Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Games

  • computer games
  • olympic games
  • video games
  • violent video games

  • Selected Abstracts


    Y. H. CHEUNG
    First page of article [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2010
    Richard John Walters
    First page of article [source]


    Olivier Armantier
    This article illustrates how the joint elicitation of subjective probabilities and preferences may help us understand behavior in games. We conduct an experiment to test whether biased probabilistic beliefs may explain overbidding in first-price auctions. The experimental outcomes indicate that subjects underestimate their probability of winning the auction, and indeed overbid. When provided with feedback on the precision of their predictions, subjects learn to make better predictions, and to curb significantly overbidding. The structural estimation of different behavioral models suggests that biased probabilistic beliefs are a driving force behind overbidding, and that risk aversion plays a lesser role than previously believed. [source]


    Robert C. Bird


    Manu Sharma
    A growing research community is working toward employing drama management components in story-based games. These components gently guide the story toward a narrative arc that improves the player's gaming experience. In this article we evaluate a novel drama management approach deployed in an interactive fiction game called Anchorhead. This approach uses player's feedback as the basis for guiding the personalization of the interaction. The results indicate that adding our Case-based Drama manaGer (C-DraGer) to the game guides the players through the interaction and provides a better overall player experience. Unlike previous approaches to drama management, this article focuses on exhibiting the success of our approach by evaluating results using human players in a real game implementation. Based on this work, we report several insights on drama management which were possible only due to an evaluation with real players. [source]

    Serious Games: Broadening Games Impact Beyond Entertainment

    Ben Sawyer
    Computer and videogames for many years has been an island of technology and design innovation largely left to itself as it morphed from a cottage business into a global media and software industry. While there have been pockets of derivative activity related to games and game technology only in the last half-dozen years has there been a real movement toward exploiting this industry in many new and exciting ways. Today the general use of games and game technologies for purposes beyond entertainment is collectively referred to as serious games. The Serious Games Initiative was formed in 2002 and since its inception has been among a number of critical efforts that has helped open up the world and many disciplines to the ideas and innovations that may be sourced from the commercial, independent, and academic game fields. This has been a person-by-person, project-by-project effort that not only has informed us about the potential of games but also in how you merge innovation and innovators from one discipline with those in another. In this talk we will explore the total gamut of the serious games field identifying past the obvious how games and game technologies are being applied to problems in a wide array of areas including healthcare, productivity, visualization, science, and of course training and education. Once a proper definition of serious games is established the talk will focus on the current state of the field as it relates to research and infrastructure issues that are needed to make the difference between seeing serious games take hold as a major new practice or having it devolve into another trend of the moment lost to history. [source]

    Why Games Will Be the Preeminent Art Form of the 21stCentury

    Chris Hecker
    Computer games share many artistic and technical characteristics with films of the early 1900s. Games' artistic evolution is hampered by the lack of artistic respect from society at large, and the lack of technical standards that would allow artistic innovation. The same problems affected cinema during its birth. During the early 20th century, film managed to find its way from popular diversion to highly respected art form. Will games follow the same course, or will they be stuck forever in the ghetto of pop culture? What technological and artistic changes need to occur in the medium for games to evolve beyond merely shooting aliens and into an art form worthy of association with painting, music, writing, and film? This talk will pose some of those questions, if not attempt to answer them. [source]

    The role of stakeholders in Sydney's green games

    Kate Kearins
    This paper focuses on the various roles played by stakeholders in the construction of Sydney Olympics as the Green Games. It draws material from the official website of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, the websites and other material made public by major stakeholders, and the considerable commentary generated by the greening efforts of the games' organizers and their many partners and critics. Sydney's ,Green Games' is shown to involve a wide variety of stakeholders in both its construction and deconstruction. Environmental groups both assisted in defining the agenda and, in retaining their independence, reserved the right to evaluate and publicly critique performance. It is argued that through the engagement of stakeholders, organizations can be expected to understand and elucidate the different dimensions of the environmental challenge they face,even though at times, as the Sydney ,Green Games' example shows, they may not fully meet these more exacting expectations, and the environmental groups themselves thus risk becoming compromised. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment. [source]

    Oro-facial injuries in Central American and Caribbean sports games: a 20-year experience

