Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Garnet

  • aluminium garnet
  • aluminum garnet
  • gallium garnet
  • yttrium aluminum garnet

  • Terms modified by Garnet

  • garnet core
  • garnet laser
  • garnet porphyroblast
  • garnet zone

  • Selected Abstracts

    Provenance of sandstones from the Wakino Subgroup of the Lower Cretaceous Kanmon Group, northern Kyushu, Japan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2000
    Daniel K. Asiedu
    Abstract The Wakino Subgroup is a lower stratigraphic unit of the Lower Cretaceous Kanmon Group. Previous studies on provenance of Wakino sediments have mainly concentrated on either petrography of major framework grains or bulk rock geochemistry of shales. This study addresses the provenance of the Wakino sandstones by integrating the petrographic, bulk rock geochemistry, and mineral chemistry approaches. The proportions of framework grains of the Wakino sandstones suggest derivation from either a single geologically heterogeneous source terrane or multiple source areas. Major source lithologies are granitic rocks and high-grade metamorphic rocks but notable amounts of detritus were also derived from felsic, intermediate and mafic volcanic rocks, older sedimentary rocks, and ophiolitic rocks. The heavy mineral assemblage include, in order of decreasing abundance: opaque minerals (ilmenite and magnetite with minor rutile), zircon, garnet, chromian spinel, aluminum silicate mineral (probably andalusite), rutile, epidote, tourmaline and pyroxene. Zircon morphology suggests its derivation from granitic rocks. Chemistry of chromian spinel indicates that the chromian spinel grains were derived from the ultramafic cumulate member of an ophiolite suite. Garnet and ilmenite chemistry suggests their derivation from metamorphic rocks of the epidote-amphibolite to upper amphibolite facies though other source rocks cannot be discounted entirely. Major and trace element data for the Wakino sediments suggest their derivation from igneous and/or metamorphic rocks of felsic composition. The major element compositions suggest that the type of tectonic environment was of an active continental margin. The trace element data indicate that the sediments were derived from crustal rocks with a minor contribution from mantle-derived rocks. The trace element data further suggest that recycled sedimentary rocks are not major contributors of detritus. It appears that the granitic and metamorphic rocks of the Precambrian Ryongnam Massif in South Korea were the major contributors of detritus to the Wakino basin. A minor but significant amount of detritus was derived from the basement rocks of the Akiyoshi and Sangun Terrane. The chromian spinel appears to have been derived from a missing terrane though the ultramafic rocks in the Ogcheon Belt cannot be discounted. [source]

    Garnet,chloritoid,kyanite assemblages: eclogite facies indicators of subduction constraints in orogenic belts

    A. J. SMYE
    Abstract The assemblage garnet,chloritoid,kyanite is shown to be quite common in high-pressure eclogite facies metapelites from orogenic belts around the world, and occurs over a narrowly restricted range of temperature ,550,600 °C, between 20 and 25 kbar. This assemblage is favoured particularly by large Al2O3:K2O ratios allowing the development of kyanite in addition to garnet and chloritoid. Additionally, ferric iron and manganese also help stabilize chloritoid in this assemblage. Pseudosections for several bulk compositions illustrate these high-pressure assemblages, and a new thermodynamic model for white mica to include calcium and ferric iron was required to complete the calculations. It is extraordinary that so many orogenic eclogite facies rocks, both mafic eclogites sensu stricto as well as metapelites with the above assemblage, all yield temperatures within the range of 520,600 °C and peak pressures ,23±3 kbar. Subduction of oceanic crust and its entrained associated sedimentary material must involve the top of the slab, where mafic and pelitic rocks may easily coexist, passing through these P,T conditions, such that rocks, if they proceed to further depths, are generally not returned to the surface. This, together with the tightly constrained range in peak temperatures which such eclogites experience, suggests thermal weakening being a major control on the depths at which crustal material is decoupled from the downgoing slab. [source]

    Phase equilibria modelling of kyanite-bearing anatectic paragneisses from the central Grenville Province

    Abstract Kyanite-bearing paragneisses from the Manicouagan Imbricate Zone and its footwall (high- P belt of the central Grenville Province) preserve evidence of partial melting with development of metamorphic textures involving biotite,garnet ± kyanite ± plagioclase ± K-feldspar,quartz. Garnet in these rocks displays a variety of zoning patterns with respect to Ca. Pseudosection modelling in the Na2O,CaO,K2O,FeO,MgO,Al2O3,SiO2,H2O,TiO2,O (NCKFMASHTO) system using measured bulk rock compositions accounts for the textural evolution of two aluminous and two sub-aluminous samples from the presumed thermal peak to conditions at which retained melt solidified. The prograde features are best explained by pseudosections calculated with compositions to account for melt loss. The intersection of isopleths of grossular content and Fe/(Fe + Mg) relating to large porphyroblasts of garnet provide constraints on the P,T conditions of the metamorphic peak. These P,T estimates are considered to be minima because of the potential for diffusional modification of the composition of garnet at high- T and during the early stages of cooling. However, they are consistent with textural observations and pseudosection topology, with peak assemblages best preserved in rocks for which the calculated pseudosections predict only small changes in mineral proportions in the P,T interval, in which retrograde reactions are inferred to have occurred between the thermal peak and the solidus. Maximum P,T conditions (14.5,15.5 kbar and 840,890 °C) and steep retrograde P,T paths inferred for rocks from the Manicouagan Imbricate Zone are comparable with those determined for mafic rocks from the same area. In contrast, maximum P,T conditions of 12.5,13 kbar and 815,830 °C and flatter P,T paths are inferred for the rocks of the footwall to the Manicouagan Imbricate Zone. The general consistency between textures, mineral compositions and the topologies of the calculated pseudosections suggests that the pseudosection approach is an appropriate tool for inferring the P,T evolution of high- P anatectic quartzo-feldspathic rocks. [source]

