close comparison of George's verse with that of the two French poets is further illuminated by references to the painting of Moreau and BŲcklin. The article innovatively employs such conceptual tools as syncretism and mytheme to shed light on the inner workings of George's poetic procedure, uncovering a dialectical struggle between chaos and harmony that underlies his verse and shapes his Symbolist method. In a broader context, the article helps to understand the ways in which George's work re-defined German poetry at the dawn of the twentieth century. [source]

    "Gentleman George" Hunt Pendleton: Party Politics and Ideological Identity in Nineteenth-Century America , By Thomas S. Mach

    THE HISTORIAN, Issue 4 2009
    Russell Blake
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Revolution In Mind: The Creation Of Psychoanalysis by Makari, George

    B. William Brennan
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Gorgeous George: The Outrageous Bad-Boy Wrestler Who Created American Pop Culture

    Travis Vogan
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Using Visual Stimuli in Ethnography

    George Spindler
    In this article, the work of George and Louise Spindler is reviewed with visual stimuli ranging from the Rorschach technique and Thematic Apperception Technique to inventions of their own, the Cross-Cultural Sensitization Technique, the Instrumental Activities Inventory, and the Cross-Cultural, Comparative, Reflective Interview Technique. The sites of the various researches, the methods of application, and a brief analysis of the results are included.,[interview techniques, culture and personality, ethnography and education] [source]

    Eradication of colonizing populations of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by early detection and SCUBA removal: Lake George, NY

    John Wimbush
    Abstract 1.Since their introduction to North America, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) have rapidly colonized North American fresh waters. Strategies for limiting the economic and ecological impacts of zebra mussels exist, but there are few examples where once zebra mussels have invaded a natural body of water they have been removed or managed without the use of ecologically destructive methods. The first successful attempt to eradicate a colonizing population of zebra mussels using SCUBA is reported here. Studies were conducted in Lake George, NY. 2.Since zebra mussel larvae had been detected prior to the discovery of adults in Lake George, a comprehensive management programme for zebra mussels was in place when mussels were found in 1999, at a single location in the southern part of the Lake (Lake George Village site). Efforts were quickly launched to remove as many mussels as possible by SCUBA with the intent of minimizing the risk of the population reproducing and establishing a permanent presence in the Lake. 3.Population size at the discovery site was initially estimated at fewer than 30000 animals. Between 1999 and 2007 more than 21000 animals were removed from the site, over 90% of them shortly after the colony was discovered. Continued monitoring of the site for larvae, recruitment, and growth suggests that the animals have not successfully reproduced since the project began. Since detection at the Lake George Village site, six separate colonizing populations at other locations in the lake were found and similar removal efforts appear to be having comparable success. 4.This study demonstrates that the combination of early detection, suboptimal habitat, proactive establishment of a rapid response and management plan, and cooperation of a comprehensive network of stakeholders can prevent a successful zebra mussel invasion.Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Impact of rootstock on yield and ion concentrations in petioles, juice and wine of Shiraz and Chardonnay in different viticultural environments with different irrigation water salinity

    Abstract Background and Aims: Within-site comparisons were made of rootstock effects on yield, and chloride and sodium concentrations in petioles, juice and wine of Shiraz and Chardonnay vines at sites with irrigation water salinities (ECiw) ranging from low (0.4 dS/m) to moderate-high (1.8 to 3.3 dS/m). It also compared consistency of yield performance of the various rootstocks with both scions over 8 years at one site with an ECiw of 2.1 dS/m. Methods and Results: Chardonnay and Shiraz on own roots and on Ramsey, 1103 Paulsen, 140 Ruggeri, K51-40, Schwarzmann, 101-14, Rupestris St. George and 1202 Couderc were compared. Ramsey resulted in better yields relative to most of the other rootstocks at three of the four sites for each scion. Exceptions were the low salinity site where Schwarzmann was best with Chardonnay, and Padthaway where 140 Ruggeri was best with Shiraz. Chardonnay wine chloride concentrations were similar to grape juice chloride concentrations, but Shiraz wine chloride concentrations were on average 1.7-fold higher than grape juice chloride. Conclusions: Shiraz on own roots, K51-40 and 1202C rootstocks carry some risk of accumulating unacceptable levels of chloride in grape juice and wine when the salinity of the irrigation water is at moderate to high levels. Rootstocks K51-40 (with Chardonnay and Shiraz) and potentially 101-14 (with Shiraz) should be avoided in situations of long term irrigation with moderate to high salinity water. Significance of the Study: The study identifies rootstocks with acceptable yields and grape juice chloride concentrations for potential use in regions affected by salinity. [source]

