G

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of G

  • acid g
  • bipartite graph g
  • blue g
  • brilliant blue g
  • cathepsin g
  • cell g
  • cfu g
  • connected graph g
  • egg g
  • endonuclease g
  • function g
  • g g
  • girth g
  • graph g
  • group g
  • h g
  • haplotype g
  • human immunoglobulin g
  • immunoglobulin g
  • j g
  • kcal g
  • kinase g
  • kj g
  • let g
  • log cfu g
  • log g
  • ma g
  • ma h g
  • mah g
  • meq g
  • mg g
  • mmol g
  • modulus g
  • mol g
  • n g
  • ng g
  • nmol g
  • novel g
  • parameter g
  • penicillin g
  • protein g
  • protein kinase g
  • regular graph g
  • serum immunoglobulin g
  • specific g
  • u g

  • Terms modified by G

  • g active ingredient
  • g allele
  • g antibody
  • g antibody titer
  • g b.i.d.
  • g bid
  • g biomass
  • g body weight
  • g c
  • g c l
  • g c m
  • g carbohydrate
  • g cell
  • g cellulose
  • g cm
  • g co2
  • g co2 m
  • g cod
  • g concentration
  • g creatinine
  • g d
  • g daily
  • g day
  • g diet
  • g dl
  • g dm
  • g dose
  • g dry matter
  • g dry weight
  • g dry wt
  • g dw
  • g ethanol
  • g extract
  • g faeces
  • g fat
  • g feed
  • g fish
  • g fresh weight
  • g g
  • g genotype
  • g glucan
  • g group
  • g h
  • g increase
  • g initial weight
  • g kg
  • g l
  • g level
  • g lipid
  • g m
  • g matrix
  • g min
  • g mol
  • g muscle
  • g mutation
  • g n
  • g n m
  • g ogtt
  • g oil
  • g ointment
  • g oral glucose tolerance test
  • g p
  • g polymorphism
  • g protein
  • g protein activation
  • g protein signaling
  • g protein subunit
  • g residue
  • g sample
  • g seed
  • g shrimp
  • g soil
  • g tissue
  • g transition
  • g transversion
  • g v
  • g value
  • g virus
  • g week
  • g wet weight
  • g wet wt

  • Selected Abstracts


    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor and Clot Lysis Time in Pregnant Patients with Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Relationship with Pregnancy Outcome and Thrombosis

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Maria Angeles Martinez-Zamora
    Problem, Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) pregnancies are associated with thrombotic obstetric complications, despite treatment. This study evaluated Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI) levels, TAFI gene polymorphisms and Clot Lysis Time (CLT) in pregnant patients with APS in relation to pregnancy outcome and thrombosis. Method of study, Group 1 consisted of 67 pregnant patients with APS. Group 2 included 66 pregnant patients with uneventful term pregnancies and delivery. Patients were sampled during each trimester and at baseline. TAFI antigen and CLT and two polymorphisms of the TAFI gene, Ala147Thr and +1542C/G, were determined. Results, Significantly prolonged CLT was found at baseline in Group 1. Allele distribution of the TAFI gene polymorphisms was similar in both groups. Basal TAFI and CLT in patients with APS having an adverse or a good obstetrical outcome were similar. Comparison of TAFI and CLT baseline levels in patients with APS with or without previous thrombosis showed no statistical differences. Conclusion, Patients with APS have impairment in fibrinolysis evidenced by prolonged CLT at baseline. TAFI and CLT do not seem to be useful as markers of obstetric outcome or risk of thrombosis in patients with APS. [source]


    CTLA-4 gene promoter and exon 1 polymorphisms in Iranian patients with gastric and colorectal cancers

    JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 12 2007
    Abolghasem Hadinia
    Abstract Background and Aim:, Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a potent immunoregulatory molecule that suppresses antitumor response by down-regulating T-cell activation. Effects of several polymorphisms in CTLA-4 on CTLA-4 expression and function have been previously documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the putative effect of CTLA-4 polymorphisms on susceptibility to gastric and colorectal cancers in an Iranian population. Methods:, A total of 155 patients (109 with colorectal cancer and 46 with gastric cancer) and 190 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were evaluated. Genotyping of ,1722T/C, ,1661A/G, and +49A/G were performed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism methods and of ,318C/T by a PCR amplification refractory mutation system technique. Results:, No statistically significant differences were found in the genotype distribution and allele frequencies among patients and controls. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that the TACG haplotype (,1722T, ,1661A, ,318C, +49G) frequency was significant increased in patients with colorectal cancer (P = 0.009) and gastric cancer (P = 0.006) in comparison to the control group. In contrast, the TACA haplotype frequency was significantly decreased in patients with colorectal cancer (P = 0.02) and not significantly decreased in patients with gastric cancer (P = 0.13) compared to the control group. Conclusion:, A positive association between CTLA-4 TACG haplotype and gastric and colorectal cancers was found in an Iranian population. A protective role for TACA haplotype is postulated. [source]