    Characterization of polymetamorphism in the Austroalpine basement east of the Tauern Window using garnet isopleth thermobarometry

    Abstract Garnet in metapelites from the Wölz and Rappold Complexes of the Austroalpine basement east of the Tauern Window typically shows two distinct growth zones. A first garnet generation usually forms the cores of garnet porphyroblasts and is separated by a prominent microstructural and chemical discontinuity from a second garnet generation, which forms rims of variable width. Whereas the rims were formed during the Eo-Alpine metamorphic overprint, the garnet cores represent remnants of at least two pre-Eo-Alpine metamorphic events. The pressure and temperature estimates obtained from garnet isopleth thermobarometry applied to the first growth increments of the pre-Eo-Alpine garnet cores from the Wölz and Rappold Complexes cluster into two distinct domains: (i) in the Wölz Complex, incipient growth of the first-generation garnet occurred at 4 ± 0.5 kbar and 535 ± 20 °C, (ii) in the Rappold Complex, incipient growth of the oldest garnet cores took place at 5.3 ± 0.3 kbar and 525 ± 15 °C. The Eo-Alpine garnet generation started to grow at 6.5 ± 0.5 kbar and 540 ± 10 °C. According to radiometric dating, the low-pressure garnet from the Wölz complex was formed during a Permian metamorphic event. The first-generation garnet of the Rappold Complex is probably of Variscan age. [source]

    Reconstructing P,T paths during continental collision using multi-stage garnet (Gran Paradiso nappe, Western Alps)

    Abstract Garnet,chloritoid-bearing micaschists from the Gran Paradiso massif (Western Alps) contain evidence of a polymetamorphic evolution. Detailed textural observations reveal that two stages of garnet growth are present in the micaschists, interpreted as: (i) relics of an early metamorphism of pre-Alpine age and (ii) newly grown Alpine garnet, respectively. Both generations of garnet preserve growth zoning. From thermocalc -based numerical modelling of mineral assemblages in pressure,temperature (P,T) pseudosections, we infer that garnet 1 grew at increasing temperature and slightly increasing pressure, whereas garnet 2 grew at decreasing pressure and slightly increasing temperature. Estimated P,T conditions are ,620 °C, 6 kbar for the peak of the pre-Alpine event, and of 490 °C, 18,20 kbar for the pressure peak of the Alpine event. Modelling of the modal proportion and chemical composition of garnet (i) shows that the subsequent decompression (to 14,15 kbar at 550 °C) must have been accompanied by moderate heating and (ii) does not support a stage of final temperature increase following decompressional cooling. This argues against a late thermal pulse associated with mantle delamination. Preservation of growth zoning in both generations of garnet and the limited amount of diffusive re-equilibration at the boundary between the two garnets suggests that the rocks were subjected to fast burial and exhumation rates, consistent with data obtained from other internal Alpine units. [source]

    Separate or shared metamorphic histories of eclogites and surrounding rocks?

    An example from the Bohemian Massif
    Abstract Eclogite boudins occur within an orthogneiss sheet enclosed in a Barrovian metapelite-dominated volcano-sedimentary sequence within the Velké Vrbno unit, NE Bohemian Massif. A metamorphic and lithological break defines the base of the eclogite-bearing orthogneiss nappe, with a structurally lower sequence without eclogite exposed in a tectonic window. The typical assemblage of the structurally upper metapelites is garnet,staurolite,kyanite,biotite,plagioclase,muscovite,quartz,ilmenite ± rutile ± silli-manite and prograde-zoned garnet includes chloritoid,chlorite,paragonite,margarite, staurolite,chlorite,paragonite,margarite and kyanite,chlorite,rutile. In pseudosection modelling in the system Na2O,CaO,K2O,FeO,MgO,Al2O3,SiO2,H2O (NCKFMASH) using THERMOCALC, the prograde path crosses the discontinuous reaction chloritoid + margarite = chlorite + garnet + staurolite,+,paragonite (with muscovite + quartz + H2O) at 9.5 kbar and 570 °C and the metamorphic peak is reached at 11 kbar and 640 °C. Decompression through about 7 kbar is indicated by sillimanite and biotite growing at the expense of garnet. In the tectonic window, the structurally lower metapelites (garnet,staurolite,biotite,muscovite,quartz ± plagioclase ± sillimanite ± kyanite) and amphibolites (garnet,amphibole,plagioclase ± epidote) indicate a metamorphic peak of 10 kbar at 620 °C and 11 kbar and 610,660 °C, respectively, that is consistent with the other metapelites. The eclogites are composed of garnet, omphacite relicts (jadeite = 33%) within plagioclase,clinopyroxene symplectites, epidote and late amphibole,plagioclase domains. Garnet commonly includes rutile,quartz,epidote ± clinopyroxene (jadeite = 43%) ± magnetite ± amphibole and its growth zoning is compatible in the pseudosection with burial under H2O-undersaturated conditions to 18 kbar and 680 °C. Plagioclase + amphibole replaces garnet within foliated boudin margins and results in the assemblage epidote,amphibole,plagioclase indicating that decompression occurred under decreasing temperature into garnet-free epidote,amphibolite facies conditions. The prograde path of eclogites and metapelites up to the metamorphic peak cannot be shared, being along different geothermal gradients, of about 11 and 17 °C km,1, respectively, to metamorphic pressure peaks that are 6,7 kbar apart. The eclogite,orthogneiss sheet docked with metapelites at about 11 kbar and 650 °C, and from this depth the exhumation of the pile is shared. [source]

    Ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and exhumation of garnet peridotite in Pohorje, Eastern Alps