    A diminished capacity for chloride exclusion by grapevine rootstocks following long-term saline irrigation in an inland versus a coastal region of Australia

    Abstract Shiraz and Chardonnay grapevines that had been initially assessed for Cl - exclusion in the 1996 and 1997 harvest seasons at both Merbein (inland region of Victoria) and at Padthaway (sub-coastal region of South Australia), were re-evaluated in 2003 and 2004 at those same two locations. Both scion varieties were grown either on their own roots or were grafted to one of the following rootstocks: Ramsey, 1103 Paulsen, 140 Ruggeri, K51-40, Schwarzmann, 101-14, Rupestris St George and 1202 Couderc. Both sites had been irrigated with saline water since 1994. The salinity of irrigation water at Merbein was approximately 2.1 dS/m; at Padthaway irrigation salinity varied between approximately 1.6 dS/m and 2.5 dS/m during the survey period. Changes in the Cl - -excluding ability of all rootstock/scion combinations between 1996, 1997 and 2003, 2004 were based upon analysis of Cl - concentrations in grape juice and in laminae at harvest, as well as Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) of the 1:5 soil:water extract. Taking juice Cl - as indicative of rootstock effectiveness for Cl - exclusion, and considering data from Merbein, our analyses demonstrated that overall means for Shiraz juice Cl - increased from around 190 to 427 mg/L over the survey period (7 years). In Chardonnay grapevines at Merbein, overall mean concentrations of Cl - in juice increased from around 70 to around 225 mg/L over 7 years. Significant differences between rootstocks were evident, with some rootstocks at Merbein showing a diminished capacity for Cl - exclusion in 2003 and 2004. By contrast, in Padthaway there was no consistent deterioration in Cl - -excluding capacity by rootstocks supporting either Shiraz or Chardonnay as scions. In 2004 there were significant differences between grapevines at Merbein and Padthaway in the concentration of Cl - accumulated, even though the mean soil EC1:5 after harvest for 0,90 cm depth was the same at both sites, namely 0.4 dS/m. Containment of grapevine salinity at Padthaway (relative to Merbein) between 1996/97 and 2003/04 was most likely due to factors such as a lower volume of saline irrigation, double the rainfall and 27% lower pan evaporation. [source]

    Test of Marginal Compatibility and Smoothing Methods for Exchangeable Binary Data with Unequal Cluster Sizes

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 1 2007
    Zhen Pang
    Summary Exchangeable binary data are often collected in developmental toxicity and other studies, and a whole host of parametric distributions for fitting this kind of data have been proposed in the literature. While these distributions can be matched to have the same marginal probability and intra-cluster correlation, they can be quite different in terms of shape and higher-order quantities of interest such as the litter-level risk of having at least one malformed fetus. A sensible alternative is to fit a saturated model (Bowman and George, 1995, Journal of the American Statistical Association90, 871,879) using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm proposed by Stefanescu and Turnbull (2003, Biometrics59, 18,24). The assumption of compatibility of marginal distributions is often made to link up the distributions for different cluster sizes so that estimation can be based on the combined data. Stefanescu and Turnbull proposed a modified trend test to test this assumption. Their test, however, fails to take into account the variability of an estimated null expectation and as a result leads to inaccurate p -values. This drawback is rectified in this article. When the data are sparse, the probability function estimated using a saturated model can be very jagged and some kind of smoothing is needed. We extend the penalized likelihood method (Simonoff, 1983, Annals of Statistics11, 208,218) to the present case of unequal cluster sizes and implement the method using an EM-type algorithm. In the presence of covariate, we propose a penalized kernel method that performs smoothing in both the covariate and response space. The proposed methods are illustrated using several data sets and the sampling and robustness properties of the resulting estimators are evaluated by simulations. [source]