    Serotonergic genes modulate amygdala activity in major depression

    GENES, BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR, Issue 7 2007
    U. Dannlowski
    Serotonergic genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression probably via their influence on neural activity during emotion processing. This study used an imaging genomics approach to investigate amygdala activity in major depression as a function of common functional polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and the serotonin receptor 1A gene (5-HT1A -1019C/G). In 27 medicated patients with major depression, amygdala responses to happy, sad and angry faces were assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla. Patients were genotyped for the 5-HT1A -1019C/G and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, including the newly described 5-HTT-rs25531 single nucleotide polymorphism. Risk allele carriers for either gene showed significantly increased bilateral amygdala activation in response to emotional stimuli, implicating an additive effect of both genotypes. Our data suggest that the genetic susceptibility for major depression might be transported via dysfunctional neural activity in brain regions critical for emotion processing. [source]


    Interleukin-10 is associated with resistance to febrile seizures: Genetic association and experimental animal studies

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2009
    Yoshito Ishizaki
    Summary Purpose:, Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common form of childhood convulsions. Many reports have shown that a proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1) ,, may have a facilitatory effect on the development of FS. We have previously shown that the IL1B -511C/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with simple FS of sporadic occurrence. The balance between pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines influences the regulation of infections and could, therefore, play a role in the pathogenesis of FS. Here, to determine whether pro- and antiinflammatory cytokine genes are responsible for the susceptibility to FS, we have performed an association study on functional SNPs of cytokine genes in FS patients and controls. Methods:, The promoter SNPs of four inflammatory cytokine genes (IL6 -572C/G, IL8 -251A/T, IL10 -592A/C and TNFA -1037C/T) were examined in 249 patients with FS (186 simple and 63 complex FS) and 225 controls. Because the IL10 -592 SNP showed a positive association with FS, two additional SNPs (IL10 -1082A/G and -819T/C) were subjected to haplotype analysis. Furthermore, we examined the in vivo role of IL-10 in hyperthermia-induced seizures using immature animal models. Results:, The frequencies of the IL10 -592C allele and -1082A/-819C/-592C haplotype were significantly decreased in FS as compared with in controls (p = 0.014 and 0.013, respectively). The seizure threshold temperature in the IL-10,administered rats was significantly higher than that in the saline-treated control ones (p = 0.027). Conclusions:, The present study suggests that IL-10 is genetically associated with FS and, contrary to IL-1,, confers resistance to FS. [source]


    Haplotype Analysis of the Stromelysin-1 (MMP3) and Gelatinase B (MMP9) Genes in Relation to Coronary Heart Disease

    ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 4 2009
    Naqiong Wu
    Summary The functional genetic polymorphisms present in the promoters of stromelysin-1 (MMP3) and gelatinase B (MMP9) have been shown to be associated with angiographically measured atherosclerosis; however, haplotype analysis of the genetic polymorphisms occurring in the promoters and coding regions of MMP3 and MMP9 has been infrequently performed in the past. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of the -1612 5A/6A, -376C/G, and Glu45Lys polymorphisms of MMP3 and the -1562C/T and R279Q polymorphisms of MMP9 and their relation to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD; stenosis ,50% of the diameter in at least one major coronary artery) in a Chinese Han population. The present study involved 1373 patients with CHD and 695 healthy controls. The Glu45Lys polymorphism of MMP3 was significantly associated with an increased risk of CHD. Compared with the 45Glu homozygotes, 45Lys allele carriers had a significantly elevated risk of CHD (adjusted OR = 1.50; 95%CI 1.11,2.03; p= 0.008). Moreover, haplotype analysis identified both the 6A-C-Lys (-1612 6A, -376C, 45Lys) haplotype and the 6A-G-Lys (-1612 6A,-376G, 45Lys) haplotype of MMP3 as associated with an increased risk of CHD. Our study suggests that common genetic variations in the MMP3 gene may affect the risk of CHD in the Chinese population. [source]


    Interleukin-10 is associated with resistance to febrile seizures: Genetic association and experimental animal studies