    M. JANÁK
    Abstract New evidence for ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (UHPM) in the Eastern Alps is reported from garnet-bearing ultramafic rocks from the Pohorje Mountains in Slovenia. The garnet peridotites are closely associated with UHP kyanite eclogites. These rocks belong to the Lower Central Austroalpine basement unit of the Eastern Alps, exposed in the proximity of the Periadriatic fault. Ultramafic rocks have experienced a complex metamorphic history. On the basis of petrochemical data, garnet peridotites could have been derived from depleted mantle rocks that were subsequently metasomatized by melts and/or fluids either in the plagioclase-peridotite or the spinel-peridotite field. At least four stages of recrystallization have been identified in the garnet peridotites based on an analysis of reaction textures and mineral compositions. Stage I was most probably a spinel peridotite stage, as inferred from the presence of chromian spinel and aluminous pyroxenes. Stage II is a UHPM stage defined by the assemblage garnet + olivine + low-Al orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + Cr-spinel. Garnet formed as exsolutions from clinopyroxene, coronas around Cr-spinel, and porphyroblasts. Stage III is a decompression stage, manifested by the formation of kelyphitic rims of high-Al orthopyroxene, aluminous spinel, diopside and pargasitic hornblende replacing garnet. Stage IV is represented by the formation of tremolitic amphibole, chlorite, serpentine and talc. Geothermobarometric calculations using (i) garnet-olivine and garnet-orthopyroxene Fe-Mg exchange thermometers and (ii) the Al-in-orthopyroxene barometer indicate that the peak of metamorphism (stage II) occurred at conditions of around 900 °C and 4 GPa. These results suggest that garnet peridotites in the Pohorje Mountains experienced UHPM during the Cretaceous orogeny. We propose that UHPM resulted from deep subduction of continental crust, which incorporated mantle peridotites from the upper plate, in an intracontinental subduction zone. Sinking of the overlying mantle and lower crustal wedge into the asthenosphere (slab extraction) caused the main stage of unroofing of the UHP rocks during the Upper Cretaceous. Final exhumation was achieved by Miocene extensional core complex formation. [source]

    A counter-clockwise P,T path for the Voltri Massif eclogites (Ligurian Alps, Italy)

    Abstract Integrated petrological and structural investigations of eclogites from the eclogite zone of the Voltri Massif (Ligurian Alps) have been used to reconstruct a complete Alpine P,T deformation path from burial by subduction to subsequent exhumation. The early metamorphic evolution of the eclogites has been unravelled by correlating garnet zonation trends with the chemical variations in inclusions found in the different garnet domains. Garnet in massive eclogites displays typical growth zoning, whereas garnet in foliated eclogites shows rim-ward resorption, likely related to re-equilibration during retrogressive evolution. Garnet inclusions are distinctly different from core to rim, consisting primarily of Ca-, Na/Ca-amphibole, epidote, paragonite and talc in garnet cores and of clinopyroxene ± talc in the outer garnet domains. Quantitative thermobarometry on the inclusion assemblages in the garnet cores defines an initial greenschist-to-amphibolite facies metamorphic stage (M1 stage) at c. 450,500 °C and 5,8 kbar. Coexistence of omphacite + talc + katophorite inclusion assemblage in the outer garnet domains indicate c. 550 °C and 20 kbar, conditions which were considered as minimum P,T estimates for the M2 eclogitic stage. The early phase of retrograde reactions is polyphase and equilibrated under epidote,blueschist facies (M3 stage), characterized by the development of composite reaction textures (garnet necklaces and fluid-assisted Na-amphibole-bearing symplectites) produced at the expense of the primary M2 garnet-clinopyroxene assemblage. The blueschist retrogression is contemporaneous with the development of a penetrative deformation (D3) that resulted in a non-coaxial fabric, with dominant top-to-the-N sense of shear during rock exhumation. All of that is overprinted by a texturally late amphibolite/greenschist facies assemblages (M4 & M5 stages), which are not associated with a penetrative structural fabric. The combined P,T deformation data are consistent with an overall counter-clockwise path, from the greenschist/amphibolite, through the eclogite, the blueschist to the greenschist facies. These new results provide insights into the dynamic evolution of the Tertiary oceanic subduction processes leading to the building up of the Alpine orogen and the mechanisms involved in the exhumation of its high-pressure roots. [source]

    Oscillatory zoning in garnet from the Willsboro Wollastonite Skarn, Adirondack Mts, New York: a record of shallow hydrothermal processes preserved in a granulite facies terrane

    C. C. Clechenko
    Abstract Oscillatory zoning in low ,18O skarn garnet from the Willsboro wollastonite deposit, NE Adirondack Mts, NY, USA, preserves a record of the temporal evolution of mixing hydrothermal fluids from different sources. Garnet with oscillatory zoning are large (1,3 cm diameter) euhedral crystals that grew in formerly fluid filled cavities. They contain millimetre-scale oscillatory zoning of varying grossular,andradite composition (XAdr = 0.13,0.36). The ,18O values of the garnet zones vary from 0.80 to 6.26, VSMOW and correlate with XAdr. The shape, pattern and number of garnet zones varies from crystal to crystal, as does the magnitude of the correlated chemistry changes, suggesting fluid system variability, temporal and/or spatial, over the time of garnet growth. The zones of correlated Fe content and ,18O indicate that a high Fe3+/Al, high ,18O fluid mixed with a lower Fe3+/Al and ,18O fluid. The high ,18O, Fe enriched fluids were likely magmatic fluids expelled from crystallizing anorthosite. The low ,18O fluids were meteoric in origin. These are the first skarn garnet with oscillatory zoning reported from granulite facies rocks. Geochronologic, stable isotope, petrologic and field evidence indicates that the Adirondacks are a polymetamorphic terrane, where localized contact metamorphism around shallowly intruded anorthosite was followed by a regional granulite facies overprint. The growth of these garnet in equilibrium with meteoric and magmatic fluids indicates an origin in the shallow contact aureole of the anorthosite prior to regional metamorphism. The zoning was preserved due to the slow diffusion of oxygen and cations in the large garnet and protection from deformation and recrystallization in zones of low strain in thick, rigid, garnetite layers. The garnet provide new information about the hydrothermal system adjacent to the shallowly intruded massif anorthosite that predates regional metamorphism in this geologically complex, polymetamorphic terrane. [source]