    Media Reviews Available Online

    Article first published online: 28 JUN 200
    Book reviewed in this article: Blueprints Clinical Cases Emergency Medicine, Second Edition. Edited by Christine Tsien Silvers, Michael R. Filbin, and Aaron B. Caughey. Reviewed by Jennifer M. George. Emergency Orthopedics,The Extremities. Fifth Edition. Edited by R. Simon, S. Sherman, and S. Koenigsknecht. Reviewed by Ryan Murphy and Michelle Marie McLean. Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2007. Forty-sixth Edition. Edited by Lawrence M. Tierney Jr., Stephen J. McPhee, and Maxine A. Papadakis. Reviewed by Eric C. Bruno. Bouncebacks! Emergency Department Cases: ED Returns. Edited by Michael B. Weinstock, Ryan Longstreth, and Gregory L. Henry. Reviewed by Jeffrey R. Suchard. Evidence-based to Value-based Medicine. Edited by Melissa M. Brown, Gary C. Brown, and Sanjay Sharma. Reviewed by William Bond. NMS Emergency Medicine, Second Edition (National Medical Series for Independent Study). Edited by S. H. Plantz and E. J. Wipfler. Reviewed by Michael A. Bohrn. The Guide to Intubation and Practical Emergency Airway Management. By Richard M. Levitan. Reviewed by Jill Corbo. [source]

    Stress Regulation in Adolescents: Physiological Reactivity During the Adult Attachment Interview and Conflict Interaction

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2008
    MariŽlle D. Beijersbergen
    The current study examined whether adolescents' attachment representations were associated with differences in emotion regulation during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1996) and during a mother,adolescent conflict interaction task (Family Interaction Task [FIT]; J. P. Allen et al., 2003). Participants were one hundred and fifty-six 14-year-old adolescents. Dismissing adolescents showed less interbeat interval (IBI) reactivity (indicating less stress) during the AAI than secure adolescents. However, during the FIT, dismissing adolescents showed more IBI reactivity. No differences in physiological reactivity were found between individuals with resolved or unresolved loss or trauma during the AAI or FIT. The results indicate that dismissing adolescents may effectively use a defensive strategy during the AAI but less so in direct conflict interaction with their attachment figure. [source]

    Attachment from Infancy to Early Adulthood in a High-Risk Sample: Continuity, Discontinuity, and Their Correlates

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2000
    Nancy S. Weinfield
    This study explores the stability of attachment security and representations from infancy to early adulthood in a sample chosen originally for poverty and high risk for poor developmental outcomes. Participants for this study were 57 young adults who are part of an ongoing prospective study of development and adaptation in a high-risk sample. Attachment was assessed during infancy by using the Ainsworth Strange Situation (Ainsworth & Wittig) and at age 19 by using the Berkeley Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main). Possible correlates of continuity and discontinuity in attachment were drawn from assessments of the participants and their mothers over the course of the study. Results provided no evidence for significant continuity between infant and adult attachment in this sample, with many participants transitioning to insecurity. The evidence, however, indicated that there might be lawful discontinuity. Analyses of correlates of continuity and discontinuity in attachment classification from infancy to adulthood indicated that the continuous and discontinuous groups were differentiated on the basis of child maltreatment, maternal depression, and family functioning in early adolescence. These results provide evidence that although attachment has been found to be stable over time in other samples, attachment representations are vulnerable to difficult and chaotic life experiences. [source]

    Models for the development of graduate entry medical courses: two case studies

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 11 2004
    David Prideaux
    Introduction, The introduction of graduate entry medical courses requires attention to models of decision-making and change. Much of the educational literature describes change as either centralised or decentralised with the latter claimed to be more effective. Recently Fullan has argued for the importance of an ongoing culture of change. This paper examines the change culture of two medical schools adopting graduate entry courses; Flinders University in South Australia and St George's Hospital Medical School, London. Method, Comparative case study was used. Key informants were interviewed and documents and records analysed. Data were cross-checked and categorised to generate models of change. Results, There were four components of the change culture at Flinders but they were not sufficient on their own to generate change. The process was triggered by a significant external event. The nature of the change was also important. The descriptive model developed suggested a complex interplay of factors rather than attributing the success of the change to the change mechanisms adopted alone. The model was tested for explanatory potential at St George's. The culture there was described as both ,macro-innovative' and ,micro-conservative'. External events were also important but they exerted a positive force. A more centralised approach was adopted. Discussion, The models developed represent change as ,dynamic, complex and open' rather than a simple centralised or decentralised dichotomy. While some of the elements of a change culture were evident at both schools there were longer term questions of sustainability. This has implications for development of all programmes but particularly for graduate entry schools. [source]