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2009
    Yoshito Ishizaki
    Summary Purpose:, Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common form of childhood convulsions. Many reports have shown that a proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1) ,, may have a facilitatory effect on the development of FS. We have previously shown that the IL1B -511C/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with simple FS of sporadic occurrence. The balance between pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines influences the regulation of infections and could, therefore, play a role in the pathogenesis of FS. Here, to determine whether pro- and antiinflammatory cytokine genes are responsible for the susceptibility to FS, we have performed an association study on functional SNPs of cytokine genes in FS patients and controls. Methods:, The promoter SNPs of four inflammatory cytokine genes (IL6 -572C/G, IL8 -251A/T, IL10 -592A/C and TNFA -1037C/T) were examined in 249 patients with FS (186 simple and 63 complex FS) and 225 controls. Because the IL10 -592 SNP showed a positive association with FS, two additional SNPs (IL10 -1082A/G and -819T/C) were subjected to haplotype analysis. Furthermore, we examined the in vivo role of IL-10 in hyperthermia-induced seizures using immature animal models. Results:, The frequencies of the IL10 -592C allele and -1082A/-819C/-592C haplotype were significantly decreased in FS as compared with in controls (p = 0.014 and 0.013, respectively). The seizure threshold temperature in the IL-10,administered rats was significantly higher than that in the saline-treated control ones (p = 0.027). Conclusions:, The present study suggests that IL-10 is genetically associated with FS and, contrary to IL-1,, confers resistance to FS. [source]


    Sequence-dependent proton-transfer reaction in stacked GC pair III: The influence of proton transfer to conductivity

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF QUANTUM CHEMISTRY, Issue 12 2010
    Yasuyuki Nakanishi
    Abstract We have computed current,voltage character of natural DNA and its proton-transferred structure by scattering theory based on density functional theory. The current is not observed if the electron path contains only hydrogen bonding such as one base pair. The current becomes larger if the electron path contains ,,, stacking molecule such as two base pairs. We also found that the conductivity of pseudo-ion pair (C+G,/G,C+), which is derived from proton-transfer reaction in CG/GC, differs from that of the original structure. On the other hand, the current changes dramatically if the electrode connects to guanine or cytosine, which can be explained by the difference of electron affinities. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2010 [source]


    RGS7 Is Palmitoylated and Exists as Biochemically Distinct Forms

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2000
    Jeremy J. Rose
    Abstract:Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are GTPase-activating proteins that modulate neurotransmitter and G protein signaling. RGS7 and its binding partners G, and G,5 are enriched in brain, but biochemical mechanisms governing RGS7/G,/G,5 interactions and membrane association are poorly defined. We report that RGS7 exists as one cytosolic and three biochemically distinct membrane-bound fractions (salt-extractable, detergent-extractable, and detergent-insensitive) in brain. To define factors that determine RGS7 membrane attachment, we examined the biochemical properties of recombinant RGS7 and G,5 synthesized in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. We have found that membrane-bound but not cytosolic RGS7 is covalently modified by the fatty acid palmitate. G,5 is not palmitoylated. Both unmodified (cytosolic) and palmitoylated (membrane-derived) forms of RGS7, when complexed with G,5, are equally effective stimulators of G,o GTPase activity, suggesting that palmitoylation does not prevent RGS7/G,o interactions. The isolated core RGS domain of RGS7 selectively binds activated G,i/o in brain extracts and is an effective stimulator of both G,o and G,i1 GTPase activities in vitro. In contrast, the RGS7/G,5 complex selectively interacts with G,o only, suggesting that features outside the RGS domain and/or G,5 association dictate RGS7-G, interactions. These findings define previously unrecognized biochemical properties of RGS7, including the first demonstration that RGS7 is palmitoylated. [source]


    Molecular Self-Recognition: Rotational Spectra of the Dimeric 2-Fluoroethanol Conformers

    CHEMISTRY - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009
    Xunchen Liu
    Abstract Fluoroalcohols show competitive formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, a property that may be crucial for the protein-altering process in a fluoroalcohol/water solution. In this study, we examine the intra- and intermolecular interactions of 2-fluoroethanol (FE) in its dimeric conformers by using rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Three pairs of homo- and heterochiral dimeric FE conformers are predicted to be local minima at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. They are solely made of the slightly distorted most stable G+g,/G,g+ FE monomer units. Jet-cooled rotational spectra of four out of the six predicted dimeric conformers were observed and unambiguously assigned for the first time. All four observed dimeric conformers have compact geometries in which the fluoromethyl group of the acceptor tilts towards the donor and ensures a large contact area. Experimentally, the insertion of the OH group of one FE subunit into the intramolecular OH,,,F bond of the other was found to lead to a higher stabilisation than the pure association through an intermolecular OH,,,OH link. The hetero- and homochiral combinations were observed to be preferred in the inserted and the associated dimeric conformers, respectively. The experimental rotational constants and the stability ordering are compared with the ab initio calculations at the MP2 level with the 6-311++G(d,p) and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets. The effects of fluorination and the competing inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the stability of the dimeric FE conformers are discussed. [source]


    Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on reproduction, kit growth, and survival