    Prograde pressure,temperature paths in the pelitic schists of the Sambagawa metamorphic belt, SW Japan

    M. Inui
    Abstract Prograde P,T paths recorded by the chemistry of minerals of subduction-related metamorphic rocks allow inference of tectonic processes at convergent margins. This paper elucidates the changing P,T conditions during garnet growth in pelitic schists of the Sambagawa metamorphic belt, which is a subduction related metamorphic belt in the south-western part of Japan. Three types of chemical zoning patterns were observed in garnet: Ca-rich normal zoning, Ca-poor normal zoning and intrasectoral zoning. Petrological studies indicate that normally-zoned garnet grains grew keeping surface chemical equilibrium with the matrix, in the stable mineral assemblage of garnet + muscovite + chlorite + plagioclase + paragonite + epidote + quartz ± biotite. Pressure and temperature histories were inversely calculated from the normally-zoned garnet in this assemblage, applying the differential thermodynamic method (Gibbs' method) with the latest available thermodynamic data set for minerals. The deduced P,T paths indicate slight increase of temperature with increasing pressure throughout garnet growth, having an average dP/dT of 0.4,0.5 GPa/100 °C. Garnet started growing at around 470 °C and 0.6 GPa to achieve the thermal and baric peak condition near the rim (520 °C, 0.9 GPa). The high-temperature condition at relatively low pressure (for subduction related metamorphism) suggests that heating occurred before or simultaneously with subduction. [source]

    Occurrence of calcite in Sanbagawa pelitic schists: implications for the formation of garnet, rutile, oligoclase, biotite and hornblende

    A. Goto
    Abstract The frequency of occurrence of minerals in 1876 samples of Sanbagawa pelitic schist in central Shikoku is summarized on the basis of microscopic observation accompanied, in part, by use of an electron microprobe. All samples contain quartz, plagioclase, phengite, chlorite and graphite. More than 90% of samples contain clinozoisite, titanite and apatite. Garnet is present in 95% of samples from the garnet zone, and biotite is present in 64% of samples from the albite-biotite zone. Calcite is found in about 40% of samples of the pelitic schist collected from outcrop, but occurs in 95% of the pelitic schist from drill cores. Calcite was apparently ubiquitous in the pelitic schist during the Sanbagawa metamorphism, but must have been dissolved recently by the action of surface or ground water. The mineral assemblages of the Sanbagawa pelitic schist have to be analyzed in the system with excess calcite, quartz, albite (or oligoclase), clinozoisite, graphite and fluid that is composed mainly of H2O, CO2 and CH4. In the presence of calcite, reactions that produce garnet, rutile, oligoclase, biotite and hornblende, some of which define isograds of the metamorphic belt, should be written as mixed volatile equilibria that tend to take place at lower temperature than the dehydration reactions that have been proposed. The presence of calcite in pelitic schist suggests that fluid composition is a variable as important in determining mineral assemblages as pressure and temperature. Thus Ca-bearing phases must be taken into account to analyze the phase relations of calcite-bearing pelitic schist, even if CaO content of Sanbagawa pelitic schist is low. As calcite is a common phase, the mineral assemblages of the biotite zone pelitic schist may contravene the mineralogical phase rule and warrant further study. [source]

    Cretaceous high- P granulites at Milford Sound, New Zealand: metamorphic history and emplacement in a convergent margin setting

    G. L. Clarke
    Granulite facies orthogneiss of the Arthur River Complex (ARC) at Milford Sound, western Fiordland records a complex Early Cretaceous magmatic and orogenic history for the Pacific Gondwana margin that culminated in the emplacement and burial of a dioritic batholith, the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO). Enstatite-bearing mafic to intermediate protoliths of the ARC and WFO intruded the middle to upper crust. The early deformation history of the ARC is preserved in the Pembroke Granulite, where two-pyroxene S1 assemblages that reflect P<8 kbar and T >750 °C were only patchily recrystallized during later deformation. S1 is cut by garnet-bearing, leucogabbroic to dioritic veins, which are cut by distinctive D2 fractures involving anorthositic veins and garnet,diopside,plagioclase-bearing reaction zones. These zones are widespread in the ARC and WFO and record conditions of P,14 kbar and T >750 °C. Garnet,clinopyroxene-bearing corona reaction textures that mantle enstatite in both the ARC and WFO reflect Early Cretaceous burial by approximately 25 km of continental crust. Most of the ARC is formed from the Milford and Harrison Gneisses, which contain steeply dipping S4 assemblages that envelop the Pembroke Granulite and involve garnet, hornblende, diopside, clinozoisite, rutile and plagioclase, with or without kyanite. The P,T history of rocks in western Fiordland reflects pronounced Early Cretaceous convergence-related tectonism and burial, possibly related to the collision and accretion of island arc material onto the Pacific Gondwana margin. [source]

    Microstructural tectonometamorphic processes and the development of gneissic layering: a mechanism for metamorphic segregation