    Enrique Amy
    Abstract,,, Dental services in sports competitions in the Games sponsored by the International Olympic Committee are mandatory. In every Central American, Pan American and Olympic Summer Games, as well as Winter Games, the Organizing Committee has to take all the necessary measures to assure dental services to all competitors. In all Olympic villages, as part of the medical services, a dental clinic is set up to treat any dental emergency that may arise during the Games. Almost every participating country in the Games has its own medical team and some may include a dentist. The major responsibilities of the team dentist as a member of the national sports delegation include: (i) education of the sports delegation about different oral and dental diseases and the illustration of possible problems that athletes or other personnel may encounter during the Games, (ii) adequate training and management of orofacial trauma during the competition, (iii) knowledge about the rules and regulations of the specific sport that the dentist is working, (iv) understanding of the anti-doping control regulations and procedures, (v) necessary skills to fabricate a custom-made and properly fitted mouthguard to all participants in contact or collision sports of the delegation. This study illustrates the dental services and occurrence of orofacial injury at the Central American and Caribbean Sports Games of the Puerto Rican Delegation for the past 20 years. A total of 2107 participants made up the six different delegations at these Games. Of these 279 or 13.2% were seen for different dental conditions. The incidence of acute or emergency orofacial conditions was 18 cases or 6% of the total participants. The most frequent injury was lip contusion with four cases and the sport that experienced more injuries was basketball with three cases. [source]

    The Role of Information in Repeated Games With Frequent Actions

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 3 2010
    Yuliy Sannikov
    We show that in repeated interactions the avenues for effective provision of incentives depend crucially on the type of information players observe. We establish this conclusion for general repeated two-player games in which information arrives via a continuous-time stationary process that has a continuous multidimensional Brownian component and a Poisson component, and in which the players act frequently. The Poisson jumps can be used to effectively provide incentives both with transfers and value burning, while continuous Brownian information can be used to provide incentives only with transfers. [source]

    Sequential Estimation of Dynamic Discrete Games: A Comment

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 2 2010
    Martin Pesendorfer
    Recursive procedures which are based on iterating on the best response mapping have difficulties converging to all equilibria in multi-player games. We illustrate these difficulties by revisiting the asymptotic properties of the iterative nested pseudo maximum likelihood method for estimating dynamic games introduced by Aguirregabiria and Mira (2007). An example shows that the iterative method may not be consistent. [source]

    Hard-to-Solve Bimatrix Games

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 2 2006
    Rahul Savani
    The Lemke,Howson algorithm is the classical method for finding one Nash equilibrium of a bimatrix game. This paper presents a class of square bimatrix games for which this algorithm takes, even in the best case, an exponential number of steps in the dimension d of the game. Using polytope theory, the games are constructed using pairs of dual cyclic polytopes with 2d suitably labeled facets in d -space. The construction is extended to nonsquare games where, in addition to exponentially long Lemke,Howson computations, finding an equilibrium by support enumeration takes on average exponential time. [source]

    Belief-Free Equilibria in Repeated Games

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 2 2005
    Jeffrey C. Ely
    We introduce a class of strategies that generalizes examples constructed in two-player games under imperfect private monitoring. A sequential equilibrium is belief-free if, after every private history, each player's continuation strategy is optimal independently of his belief about his opponents' private histories. We provide a simple and sharp characterization of equilibrium payoffs using those strategies. While such strategies support a large set of payoffs, they are not rich enough to generate a folk theorem in most games besides the prisoner's dilemma, even when noise vanishes. [source]

    Two Competing Models of How People Learn in Games

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 6 2002
    Ed Hopkins
    Reinforcement learning and stochastic fictitious play are apparent rivals as models of human learning. They embody quite different assumptions about the processing of information and optimization. This paper compares their properties and finds that they are far more similar than were thought. In particular, the expected motion of stochastic fictitious play and reinforcement learning with experimentation can both be written as a perturbed form of the evolutionary replicator dynamics. Therefore they will in many cases have the same asymptotic behavior. In particular, local stability of mixed equilibria under stochastic fictitious play implies local stability under perturbed reinforcement learning. The main identifiable difference between the two models is speed: stochastic fictitious play gives rise to faster learning. [source]