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 6 2006
    Steven J. Bursian
    Abstract We evaluated the effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and survival. Diets contained 0.22,3.54% HR fish, providing 0.34,3.7 ,g total PCBs (TPCB)/g feed wet wt (3.5,68.5 pg toxic equivalence [TEQ]/g). Female mink were fed diets before breeding through weaning of kits. Twelve kits from each treatment were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. Dietary PCBs had no effect on the number of offspring produced, gestation period, or other measures of adult reproductive performance. Mink kits exposed to 3.7 ,g TPCB/g feed (68.5 pg TEQ/g) in utero and during lactation had reduced survivability between three and six weeks of age. The lethal concentrations to 10 and 20% of the population (LC10 and LC20, respectively) were estimated to be 0.231 and 0.984 ,g TPCB/g feed, respectively. Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish that composed approximately 1% of the diet would reduce mink kit survival by 20% or more, it is likely that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would have an adverse effect on wild mink populations. [source]


    Effect of Combined Ozone and Organic Acid Treatment for Control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on Lettuce

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 3 2006
    Hyun-Gyun Yuk
    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the effects of ozonated water (1, 3, and 5 ppm) alone with different exposure times (0.5,1,3, or5min), and combinations of 3 ppm ozone with 1% organic acids (acetic, citric, or lactic acids) during 1-min exposure for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on lettuce and to observe the regrowth of these pathogenic bacteria on treated lettuce during storage for 10 d at 15C. Results showed that 5 ppm ozone treatment for 5 min gave 1.09-log and 0.94-log reductions of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes, respectively, indicating insignificant reductions compared with 3 ppm ozone treatment for 5 min. Treatment with 3 ppm ozone combined with 1 % citric acid for 1 min immersing resulted in 2.31 - and 1.84-log reductions (P < 0.05), respectively. During storage at 15C for 10 d after combined treatment and packaging, populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes increased to approximately 9.0-log colony forming unit (CFU) /g, indicating that this treatment did not have a residual antimicrobial effect during storage. Although the storage study did not show control of these pathogens, the combined ozone-organic acid treatment was more effective in reducing population levels of these pathogens on lettuce than individual treatments. [source]


    Ultrasonication and Fresh Produce (Cos lettuce) Preservation

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 2 2006
    Said Ajlouni
    ABSTRACT Washing Cos lettuce in various sanitizers at different concentrations with and without ultrasonication (40 KHz) reduced the microbiological counts by 1 to 2.5 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g immediately after washing. Ultrasonication of Cos lettuce in water, chlorinated water, peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and their combinations at various temperatures (4 C, 20 C, 35 C, 47 C, and 50 C) had no significant effects (P > 0.05) on the total or the psychrophilic counts during storage at 10 C. The total count in Cos lettuce reached 9.74 0.035 log CFU/g after ultrasonication (2 min at 50 C) in chlorinated water (100 mg/L) and storage for 6 d at 10 C. Extending the ultrasonication (40 kHz) of Cos lettuce for up to 20 min did not improve the bactericidal effect of ultrasonication. However, long-time ultrasonication (20 min) caused significant (P < 0.05) damage to the quality of Cos lettuce tissues. [source]


    Effectiveness of Some Natural Antimicrobial Compounds in Controlling Pathogen or Spoilage Bacteria in Lightly Fermented Chinese Cabbage

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 9 2005
    Yasuhiro Inatsu
    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the bactericidal or bacteriostatic effect of chitosan, an allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) product, and nisin for the artificially inoculated pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) or natural microflora of fermented Chinese cabbage. Addition of 0.1% chitosan decreased the population of pathogens from 0.7 to 1.7 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g after 4 d of storage at 10 C. The bactericidal activity of chitosan was found to be stronger than that of nisin (0.05 mg/g). Addition of 0.2% of the AIT product (containing AIT and hop extract) exhibited a bacteriostatic effect. However, a combination of AIT product and chitosan enhanced bactericidal efficacy against L. monocytogenes. The addition of chitosan or AIT product was observed to suppress the populations of mesophilic and coliform bacteria during storage at 10 C for 4 d. Moreover, the use of chitosan or the AIT product did not change the sensory quality of the lightly fermented vegetable. Therefore, these results suggest that chitosan or the AIT product could be useful to improve the microbial safety and quality of lightly fermented vegetable. [source]


    Fermentation Capabilities of Bifidobacteria Using Nondigestible Oligosaccharides, and Their Viability as Probiotics in Commercial Powder Infant Formula