    The Mary granite, in the East Athabasca mylonite triangle, northern Saskatchewan, provides an example and a model for the development of non-migmatitic gneissic texture. Gneissic compositional layering developed through the simultaneous evolution of three microdomains corresponding to original plagioclase, orthopyroxene and matrix in the igneous rocks. Plagioclase phenocrysts were progressively deformed and recrystallized, first into core and mantle structures, and ultimately into plagioclase-rich layers or ribbons. Garnet preferentially developed in the outer portions of recrystallized mantles, and, with further deformation, produced garnet-rich sub-layers within the plagioclase-rich gneissic domains. Orthopyroxene was replaced by clinopyroxene and garnet (and hornblende if sufficient water was present), which were, in turn, drawn into layers with new garnet growth along the boundaries. The igneous matrix evolved through a number of transient fabric stages involving S-C fabrics, S-C-C, fabrics, and ultramylonitic domains. In addition, quartz veins were emplaced and subsequently deformed into quartz-rich gneissic layers. Moderate to highly strained samples display extreme mineralogical (compositional) segregation, yet most domains can be directly related to the original igneous precursors. The Mary granite was emplaced at approximately 900 °C and 1.0 GPa and was metamorphosed at approximately 750 °C and 1.0 GPa. The igneous rocks crystallized in the medium-pressure granulite field (Opx,Pl) but were metamorphosed on cooling into the high-pressure (Grt,Cpx,Pl) granulite field. The compositional segregation resulted from a dynamic, mutually reinforcing interaction between deformation, metamorphic and igneous processes in the deep crust. The production of gneissic texture by processes such as these may be the inevitable result of isobaric cooling of igneous rocks within a tectonically active deep crust. [source]

    Effect of Yttria and Yttrium-Aluminum Garnet on Densification and Grain Growth of Alumina At 1200°,1300°C

    Michael K. Cinibulk
    Densification and grain growth of alumina were studied with yttria or yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) additives at the relatively low temperatures of 1200°,1300°C. Yttria doping was found to inhibit densification and grain growth of alumina at 1200°C and, depending on dopant level, had a lesser effect at 1300°C. At 1200°C, yttria inhibits densification more than it hinders grain growth. The rate of grain growth increases faster with temperature than the rate of densification. Alumina-YAG particulate composites were difficult to sinter, yielding relative densities of only 65% and 72% after 100 h at 1200° and 1300°C, respectively. Pure YAG compacts exhibited essentially no densification for times up to 100 h at 1300°C. [source]

    YIG thin films for magneto-optical and microwave applications

    T. Boudiar
    Abstract Thin films of Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) are grown by radio frequency magnetron non reactive sputtering system on quartz and Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG) for optical applications or alumina substrates for microwave applications. A post deposition annealing is needed to obtain the crystallization of YIG films and the magnetic properties which are correlated with the magneto-optical properties. Their crystallographic, morphologic and magnetic properties are explored. The variation of Faraday rotation is studied versus the wavelength. For both optical substrates, quartz and GGG, results are comparable with the literature for bulk material. A microwave isolator was realized with YIG thin film on alumina substrate in a coplanar configuration. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Macrocrystal Garnet and Its Inclusions in Kimberlite Pipes from the Mengyin Area, Shandong Province, China

    Lijuan WANG
    Abstract: Based on previous studies of kimberlite xenoliths and diamond inclusions in this region, macrocrystal garnet was analyzed with the electric microprobe technique (EPMA). The garnet is collected from the Shengli No.1 kimberlite pipe in the Mengyin area of Shandong Province, China. The results indicate that the garnet contains two kinds of multiphase inclusions: one is K-, B-, and Cl-bearing oxygen-free phase, K- and Cl-bearing oxygen-free phase, and volatile-bearing garnet inclusions (in1 and in3); and the other is chlorite, phlogopite, apatite and calcite (in2). It is suggested that the formation of garnet and its inclusions is associated with strongly reduced mantle fluid. Such a fluid was transformed from ultra-deep high-reduction oxygen-free fluid into low-reduction alkaline fluid, and finally into oxidized fluid with low oxygen fugacity. This result confirms that the Mengyin area underwent metamorphism of slightly active deep fluid, and provides evidence for searching diamond by means of indicative minerals. [source]

    Synthesis and Structure of Europium Aluminium Garnet (EAG).

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 29 2007
    Editha Garskaite
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    Low-Fluence Q-Switched Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser for Melasma with Pre- or Post-Treatment Triple Combination Cream

    BACKGROUND Topical triple combination (TC) treatment is considered the primary approach to melasma. Recently, collimated low-fluence 1,064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser treatment has attracted attention as an alternative approach. OBJECTIVES To compare the clinical efficacy and adverse effects of low-fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser when performed before and after treatment with topical TC using a split-face crossover design. METHODS Thirteen patients with melasma received topical treatment with TC cream or 1,064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment on opposite sides of the face for 8 weeks, and then treatments were reversed for 8 weeks. Responses were evaluated using the Melasma Area and Severity Index scoring system, spectrophotometry measurements, and a subjective self-assessment method. RESULTS After 16 weeks, better results were seen in subjective assessments when laser treatment was used after 8 weeks of topical TC treatment than before usage of TC. There were no significant adverse effects with the laser treatments. CONCLUSIONS Laser treatment after topical TC cream was found to be safer and more effective than the post-treatment use of topical agents. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. [source]

    Comparison of a Long-Pulse Nd:YAG Laser and a Combined 585/1,064-nm Laser for the Treatment of Acne Scars: A Randomized Split-Face Clinical Study