    Communication and Equilibrium in Discontinuous Games of Incomplete Information

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 5 2002
    Matthew O. Jackson
    This paper offers a new approach to the study of economic problems usually modeled as games of incomplete information with discontinuous payoffs. Typically, the discontinuities arise from indeterminacies (ties) in the underlying problem. The point of view taken here is that the tie,breaking rules that resolve these indeterminacies should be viewed as part of the solution rather than part of the description of the model. A solution is therefore a tie,breaking rule together with strategies satisfying the usual best,response criterion. When information is incomplete, solutions need not exist; that is, there may be no tie,breaking rule that is compatible with the existence of strategy profiles satisfying the usual best,response criteria. It is shown that the introduction of incentive compatible communication (cheap talk) restores existence. [source]

    Cognition and Behavior in Normal-Form Games: An Experimental Study

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 5 2001
    Miguel Costa-Gomes
    This paper reports experiments designed to study strategic sophistication, the extent to which behavior in games reflects attempts to predict others' decisions, taking their incentives into account. We study subjects' initial responses to normal-form games with various patterns of iterated dominance and unique pure-strategy equilibria without dominance, using a computer interface that allowed them to search for hidden payoff information, while recording their searches. Monitoring subjects' information searches along with their decisions allows us to better understand how their decisions are determined, and subjects' deviations from the search patterns suggested by equilibrium analysis help to predict their deviations from equilibrium decisions. [source]

    Single Crossing Properties and the Existence of Pure Strategy Equilibria in Games of Incomplete Information

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 4 2001
    Susan Athey
    This paper analyzes a class of games of incomplete information where each agent has private information about her own type, and the types are drawn from an atomless joint probability distribution. The main result establishes existence of pure strategy Nash equilibria (PSNE) under a condition we call the single crossing condition (SCC), roughly described as follows: whenever each opponent uses a nondecreasing strategy (in the sense that higher types choose higher actions), a player's best response strategy is also nondecreasing. When the SCC holds, a PSNE exists in every finite-action game. Further, for games with continuous payoffs and a continuum of actions, there exists a sequence of PSNE to finite-action games that converges to a PSNE of the continuum-action game. These convergence and existence results also extend to some classes of games with discontinuous payoffs, such as first-price auctions, where bidders may be heterogeneous and reserve prices are permitted. Finally, the paper characterizes the SCC based on properties of utility functions and probability distributions over types. Applications include first-price, multi-unit, and all-pay auctions; pricing games with incomplete information about costs; and noisy signaling games. [source]

    News and Nuances of the Entrepreneurial Myth and Metaphor: Linguistic Games in Entrepreneurial Sense-Making and Sense-Giving

    Louise Nicholson
    This article describes a social construction of entrepreneurship by exploring the constructionalist building blocks of communication, myth, and metaphor presented in a major British middle range broadsheet newspaper with no particular party political allegiance. We argue that the sense-making role of figurative language is important because of the inherent problems in defining and describing the entrepreneurial phenomena. Myth and metaphor in newspapers create an entrepreneurial appreciation that helps define our understanding of the world around us. The content analysis of articles published in this newspaper revealed images of male entrepreneurs as dynamic wolfish charmers, supernatural gurus, successful skyrockets or community saviors and corrupters. Finally, this article relates the temporal construction of myth and metaphor to the dynamics of enterprise culture. [source]

    Business,Regulatory Relations: Learning to Play Regulatory Games in European Utility Markets

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 3 2005
    DAVID COENArticle first published online: 13 JUN 200
    Although regulation is on the rise in the European Union, the liberalization of the telecommunication and energy markets has not created a uniform European Regulatory model. The principle focus of this article is to examine the interaction and regulatory learning between national regulatory authorities and business in the U.K. and German utility markets to assess the degree of convergence and demonstrate how the regulatory relationship has evolved beyond that envisaged in the initial delegation of powers to the regulator. The article shows that independent regulatory authorities have moved from distant and often confrontational relationships with business to strategic working relationships driven by exchanges of information and reputation building and that regulatory learning and trust have evolved at distinct speeds in sectors and countries depending on the number of regulatory authorities in a market place, the degree to which there are concurrent powers between authorities, their discretion in the consultation process, and the length of time that regulatory authorities had existed. Consequently, significant variance is continuously seen in the business,regulator relationships in comparing the young legalist German regulatory authorities with the established independent and discretion-based regulators in the U.K. [source]