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 6 2005
    Daro Prez-Conesa
    ABSTRACT The species Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum biotype infantis (Spanish type culture collection), and Bifidobacterium longum (Morinaga nutritional foods) were evaluated in vitro in the presence of 4 commercial nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO) (short-chain fructooligosaccharides [SCFOS] [degree of polymerization, DP: 2,3], inulin [DP: 10,0], oligofructose [DP: 2,0] and 4,-galactosyllactose [4,-GOS] [DP: 3,]). Each species was incubated anaerobically in tryptone phytone yeast (TPY) broth for 7 d with NDO. Every 24 h, bifidobacteria growth was evaluated by means of broth turbidity as optical density at 600 nm. Moreover, another sample was collected for pH culture measurement. Results showed that inulin was the substrate with the least effect on the stimulation of bifidobacteria growth and pH decrease. On the last day of incubation, the substrate 4,-GOS stimulated bacterial growth more strongly and produced a larger decrease in culture broth pH than the other substrates. On the other hand, B. bifidum and B. longum showed a greater growth with 4,-GOS. In a 2nd study, these 2 bifidobacteria species were added to a powder follow-on probiotic infant formula. The viability of the bifidobacteria during the formula's period of consumption was evaluated in 2 studies of 6 and 14 d. Both corresponded to the minimum and maximum time of consumption of the formula according to the manufacturer's directions. It was found that, although in both studies bifidobacteria counts decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with time, they were always above the recommended addition level (106 colony-forming units [CFU]/g) at the time of sale for dairy products by the Intl. Standard of Fdration Internationale de Laiterie/International Dairy Federation (FIL/IDF). Moreover, because the pH of the reconstituted formula was always close to neutrality (from 6.74 to 7.06), the number of bacteria did not drop below the recommended level. [source]


    Lethality of Listeria monocytogenes in Fully Cooked and Vacuum Packaged Chicken Leg Quarters During Steam Pasteurization

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 9 2003
    R. Y. Murphy
    ABSTRACT Fully cooked chicken leg quarters (160 g to 300 g) were injected to contain 107 to 108 colony-forming units (CFU)/g of a 5-strain Listeria monocytogenes culture. The inoculated leg quarters were vacuum-packaged in 0.08-mm-thick packaging films and then pasteurized at 96C via steam. The heat transfer coefficient was about 760 W/m2 K in the steam cooker. Seven log10 (CFU/g) reduction of L. monocytogenes was achieved in about 22 min of steam treatment. Results from the inoculation tests agreed with the process lethality model prediction using the kinetic values that were obtained for the same product. This information helps industry to validate the lethality of L. monocytogenes in similar products during postcook pasteurization. [source]


    Magnetoresistance in dilute p-Si/SiGe in parallel and tilted magnetic fields

    ANNALEN DER PHYSIK, Issue 12 2009
    I.L. Drichko
    Abstract We report the results of an experimental study of the magnetoresistance ,xx and ,xy in two samples of p-Si/SiGe with low carrier concentrations p = 8.2 1010 cm -2 and p = 2 1011 cm -2. The research was performed in the temperature range of 0.3,2 K and in the magnetic fields of up to 18 T, parallel or tilted with respect to the two-dimensional (2D) channel plane. The large in-plane magnetoresistance can be explained by the influence of the in-plane magnetic field on the orbital motion of the charge carriers in the quasi-2D system. The measurements of ,xx and ,xy in the tilted magnetic field showed that the anomaly in ,xx, observed at filling factor , = 3/2 is practically nonexistent in the conductivity ,xx. The anomaly in ,xx at , = 2 might be explained by overlapping of the levels with different spins 0 , and 1 , when the tilt angle of the applied magnetic field is changed. The dependence of g-factor g*(,)/g*(00) on the tilt angle , was determined. [source]


    Effects of cellulase and xylanase enzymes on the deconstruction of solids from pretreatment of poplar by leading technologies

    BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 2 2009
    Rajeev Kumar
    Abstract Comparative data is presented on glucose and xylose release for enzymatic hydrolysis of solids produced by pretreatment of poplar wood by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycled percolation (ARP), controlled pH, dilute acid, flowthrough (FT), lime, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) technologies. Sugar solubilization was measured for times of up to 72 h using cellulase supplemented with ,-glucosidase at an activity ratio of 1:2, respectively, at combined protein mass loadings of 5.8,116 mg/g of glucan in poplar wood prior to pretreatment. In addition, the enzyme cocktail was augmented with up to 11.0 g of xylanase protein per gram of cellulase protein at combined cellulase and ,-glucosidase mass loadings of 14.5 and 29.0 mg protein (about 7.5 and 15 FPU, respectively)/g of original potential glucose to evaluate cellulase,xylanase interactions. All pretreated poplar solids required high protein loadings to realize good sugar yields via enzymatic hydrolysis, and performance tended to be better for low pH pretreatments by dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide, possibly due to higher xylose removal. Glucose release increased nearly linearly with residual xylose removal by enzymes for all pretreatments, xylanase leverage on glucan removal decreased at high cellulase loadings. Washing the solids improved digestion for all pretreatments and was particularly beneficial for controlled pH pretreatment. Furthermore, incubation of pretreated solids with BSA, Tween 20, or PEG6000 prior to adding enzymes enhanced yields, but the effectiveness of these additives varied with the type of pretreatment. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]


    Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel asymmetrical 99mTc-nitrido complex of metronidazole derivative