    BACKGROUND Nonablative laser is gaining popularity because of the low risk of complications, especially in patients with darker skin. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and safety of a long-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and a combined 585/1,064-nm laser for the treatment of acne scars. MATERIALS AND METHODS Nineteen patients with mild to moderate atrophic acne scars received four long-pulse Nd:YAG laser or combined 585/1,064-nm laser treatment sessions at fortnightly intervals. Treatments were administered randomly in a split-face manner. RESULTS Acne scars showed mild to moderate improvement, with significant Echelle d'évaluation clinique des cicatrices d'acné (ECCA) score reductions, after both treatments. Although intermodality differences were not significant, combined 585/1,064-nm laser was more effective for deep boxcar scars. In patients with combined 585/1,064-nm laser-treated sides that improved more than long-pulse Nd:YAG laser-treated sides, ECCA scores were significantly lower for combined 585/1,064-nm laser treatment. Histologic evaluations revealed significantly greater collagen deposition, although there was no significant difference between the two modalities. Patient satisfaction scores concurred with physicians' evaluations. CONCLUSION Both lasers ameliorated acne scarring with minimal downtime. In light of this finding, optimal outcomes might be achieved when laser treatment types are chosen after considering individual scar type and response. [source]

    Treatment of Melasma Using Variable Square Pulse Er: YAG Laser Resurfacing

    BACKGROUND Treatment of melasma remains a challenge. Laser treatments show limited efficacy, with a high rate of recurrence and side effects. Recently, variable-pulsed erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) lasers have shown favorable results in skin resurfacing, with minimal downtime and adverse effects. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy and side effects of variable square pulsed (VSP) Er:YAG laser resurfacing for treatment of epidermal type melasma. METHODS Twenty Thai women with epidermal-type melasma were treated with two passes of VSP Er:YAG laser resurfacing using a 7-mm spot size, pulse duration of 300 ,s, and a fluence of 0.4 J/cm2. Two treatments were given 1 month apart. Visual analog scale (VAS), Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) score and melanin index (MI) were measured at baseline and 1, 2, and 4 months after treatment. RESULTS There was a significant improvement in VAS from baseline at 1-, 2-, and 4-month follow-up visits (p<.001). Significant improvement in MASI score at the 2-month visit from baseline (p=.004) was also observed. The average MI measured using melanin reflectance spectrometry measurements corresponded to MASI score rating. CONCLUSIONS VSP Er:YAG laser resurfacing effectively but temporarily improved epidermal-type melasma. Recurrence was observed after the treatment was discontinued. [source]

    Patient Satisfaction and Reported Long-Term Therapeutic Efficacy Associated with 1,320 nm Nd:YAG Laser Treatment of Acne Scarring and Photoaging

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Nonablative laser treatments have become increasingly used for the treatment of acne scarring and photoaging. While nonablative laser treatments are more convenient and relatively safer than ablative laser resurfacing, efficacy and patient satisfaction with the level of improvement of textural abnormalities in acne scarring and rhytids associated with photoaging needs further study. DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS Structured interviews were performed with 34 patients from a referral-based academic practice who each previously received a series of 6 monthly treatments with a 1,320 nm neodymium:yttrium,aluminum,garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for treatment of acne scarring or photoaging. Topical anesthesia was applied 1 hour before each treatment. Patients were interviewed at least 3 months after cessation of treatment (range 3,12 months). RESULTS Patients tolerated the treatments well. Combined results for acne scarring and photoaging patients were as follows: (a) patient satisfaction with treatment was rated at 62%, and (b) textural improvement was reported at 31% at the end of the six treatments, and 30% at the date of interview. When results were stratified by diagnosis, patient satisfaction was slightly higher for treatment of acne scarring than for photoaging. Overall degree of improvement on a 1,10 scale was 5.4 for acne scarring and 3.8 for wrinkling. CONCLUSION Nonablative treatment with the 1,320 nm Nd:YAG laser induced significant patient-reported improvement in both acne scarring and photoaging. The majority of patients reported satisfaction with the degree of improvement. [source]

    Fluorescence-controlled Er:YAG laser for caries removal in permanent teeth: a randomized clinical trial

    Henrik Dommisch
    The aim of this randomized clinical study was to compare the efficacy of a fluorescence-controlled erbium-loaded yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser with conventional bur treatment for caries therapy in adults. Twenty-six patients with 102 carious lesions were treated using either the Er:YAG laser, at threshold levels of 7, 8, 9, and 10 [U], or rotary burs. Both techniques were applied to each lesion at separate locations. After treatment, dentine samples were obtained using a carbide bur. The viable counts of Streptococcus mutans (SM) and lactobacilli (LB) [expressed as colony-forming units (log10 CFUs)], treatment time, pain, vibration, and sound intensity were determined. The median numbers of CFUs for SM and LB were not statistically different between laser and bur treatment at threshold levels 7 and 8 [U]. At threshold levels 9 and 10 [U], the median number of CFUs for LB [1.11 (range: 0.00,2.04)] were significantly higher following laser treatment than following bur treatment [0.30 (range: 0.00,0.60)]. The results indicate that treatment with a fluorescence-controlled Er:YAG laser at threshold levels of 7 and 8 removed caries to a level similar to that achieved using conventional bur treatment, with clinically irrelevant amounts of remaining bacteria. Although more time consuming, laser treatment provided higher patient comfort than bur treatment. [source]

    The mechanism of fluid infiltration in peridotites at Almklovdalen, western Norway

