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## Gas Pipelines (gas + pipeline)
## Selected Abstracts## Surfactant Systems: A Survey of the Transcontinental Gas Pipeline from Houston to New Jersey ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Issue 6 2005Petia MorozovAbstract The Transcontinental Pipeline, Transco, is a 10,560-mile line that traverses the US, transporting natural gas from its source in the Gulf of Mexico to the East Coast. Petia Morozov describes the postwar engineering feat that made the pipeline a reality, and also reveals the web of myriad agreements, with often diametrically opposed parties or interests, that support its rights of way and management. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## Probabilistic Neural Network for Reliability Assessment of Oil and Gas Pipelines COMPUTER-AIDED CIVIL AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING, Issue 5 2002Sunil K. SinhaA fuzzy artificial neural network (ANN),based approach is proposed for reliability assessment of oil and gas pipelines. The proposed ANN model is trained with field observation data collected using magnetic flux leakage (MFL) tools to characterize the actual condition of aging pipelines vulnerable to metal loss corrosion. The objective of this paper is to develop a simulation-based probabilistic neural network model to estimate the probability of failure of aging pipelines vulnerable to corrosion. The approach is to transform a simulation-based probabilistic analysis framework to estimate the pipeline reliability into an adaptable connectionist representation, using supervised training to initialize the weights so that the adaptable neural network predicts the probability of failure for oil and gas pipelines. This ANN model uses eight pipe parameters as input variables. The output variable is the probability of failure. The proposed method is generic, and it can be applied to several decision problems related with the maintenance of aging engineering systems. [source] ## Russia ties-up more oil and gas OIL AND ENERGY TRENDS, Issue 2 2008Article first published online: 12 FEB 200An agreement signed in January between Russia and Bulgaria for a gas pipeline between the two countries marks one more step in Moscow's attempts to tie-up as much of the oil and gas trade between Europe and the Former Soviet Union. Complain as it might about growing dependence on Russian energy, the EU is failing to find any realistic alternative as Moscow outmanoeuvres it at every stage. [source] ## Probabilistic Neural Network for Reliability Assessment of Oil and Gas Pipelines COMPUTER-AIDED CIVIL AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING, Issue 5 2002Sunil K. SinhaA fuzzy artificial neural network (ANN),based approach is proposed for reliability assessment of oil and gas pipelines. The proposed ANN model is trained with field observation data collected using magnetic flux leakage (MFL) tools to characterize the actual condition of aging pipelines vulnerable to metal loss corrosion. The objective of this paper is to develop a simulation-based probabilistic neural network model to estimate the probability of failure of aging pipelines vulnerable to corrosion. The approach is to transform a simulation-based probabilistic analysis framework to estimate the pipeline reliability into an adaptable connectionist representation, using supervised training to initialize the weights so that the adaptable neural network predicts the probability of failure for oil and gas pipelines. This ANN model uses eight pipe parameters as input variables. The output variable is the probability of failure. The proposed method is generic, and it can be applied to several decision problems related with the maintenance of aging engineering systems. [source] ## The Revenge of Distance: Vulnerability Analysis of Critical Information Infrastructure JOURNAL OF CONTINGENCIES AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2004Sean P. GormanThe events of 11 September 2001 brought an increased focus on security in the United States and specifically the protection of critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure encompasses a wide array of physical assets such as the electric power grid, telecommunications, oil and gas pipelines, transportation networks and computer data networks. This paper will focus on computer data networks and the spatial implications of their susceptibility to targeted attacks. Utilising a database of national data carriers, simulations will be run to determine the repercussions of targeted attacks and what the relative merits of different methods of identifying critical nodes are. This analysis will include comparison of current methods employed in vulnerability analysis with spatially constructed methods incorporating regional and distance variables. In addition to vulnerability analysis a method will be proposed to analyse the fusion of physical and logical networks, and will discuss what new avenues this approach reveals. The analysis concludes that spatial information networks are vulnerable to targeted attacks and algorithms based on distance metrics do a better job of identifying critical nodes than classic accessibility indexes. The results of the analysis are placed in the context of public policy posing the question do private infrastructure owners have sufficient incentives to remedy vulnerabilities in critical networks. [source] ## Multiscale modeling for gas flow in pipe networks MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN THE APPLIED SCIENCES, Issue 8 2008Mapundi K. BandaAbstract We consider a multiscale network of natural gas pipelines. Different arcs of the network are to be modeled by possibly different models depending on the requisite qualitative detail required: an isothermal Euler system of equations; linearized model derived from the isothermal Euler system or a steady-state model of gas flow also referred to as an algebraic model. At the vertices (or joints) of the network coupling conditions are defined. An analysis of the well posedness of the hierarchial coupling conditions is presented. The analytical results are tested numerically on different network configurations including a real-world network based on the Canadian mainline gas network. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source] ## The economics of transit oil and gas pipelines: a review of the fundamentals OPEC ENERGY REVIEW, Issue 2 2009Ekpen J. OmonbudeThe growing relevance of transit oil and gas pipelines is reflected in the general anticipation of an increase in their construction in the future because of factors such as the increasing discoveries of reserves in remote and land-locked locations, the depletion of reserves close to established markets, and improvements in cost-effective technological methods of exploration and production in previously uneconomic reserves. Recent disputes between parties to transit pipeline agreements demonstrate, in addition to other problems, the relevance of a fundamental analysis of the workings of oil and gas pipelines in economics. The objective of this paper therefore is to provide a fundamental framework for understanding and analysing transit oil and gas pipelines. The paper finds that the concept of economic rent, natural monopoly and basic cost concepts clearly explain the rationale behind the imposition of a transit fee, although they do not sufficiently define how they are determined. [source] |