    JOURNAL OF LABELLED COMPOUNDS AND RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS, Issue 13 2007
    Dejing Kong
    Abstract The novel dithiocarbamate derivative of metronidazole, potassium 2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H -imidazolyl)-ethyl-dithiocarbamate (MNIE-DTC), was synthesized as the pharmacophore-containing bifunctional ligand. The corresponding asymmetrical 99mTc-nitrido complex, expected as a tumor hypoxia marker, had been successfully obtained by the addition of the biphosphine ligand PNP5 (PNP5 = N -ethoxethyl- N,N -bis[2-(bis(3-methoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]-amine) and the dithiocarbamate ligand (MNIE-DTC) to the 99mTc-nitrido precursor solution at 100C for 15 min. The radiochemical purity of the product was above 95% as measured by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro studies showed that the complex possessed good stability under physiological conditions. Its partition coefficient studies indicated that it was a lipophilic complex. The electrophoresis results showed that the complex was cationic. Biological evaluation of the complex [99mTcN(PNP5)(MNIE-DTC)]+ performed in Kunming mice bearing H22 tumor showed that the complex had a moderate tumor uptake (0.570.06%ID/g at 1h), and the ratios of tumor/blood and tumor/muscle were 2.46 and 1.31 at 1h p.i., and reached 4.52 and 2.86 at 4h p.i., respectively. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the TIGR/MYOCILIN gene promoter with the severity of primary open-angle glaucoma

    CLINICAL GENETICS, Issue 3 2001
    E Colomb
    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a highly prevalent optic neuropathy and a major cause of irreversible blindness, with elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) being a primary risk factor. The trabecular meshwork-inducible glucocorticoid response (TIGR)/MYOCILIN (MYOC) gene coding region is mutated in 3,4% of POAG patients. Here, in a retrospective study of 142 POAG patients, we evaluated the influence on glaucoma phenotype of a novel biallelic polymorphism (,1000C/G) located in the upstream region of the MYOC gene. Allele frequencies were similar among patients and controls. However, the G allele (frequency 17.6%), also designated as MYOC.mt1, was associated with an increased IOP (+4.9 mmHg, p=0.0004) and a more damaged visual field (p=0.02). Both effects were predominant in females. Moreover, whereas IOP in MYOC.mt1 noncarriers decreased very markedly to the normal range between diagnosis and inclusion in the study (p=310,5 in both males and females), reflecting successful therapy, it decreased less noticeably in MYOC.mt1+ male patients (p=0.005) and not at all in MYOC.mt1+ female patients. MYOC.mt1 appears therefore to be an indicator of poor IOP control and greater visual field damage in diagnosed POAG patients, potentially due to a lack of response to therapeutic intervention. Its typing might help in the selection of treatment paradigms for the management of POAG patients. [source]


    Antimicrobial efficiency and sorbic acid migration from active films into pastry dough

    PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, Issue 4 2007
    M. F. A. Silveira
    Abstract Antimicrobial films of 25 and 70m thickness, incorporated with 7 and 3% sorbic acid, respectively, were layered with pastry dough without additive and evaluated for sorbic acid migration and antimicrobial efficiency. Pastry dough containing potassium sorbate layered with low-density polyethylene films (LDPE) was used as a control. The films/pastry sandwiches were stored in LDPE bags at 8 1C. After 40 days of storage, the dough layered with 25m/7% films showed a reduction of 2log cycles in the aerobic mesophilic count; however, there were no significant differences (p , 0.05) for the psychotropic and Staphylococcus spp. counts. For the dough layered with 70m/3% films there were reductions of 2 and 1.5log cycles in the mesophilic and psychotropic counts, respectively. In the control dough, the aerobic mesophilic, psychotropic and Staphylococcus spp. counts increased by 1.5, 1 and 2log cycles, respectively. Regardless of the film, the counts of filamentous fungi, yeasts and coagulase-positive staphylococcus were <1.0 102CFU/g, whereas the coliform counts at 35 and 45C, and Escherichia coli were <3.0 100NMP/g. The diffusion coefficients of the sorbic acid from the films into the dough had values in the order of 10 -18m2/s. There were no differences (p , 0.05) between migration values among the films. The maximum additive release from the 25m/7% film into the dough after 20 days was 0.07%, and from the 70m/3% film after 9 days was 0.09%. Both values are below the maximum limit allowed by current legislation. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    EFFECTS OF THE NOVEL SYMBIOTIC IMMUBALANCE AS A FOOD SUPPLEMENT IN RELIEVING CLINICAL SYMPTOMS OF JAPNESE CEDAR POLLINOSIS: A PILOT STUDY

    CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2007
    Yukio Otsuka
    SUMMARY 1Probiotics have been suggested to have potential for treating food allergy in small children. Although oral probiotics have been studied extensively in animals and humans for various allergies, their effects on the prevention and/or treatment of pollinosis have not been adequately investigated. 2The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the novel symbiotic food supplement ImmuBalance (a koji fungus (Aspergillus oryzae) and lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus parvulus and Enterococcus faecium) soybean fermentation product; Nichimo Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) on the prevention and treatment of allergic reactions in Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) during the pollen season. 3An open-label pilot study on seven individuals with JCP was conducted. Each participant received oral administration of 1.0,2.0 g ImmuBalance daily for 3 months, which contained 1.8 1010/g heat-killed lactobacteria. Six participants (four men, two women; 26,55 years of age) completed the 3 months of supplementation. One participant was excluded from the study because the JCP-specific IgE in RAST scores was lower than 2 UA/mL. The clinical severity of JCP in past year for each participant was self-evaluated on a five-point scale from 0 to 4, in accordance with the guidelines of the Nasal Allergy Clinic 2002, Japan. 4Self-evaluated overall average symptom scores (1.7 0.8) in the peak pollen season showed significant improvement compared with the past year (3.5 0.5; P = 0.001). Furthermore, the average scores for sneezing and runny nose in the peak pollen season showed significant improvement compared with the past year. The scores for swelling and colour of the mucosa and snivel in the nasal cavity did not increase significantly in the peak pollen season compared with baseline. 5Our studies suggest that dietary ImmuBalance may be effective in the prevention and treatment of JCP. The underlying mechanisms of action and the possibility of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial are being investigated. [source]


    Antimicrobial efficiency and sorbic acid migration from active films into pastry dough

    PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, Issue 4 2007
    M. F. A. Silveira
    Abstract Antimicrobial films of 25 and 70m thickness, incorporated with 7 and 3% sorbic acid, respectively, were layered with pastry dough without additive and evaluated for sorbic acid migration and antimicrobial efficiency. Pastry dough containing potassium sorbate layered with low-density polyethylene films (LDPE) was used as a control. The films/pastry sandwiches were stored in LDPE bags at 8 1C. After 40 days of storage, the dough layered with 25m/7% films showed a reduction of 2log cycles in the aerobic mesophilic count; however, there were no significant differences (p , 0.05) for the psychotropic and Staphylococcus spp. counts. For the dough layered with 70m/3% films there were reductions of 2 and 1.5log cycles in the mesophilic and psychotropic counts, respectively. In the control dough, the aerobic mesophilic, psychotropic and Staphylococcus spp. counts increased by 1.5, 1 and 2log cycles, respectively. Regardless of the film, the counts of filamentous fungi, yeasts and coagulase-positive staphylococcus were <1.0 102CFU/g, whereas the coliform counts at 35 and 45C, and Escherichia coli were <3.0 100NMP/g. The diffusion coefficients of the sorbic acid from the films into the dough had values in the order of 10 -18m2/s. There were no differences (p , 0.05) between migration values among the films. The maximum additive release from the 25m/7% film into the dough after 20 days was 0.07%, and from the 70m/3% film after 9 days was 0.09%. Both values are below the maximum limit allowed by current legislation. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Pooled faecal culture for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in goats

    AUSTRALIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 6 2007
    GJ Eamens
    Objective, To evaluate pooled faecal culture for herd diagnosis of caprine Johne's disease and relate these findings to faecal shedding rates of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map). Design, Radiometric broth culture was applied to several pooling dilutions, and shedding rates were estimated from a regression equation based on bacterial growth rates and known processing losses during radiometric culture. Procedure, Sixteen faecal samples from goats naturally infected with sheep (n = 3) or cattle (n = 13) strains of Map, were diluted in normal goat faeces from 1 in 5 to 1 in 50. Cultures were confirmed by IS900 polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease analysis, and mycobactin dependency. The numbers of viable Map in the culture inocula were determined by endpoint titration (most probable number) of nine samples and related to a cumulative growth index. Results, A pooling dilution of 1 in 25 with an incubation period of 10 weeks detected 13 of 16 culture positive goats, all shedding , 2 104 Map per gram of faeces. Two samples containing very low numbers of Map (< 2 103/g) were only culture positive from undiluted faeces. Thirteen of 16 goats were considered to be shedding low to moderate concentrations of Map (< 2 105/g faeces). Conclusions, These data support a pooling dilution of 1 in 25 for application of pooled faecal culture as a diagnostic tool in caprine Johne's disease control. A test based on this dilution would reduce laboratory costs of whole herd testing in goats by approximately 40% relative to serology and 75 to 90% relative to individual faecal culture. [source]