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2002
    O. Kostenko
    Abstract A major Alpine-type peridotite located at Almklovdalen in the Western Gneiss Region of Norway was infiltrated by aqueous fluids at several stages during late Caledonian uplift and retrogressive metamorphism. Following peak metamorphic conditions in the garnet,peridotite stability field, the peridotite experienced pervasive fluid infiltration and retrogression in the chlorite,peridotite stability field. Subsequently, the peridotite was infiltrated locally by nonreactive fluids along fracture networks forming pipe-like structures, typically on the order of 10 m wide. Fluid migration away from the fractures into the initially impermeable peridotite matrix was facilitated by pervasive dilation of grain boundaries and the formation of intragranular hydrofractures. Microstructural observations of serpentine occupying the originally fluid-filled inclusion space indicate that the pervasively infiltrating fluid was characterized by a high dihedral angle (, > 60°) and ,curled up' into discontinuous channels and fluid inclusion arrays following the infiltration event. Re-equilibration of the fluid phase topology took place by growth and dissolution processes driven by the excess surface energy represented by the ,forcefully' introduced external fluid. Pervasive fluid introduction into the peridotite reduced local effective stresses, increased the effective grain boundary diffusion rates and caused extensive recrystallization and some grain coarsening of the infiltrated volumes. Grain boundary migration associated with this recrystallization swept off abundant intragranular fluid inclusions in the original chlorite peridotite, leading to a significant colour change of the rock. This colour change defines a relatively sharp front typically located 1,20 cm away from the fractures where the nonreactive fluids originally entered the peridotite. Our observations demonstrate how crustal rocks may be pervasively infiltrated by fluids with high dihedral angles (, > 60°) and emphasize the coupling between hydrofracturing and textural equilibration of the grain boundary networks and the fluid phase topology. [source]

    Sediment provenance of late Quaternary morainic, fluvial and loess-like deposits in the southwestern Verkhoyansk Mountains (eastern Siberia) and implications for regional palaeoenvironmental reconstructions

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 5 2007
    Steffen Popp
    Abstract A provenance analysis of late Quaternary deposits from tributaries of the Aldan and Lena rivers in Central Yakutia (eastern Siberia) was carried out using analysis of heavy minerals and clay mineralogy. Cluster analysis revealed one assemblage that is characterized by relatively high proportions of amphibole, orthopyroxene and garnet as well as pedogenic clay minerals, reflecting a sediment provenance from the wide catchment area of the Lena and Aldan rivers. In contrast, the three other clusters are dominated by stable heavy minerals with varying amounts of clinopyroxene, apatite and garnet, as well as high percentages of illite and chlorite that are indicative of source rocks of the Verkhoyansk Mountains. Glacial moraines reveal the local mountain source signal that is overprinted by the Lena-Aldan signal in the oldest moraines by reworking processes. Alluvial sediments in the Verkhoyansk Foreland show a clear Lena source signal through intervals of the middle and late Pleistocene, related to a stream course closer to the mountains at that time. Loess-like cover sediments are characterized by the dominant Lena provenance with increasing proportions of local mountain sources towards the mountain valleys. Aeolian sands in an alluvial terrace section at the mountain margin covering the time between 30,ka and 10,ka BP reflect temporarily dominant inputs of aeolian materials from the Lena Plains. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Polyphase evolution and reaction sequence of compositional domains in metabasalt: a model based on local chemical equilibrium and metamorphic differentiation

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2000
    T. M. Toóth
    Abstract Eclogitic garnet amphibolite samples from the Southern Steep Belt of the Central Alps show evidence of several stages of metamorphic evolution and exhumation. A method for unravelling this evolution is presented and applied to these samples. It involves a combination of detailed petrographic analysis and microchemical characterization with quantitative models of the thermodynamically stable phase relations for specific compositional domains of each sample. Preserved mineral relics and textural evidence are compared to model predictions to identify the important irreversible reactions. The interpretation of the exhumation history is thus based on the consistency of a wide spectrum of observations with predicted phase diagrams, leading to robust reconstruction of a pressure,temperature (P,T) path even where the mineralogical relics in samples are insufficient, due to retrogression, to warrant application of multi-equilibrium thermobarometric techniques. The formation of compositionally different domains in the metabasalt samples studied is attributed to prograde growth of porphyroblasts (e.g. garnet, plagioclase, zoisite) in the matrix, implying substantial metamorphic differentiation at the scale of a few millimetres. Chemical interaction among different domains during the subsequent P,T evolution is shown to have been very limited. This led to different reaction sequences during exhumation, in which relics preserved in different domains reflect a range of continually changing P,T conditions. For samples from a single outcrop, we deduce a Barrovian prograde path to eclogite facies (23,±,3,kbar, 750,±,50°C), followed by (rapid) decompression to 8,±,1,kbar and 675,±,25°C, and a final heating phase at similar pressures reaching 750,±,40°C. This evolution is attributed to the Alpine cycle involving subduction,collision and slab breakoff,extrusion of tectonic fragments that make up the Southern Steep Belt of the Central Alps. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Application of High Spatial Resolution Laser Ablation ICP-MS to Crystal-Melt Trace Element Partition Coefficient Determination

    Maurizio Petrelli
    ICP-MS; ablation laser; éléments en trace; figure de mérite; coefficients de partage entre cristal et liquide In this contribution we evaluate the capabilities of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) using a 12 ,m spot size. Precision, accuracy and detection limits were assessed on the USGS BCR-2G reference material. We demonstrate that the 12 ,m LA-ICP-MS analyses of experimentally-grown amphibole and garnet are in excellent agreement with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) trace element determinations on the same crystals. The 12 ,m spot size configuration was subsequently used to determine trace element crystal-melt partition coefficients (Dc/m) for a wide range of trace elements in amphibole in equilibrium with a basanitic melt. The following strategy to determine accurately and evaluate Dc/m is proposed. One or more major elements determined previously by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) was used to ensure consistency between EPMA and the composition of the aerosol produced by the laser ablation. Measured Dc/m values were successively evaluated using the lattice strain model. The use of this strategy significantly improved the precision and accuracy of Dc/m determination when a LA-ICP-MS configuration with a high spatial resolution was employed. Dans cet article nous évaluons les potentialités de l'ablation laser couplée à un spectromètre de masse à plasma induit (LA-ICP-MS) en travaillant avec un diamètre d'impact de 12 ,m. Précision, justesse et limites de détections sont évaluées sur le matériau de référence BCR-2G de l'USGS. Nous démontrons que les analyses LA-ICP-MS faites avec un diamètre de 12 ,m sur les amphiboles et des grenats synthétiques sont en excellent accord avec les déterminations d'éléments en trace effectuées sur les mêmes cristaux par sonde ionique (SIMS). Ce diamètre d'impact de 12 ,m a donc été sélectionné pour déterminer les coefficients de partage cristal/liquide (Dc/m) pour un grand nombre d'éléments en trace dans une amphibole en équilibre avec un liquide basanitique. Nous proposons la stratégie d'analyse suivante, qui assure une détermination exacte des coefficients de partage Dc/m. Un ou plusieurs des éléments majeurs déterminés auparavant par microsonde électronique (EMPA) est utilisé pour garantir la consistance des données entre EMPA et la composition de l'aérosol produit par l'ablation laser. Les Dc/m mesurés sont ensuite évalués en utilisant le modèle de contrainte de réseau. L'utilisation de cette stratégie améliore de manière significative la précision et la justesse des déterminations de Dc/m quand elle est couplée à l'utilisation d'un système LA-ICP-MS de grande résolution spatiale. [source]