    Metric Displacement Dissonance and Romantic Longing in the German Lied

    MUSIC ANALYSIS, Issue 3 2006
    Yonatan Malin
    ABSTRACT This article seeks to explore the hermeneutics of metric dissonance by examining the association between displacement or syncopation-type conflicts and Romantic longing (Sehnsucht) in the German Lied. It includes close readings of music-text relations in four specific songs: the ,Wandrers Nachtlied II' (Goethe/Schubert); ,Intermezzo' (Eichendorff/Schumann); ,Immer leiser wird mein Schlummer' (Lingg/Brahms); and ,Unterm Schutz' (George/Schoenberg). The primary methodology for the process of metric analysis derives from the work of Harald Krebs. The article as a whole traces changes both in the use of displacement dissonance, and in the nature of Sehnsucht, as well as correlations between the two over the course of the ,long nineteenth century'. The four analyses as a group outline an historical progression of ,introduction' (in Schubert), ,intensification' (in Schumann), ,complication' (in Brahms) and ,refraction' (in Schoenberg). The study thereby combines a history of metric dissonance , one of the recurring elements of nineteenth-century style , with that of Sehnsucht , one of the most prominent features of Romantic consciousness. [source]

    Larval lobster (Homarus americanus) distribution and drift in the vicinity of the Gulf of Maine offshore banks and their probable origins

    Abstract Surveys for lobster larvae in offshore waters of the north-eastern Gulf of Maine in 1983, 1987 and 1989 confirm that local hatching occurs mainly at depths <100 m over the banks, including Georges and Browns Banks. Detailed studies in the vicinity of Georges Bank in late July of both 1987 and 1989 indicate that the first and second moult stages were located primarily over the bank whereas stages III and IV lobster were collected both over and off the bank. At times stage IV lobster were more abundant off the bank than over it. The condition of stage III and IV lobster, as measured by a lipid index, was better off than over Georges Bank in 1988 and 1989 indicating a possible physiological advantage to being off the bank. In addition, the higher surface temperatures off Georges Bank would shorten larval development time to settlement. To determine the probable hatch sites of stage IV lobster collected off of Browns Bank in 1983 and off of Georges in 1987 and 1989, a 3-D circulation model of the Gulf of Maine was used to simulate larval lobster drift backwards in time. In all cases, areas off Cape Cod, MA, and off Penobscot Bay, ME were suggested as the source of the larvae, although most of the larval trajectories never reached these near-shore waters that are well-known, larval hatching areas. The model-projected larval release times match most closely the observed inshore hatch off Massachusetts but model uncertainties mean that coastal Maine cannot be ruled out as a source. Georges Bank is also a potential source because the present model does not take into account short-term wind events, off-bank eddy transport or the possibility of directed off-bank larval swimming. Examination of weather records prior to and during our 1988 and 1989 sampling periods indicates that winds were not of sufficient intensity and duration to induce larval transport off Georges Bank. The shedding of eddies from the northern flank of Georges Bank into the Gulf of Maine are a relatively common phenomenon during summer but not enough is known about them to evaluate their contribution to possible cross-bank transport of lobster larvae. Directed larval swimming is another possible source for the stage IV lobster found near Georges Bank. Plankton distributions across the northern frontal zone of Georges Bank in 1988 were used as proxies for the scarce larval lobsters. The more surface distribution of the microplankton, in particular, supports the possibility that wind and eddy events may be important in the transport of stage III and IV lobsters off of Georges Bank. Further studies are needed to evaluate these possible additional sources of advanced stage lobster larvae found off of the offshore banks. [source]

    Structural response of Caribbean dry forests to hurricane winds: a case study from GuŠnica Forest, Puerto Rico