    To go or stay home and watch: exploring the balance between motives and perceived constraints for major events: a case study of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Daniel C. Funk
    Abstract The current study offers insight into the role of motivation and constraints on behavioural intentions prior to a mega event. The Psychological Continuum Model framework was used to integrate motivation and leisure constraints theory to examine attraction towards the 2008 Olympic Games. Semi-structured interviews (N = 47) and a questionnaire (N = 235) distributed in Australia and the USA were used to identify and measure three motivational themes: cultural learning, cultural experience and olympic event interest, and three perceived constraints: structural, interpersonal and intrapersonal. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that motives were positively related to behavioural intentions while constraints were negatively related. Analysis further revealed the interaction between motives and perceived constraints led to two different forms of behavioural intentions; intentions to travel and attend the event vs. stay home to watch the event on TV. Policy and marketing implications are discussed that illustrate the benefits of understanding both motives and perceived constraints for tourism travel. Copyright 2008 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Fun in the family: tourism and the Commonwealth Games

    Leonie Lockstone
    Abstract This paper uses the context of the Commonwealth in order to focus on a specific dimension of tourism that is located within it, that of the mega all-Commonwealth event, the Commonwealth Games, and its impact in tourism terms. Sports events and tourism are closely linked and it is abundantly clear that the tourism potential of mega sporting events such as the Commonwealth Games is a major factor in encouraging cities to bid to host such events. Such tourism potential relates to the immediate attraction of the event to athletes and officials associated with the event, volunteers and paid employees who work at the event and, in particular, international and domestic visitors as games spectators and participants. This paper sets the Commonwealth Games in the wider context of sports tourism and will address their impact through consideration of the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, Australia. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Sponsor hospitality at the Olympic Games: an analysis of the implications for tourism

    Graham Brown
    Abstract The study examined the impact on tourism of sponsor hospitality programmes at the Sydney Olympic Games. With preferential access to resources accorded to Olympic sponsors, new tourism networks were created. The role of the media, interpersonal communication and implicit messages using Olympic symbols are discussed. A survey of people invited by Olympic sponsors to attend the Sydney Olympic Games found that 80% of guests had not previously visited Australia. Positive evaluations of their experience at the Olympic Games, attending events and visiting the host city, created a desire to return and to recommend the destination to others. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Language Games and Natural Reactions

    David Rubinstein
    Ludwig Wittgenstein imagines a variety of eccentric social practices,like a tribe trained "to give no expression of feeling of any kind". But he also speaks of "the common behavior of mankind" that is rooted in "natural/primitive reactions". This emphasis on the uniformities of human behavior raises questions about the plausibility of some of his imagined language games. Indeed, it suggests the claim of evolutionary psychologists that there are biologically based human universals that shape social practices. But in contrast to E.O. Wilson's belief that "genes hold culture on a leash", Wittgenstein sees culture as a mediator,rather than a conduit,of "natural reactions". This suggests that social science can incorporate the claims of evolutionary psychology without scanting the centrality of culture in action and allows that nature can be overwhelmed by culture. [source]

    To What Extent Does the Financial Reporting Process Curb Earnings Surprise Games?

    ABSTRACT Managers play earnings surprise games to avoid negative earnings surprises by managing earnings upward or by managing analysts' earnings expectations downward. We investigate the effectiveness of the financial reporting process at restraining earnings surprise games. Because the annual reporting process is subject to an independent audit and more rigorous expense recognition rules than interim reporting, it provides managers with fewer opportunities to manage earnings upward. We document that, relative to interim reporting, annual reporting reduces the likelihood of income-increasing earnings management and, to a lesser extent, of negative surprise avoidance, but increases the magnitude of downward expectations management. Our findings suggest that regulatory attempts to monitor corporations' internal checks and balances are likely to be more effective at curbing upward earnings management than at mitigating negative surprise avoidance. [source]

    Determinants of Parents' Sideline-Rage Emotions and Behaviors at Youth Soccer Games,