    Modifying the Output Characteristics of an Organic Light-Emitting Device by Refractive-Index Modulation,

    T. Höfler
    Abstract In order to modify the output characteristics of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), the optical properties of an active layer within the device are patterned without introducing any thickness modulation. For this purpose a new conjugated copolymer, which serves as a hole-transporting material and at the same time can be index patterned using UV techniques, is synthesized. Poly(VC- co -VBT) (VC: N -vinylcarbazole; VBT: 4-vinylbenzyl thiocyanate) is prepared by free-radical copolymerization of VC and VBT. The material contains photoreactive thiocyanate groups that enable altering of the material's refractive index under UV illumination. This copolymer is employed as a patternable hole-transporting layer in multilayer OLEDs. Refractive-index gratings in poly(VC- co -VBT) are inscribed using a holographic setup based upon a Lloyd mirror configuration. The fourth harmonic of a Nd:YAG (YAG: yttrium aluminum garnet) laser (266,nm) serves as the UV source. In this way 1D photonic structures are integrated in an OLED containing AlQ3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum) as the emitting species. It is assured that only a periodical change of the refractive index (,n,=,0.006 at ,,=,540,nm) is generated in the active material but no surface-relief gratings are generated. The patterned devices show more forward-directed out-coupling behavior than unstructured devices (increase in luminosity by a factor of five for a perpendicular viewing direction). This effect is most likely due to Bragg scattering. For these multilayer structures, optimum outcoupling was observed for grating periods ,,,,390,nm. [source]

    Electric-Field-Tunable Low Loss Multiferroic Ferrimagnetic,Ferroelectric Heterostructures

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 20 2009
    Jaydip Das
    A novel monolithic multilayered ferrimagnetic, ferroelectric multiferroic heterostructure shows a remarkably large tuning of the magnetic response with an electric field. The heteroepitaxial stack is comprised of a near single crystal yttrium iron garnet (YIG) layer, a ferroelectric barium strontium titanate (BSTO) layer with good electric field tunability, and embedded platinum (Pt) electrodes. [source]

    Lasers for facial rejuvenation: a review

    Evangelia Papadavid MD
    Background Different types of laser are used for resurfacing and collagen remodeling in cutaneous laser surgery. Methods A systematic review was performed of the different types of laser currently employed for skin rejuvenation. These systems are either ablative [high-energy pulsed or scanned carbon dioxide (CO2) laser emitting at a wavelength of 10,600 nm, single- or variable-pulse or dual ablative/coagulative mode erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser emitting at a wavelength of 2940 nm, or systems combining both 10,600 nm and 2940 nm wavelengths] or nonablative [Q-switched neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser emitting at a wavelength of 1064 nm, Nd:YAG laser emitting at a wavelength of 1320 nm, or diode laser emitting at a wavelength of 1450 nm]. Different protocols, patient selection, treatment techniques, and complications are discussed for each system. Results New-generation CO2 resurfacing lasers have been successful in the treatment of photodamaged skin and scarring, with a postoperative morbidity dependent on the depth of thermal damage. Because of its minimal penetration, the pulsed Er:YAG laser, usually used in the treatment of more superficial rhytides, produces less postoperative morbidity. Novel ablative systems have been developed and a further understanding of laser,tissue interaction has led to the design of nonablative systems for the treatment of rhytides, scarring, and photodamaged skin, the efficacy and profile of which remain to be evaluated in the long term. Conclusions There are several effective techniques for scar revision and the treatment of aged skin, but all have their drawbacks due to a lack of precise depth control and unwanted damage to the lower layers of the dermis. The Er:YAG laser is the treatment of choice for fine lines and superficial scars, whereas the CO2 laser is better for deeper rhytides and scars. In the future, a combination of lasers may be used for facial rejuvenation. [source]

    Ab initio quantum-mechanical prediction of the IR and Raman spectra of Ca3Cr2Si3O12 Uvarovite garnet

    L. Valenzano
    Abstract The IR and Raman spectra of uvarovite (Ca3Cr2Si3O12) garnet were simulated with the periodic ab initio CRYSTAL code by adopting an all-electron Gaussian-type basis set and the B3LYP Hamiltonian. The two sets of 17 F1u Transverse-Optical (TO) and Longitudinal-Optical (LO) frequencies are generated, together with their intensities. As regards the IR experimental spectrum, only five peaks are available, that are in excellent agreement with the calculated data (mean absolute difference smaller than 5.2 cm,1). The analysis of the TO-LO eigenvalue overlaps permits to establish a correspondence between LO and TO modes. The set of experimental Raman peaks is much reacher (23 out of 25) and the agreement with our calculations excellent ( smaller than 6 cm,1). Isotopic substitution is used to identify the zones of the spectrum where Cr and Ca contributions are relevant. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2010 [source]