    Skip J. Van Bloem
    Abstract Aim, Tropical dry forests in the Caribbean have an uniquely short, shrubby structure with a high proportion of multiple-stemmed trees compared to dry forests elsewhere in the Neotropics. Previous studies have shown that this structure can arise without the loss of main stems from cutting, grazing, or other human intervention. The Caribbean has a high frequency of hurricanes, so wind may also influence forest stature. Furthermore, these forests also tend to grow on soils with low amounts of available phosphorus, which may also influence structure. The objective of this study was to assess the role of high winds in structuring dry forest, and to determine whether soil nutrient pools influence forest response following hurricane disturbance. Location, GuŠnica Forest, Puerto Rico. Methods, Over 2000 stems in five plots were sampled for hurricane effects within 1 week after Hurricane Georges impacted field sites in 1998. Sprout initiation, growth, and mortality were analysed for 1407 stems for 2 years after the hurricane. Soil nutrient pools were measured at the base of 456 stems to assess association between nutrients and sprout dynamics. Results, Direct effects of the hurricane were minimal, with stem mortality at < 2% and structural damage to stems at 13%, although damage was biased toward stems of larger diameter. Sprouting response was high , over 10 times as many trees had sprouts after the hurricane as before. The number of sprouts on a stem also increased significantly. Sprouting was common on stems that only suffered defoliation or had no visible effects from the hurricane. Sprout survival after 2 years was also high (> 86%). Soil nutrient pools had little effect on forest response as a whole, but phosphorus supply did influence sprout dynamics on four of the more common tree species. Main conclusions, Hurricanes are able to influence Caribbean tropical dry forest structure by reducing average stem diameter and basal area and generating significant sprouting responses. New sprouts, with ongoing survival, will maintain the high frequency of multi-stemmed trees found in this region. Sprouting is not limited to damaged stems, indicating that trees are responding to other aspects of high winds, such as short-term gravitational displacement or sway. Soil nutrients play a secondary role in sprouting dynamics of a subset of species. The short, shrubby forest structure common to the Caribbean can arise naturally as a response to hurricane winds. [source]

    Abiotic and biotic drivers of seedling survival in a hurricane-impacted tropical forest

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Liza S. Comita
    Summary 1. ,Many forests experience periodic, large-scale disturbances, such as hurricanes and cyclones, which open the forest canopy, causing dramatic changes in understorey light conditions and seedling densities. Thus, in hurricane-impacted forests, large variations in abiotic and biotic conditions likely shape seedling dynamics, which in turn will contribute to patterns of forest recovery. 2. ,We monitored 13 836 seedlings of 82 tree and shrub species over 10 years following Hurricane Georges in 1998 in a subtropical, montane forest in Puerto Rico. We quantified changes in the biotic and abiotic environment of the understorey and linked seedling dynamics to changes in canopy openness and seedling density, and to spatial variation in soil type, topography and tree density. 3. ,Canopy openness was highest when first measured after Hurricane Georges and dropped significantly within c. 3 years, while seedling densities remained high for c. 5 years post-hurricane. When all species and census intervals were analysed together, generalized linear mixed effects models revealed that canopy openness, seedling and adult tree densities were significant drivers of seedling survival. 4. ,The relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors changed over time. Separate analyses for each census interval revealed that canopy openness was a significant predictor of survival only for the first census interval, with lower survival at the highest levels of canopy openness. The effect of conspecific seedling density was significant in all intervals except the first, and soil type only in the final census interval. 5. ,When grouping species into life-history guilds based on adult tree susceptibility to hurricane damage, we found clear differences among guilds in the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on seedling survival. Seedlings of hurricane-susceptible and intermediate guilds were more strongly influenced by canopy openness, while seedlings of the hurricane-resistant group were less affected by conspecific seedling density. Individual species-level analyses for 12 common species, however, showed considerable variation among species within guilds. 6. ,Synthesis. Our results suggest that hurricanes shape species composition by altering understorey conditions that differentially influence the success of seedlings. Thus, predicted increases in the intensity and frequency of hurricanes in the Caribbean will likely alter seedling dynamics and ultimately the species composition in hurricane-impacted forests. [source]