    Jay D. Goldstein
    The present research extended and tested a motivational model of anger and aggression, derived from self-determination theory. It was hypothesized that control-oriented parents would exhibit more ego defensiveness, feel more pressure, and thus report higher levels of sport parental anger and aggression. Conversely, autonomy-oriented parents were predicted to experience less ego defensiveness, feel less pressure, and thus report lower levels of sport parent anger and aggression. Participants were 340 parents of youth soccer players (boys and girls ages 8,16). The majority of participants reported experiencing anger and responded with varying levels of aggression. The results provide strong support for the hypotheses and suggest that control orientation determines parents' ego defensiveness, which in turn leads to anger and aggressive spectator behavior. [source]

    Effects of Violent Versus Nonviolent Video Games on Children's Arousal, Aggressive Mood, and Positive Mood

    Michele J. Fleming
    This study investigated the relationship between violent video games and children's mood. A total of 71 children aged 8 to 12 years played a paper-and-pencil game, a nonviolent video game, and a violent video game. Results indicate that arousal, as measured by heart rate and self-reported arousal, increased significantly after playing the violent video game, as compared with the other two game conditions, with girls reporting more arousal than did boys. There was no significant increase in aggressive mood scores for either boys or girls after playing the violent game. Positive mood, as measured by positive affect, showed no significant increases or decreases after playing either video game. However, positive mood, as measured by general mood, showed a significant increase after playing the violent game for both boys and girls, but only as compared with the paper-and-pencil game. Results are interpreted in terms of social learning and cognitive information processing theories of aggression. [source]

    Games, Gambling, and Children: Applying the Precautionary Principle for Child Health

    Adnan A. Hyder MD
    TOPIC:,We were compelled by the trends of Internet gambling, state-initiated gambling outlets, and of having gambling social events in middle schools and high schools in the United States to examine gambling and its health effects on children and adolescents. PURPOSE AND SOURCES:,We researched trends in adolescent gambling as well as its association with negative health and sociological outcomes through the literature for child and adolescent gambling studies. CONCLUSION:,The literature shows gambling to be associated with many negative health and socioeconomic effects. The increasing participation of children and adolescents is of particular concern, for the earlier a person starts gambling, the more likely that person is to develop serious gambling problems. We propose the application of the precautionary principle in this situation. Until it is proven that adolescents will not be negatively affected by exposure to gambling, the exposure of adolescents to gambling must be carefully restricted. [source]

    Third-Person Perceptions and Online Games: A Comparison of Perceived Antisocial and Prosocial Game Effects

    Zhi-Jin Zhong
    The popularity of online games has inspired controversial discussion on the effects of game-play in both mass media and academia. However, we know little about ordinary people's opinions about the effects of game-play. The current study applies the theory of the third-person effect (TPE) to examine people's perceptions of game effects on self and on others, and detects significant third-person perceptual discrepancies. The results show that the magnitude of third-person perceptions is influenced by the social desirability of the message, the social distance between self and others, and by differential exposure to online games. The data supports the hypotheses that Internet efficacy and interdependent self-construal are significant antecedents of third-person perceptions, and partially supports the interaction effect of self-construal with Internet-efficacy and the interaction effect of self-construal with media social desirability. [source]

    Gender and Computer Games: Exploring Females' Dislikes

    Tilo Hartmann
    On average, girls and women are less involved with video games than are boys and men, and when they do play, they often prefer different games. This article reports two studies that investigated the dislikes of German females with regard to video games. Study 1 applied conjoint analysis to female respondents' (N= 317) ratings of fictional video games and demonstrated that lack of meaningful social interaction, followed by violent content and sexual gender role stereotyping of game characters, were the most important reasons why females disliked the games. Study 2, an online survey (N= 795), revealed that female respondents were less attracted to competitive elements in video games, suggesting an explanation for gender-specific game preferences. These findings are discussed with respect to communication theory on interactive entertainment and their implications for applied video game design. [source]

    Training Decision Makers , Tactical Decision Games

    Margaret T. Crichton
    There is growing recognition of the need to train non-technical skills, especially decision making, for emergency management in high reliability industries as well as in contained environments such as prisons. This article presents a training method, Tactical Decision Games, which appears to provide a good opportunity to practise the non-technical skills that would be required in the management of an emergency situation. Case studies from the UK nuclear power industry and the Scottish Prison Service (SPS) illustrate the adaptability and general application of TDGs for training of emergency response teams in a range of operational settings. [source]