    VALIDATION OF PATHOGEN DESTRUCTION DURING MANUFACTURE OF A MEAT-BASED POTATO SNACK (CHIPAROO)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 6 2003
    S. J. KIERAS
    ABSTRACT A Chiparoo is a comminuted rabbit and sweet potato dehydrated snack chip manufactured using a process suitable for underdeveloped regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Chiparoo manufacturing process to adequately deliver 5 log reductions in Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus per gram of food product. These four pathogens were inoculated into regular (pH , 6.0) and lime juice added (pH , 5.0) formulations of rabbit and sweet potato Chiparoos. They were inoculated as a cocktail of four microorganisms at concentrations of approximately 106/g of each pathogen. Individual inoculations of each pathogen at the same concentration (106/g) were also prepared. After inoculation, the product was held for 5 h at 37C, to simulate the maximum hold time in a sub-Saharan Africa manufacturing facility, then dehydrated at 55C (+/- 5C) for 9 h. Samples of the product were taken during the hold and dehydration steps, decimally diluted and plated on the appropriate enumeration medium. The regular formulation (pH , 6.0) did not achieve the required 5 log reduction of each of the four pathogens, while the lime juice added formulation (pH , 5.0) achieved the desired minimum 5 log reduction for each of the four foodborne pathogens tested. [source]


    Combined effect of IL-10 and TGF-,1 promoter polymorphisms as a risk factor for aspirin-intolerant asthma and rhinosinusitis

    ALLERGY, Issue 8 2009
    S.-H. Kim
    Background:, It has been known that interleukin (IL)-10 promoter polymorphisms at ,1082A/G, ,819T/C and ,592A/C, may influence IL-10 expression and associate with asthma. Interleukin-10 facilitates the regulatory function of transforming growth factor (TGF)-,. The goal of this study was to investigate a gene,gene interaction between IL-10 and TGF-,1 polymorphisms in Korean asthmatics with aspirin hypersensitivity. Methods:, Single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of IL-10 and TGF-,1 genes was performed and the functional effect of the IL-10 polymorphisms was analysed applying a luciferase reporter assay and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Results:, Among the patients with asthma, polymorphism at ,1082A/G was significantly associated with the phenotype of aspirin-intolerant asthma, AIA (P = 0.007, Pc = 0.021). Moreover, a synergistic effect between the TGF-,1,509C/T and IL-10,1082A/G polymorphisms on the phenotype of AIA was noted; when stratified by the presence of rhinosinusitis, the frequency of rare alleles (the CT or TT genotype of TGF-,1,509C/T and AG or GG genotype of IL-10,1082A/G) was significantly higher in the patients with AIA (15.2%) when compared with those with ATA (6.3%, P = 0.031; odds ratio 4.111; 95% confidence interval 1.504,11.235). In an in vitro functional assay, the ,1082G reporter plasmid exhibited significantly greater promoter activity when compared with the ,1082A construct in Jurkat T cells (P = 0.011). Moreover, we found that the transcription factor Myc-associated zinc-finger protein preferentially bound the ,1082G allele. Conclusion:, Our results suggest that IL-10 promoter polymorphisms contribute to the development of AIA and that rhinosinusitis may interact genetically with TGF-,1. [source]


    Association of genetic polymorphisms with interferon-induced haematologic adverse effects in chronic hepatitis C patients

    JOURNAL OF VIRAL HEPATITIS, Issue 6 2009
    M. Wada
    Summary., Interferon (IFN)-based combination therapy with ribavirin has become the gold standard for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Haematologic toxicities, such as neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anaemia, however, frequently cause poor treatment tolerance, resulting in poor therapeutic efficacy. The aim of this study was to identify host genetic polymorphisms associated with the efficacy or haematologic toxicity of IFN-based combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients. We performed comprehensive single nucleotide polymorphism detection in all exonic regions of the 12 genes involved in the IFN signalling pathway in 32 healthy Japanese volunteers. Of 167 identified polymorphisms, 35 were genotyped and tested for an association with the efficacy or toxicity of IFN plus ribavirin therapy in 240 chronic hepatitis C patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that low viral load, viral genotypes 2 and 3, and a lower degree of liver fibrosis, but none of the genetic polymorphisms, were significantly associated with a sustained virologic response. In contrast to efficacy, multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that two polymorphisms (IFNAR1 10848-A/G and STAT2 4757-G/T) were significantly associated with IFN-induced neutropenia (P = 0.013 and P = 0.011, respectively). Thrombocytopenia was associated with the IRF7 789-G/A (P = 0.031). In conclusion, genetic polymorphisms in IFN signalling pathway-related genes were associated with IFN-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in chronic hepatitis C patients. In contrast to toxicity, the efficacy of IFN-based therapy was largely dependent on viral factors and degree of liver fibrosis. [source]


    Characterization of the expression of PDZ-RhoGEF, LARG and G,12/G,13 proteins in the murine nervous system

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 12 2002
    R. Kuner
    Small GTPases of the Rho-family, like Rho, Rac and Cdc42, are involved in neuronal morphogenesis by regulating growth cone morphology or dendritic spine formation. G-proteins of the G12 -family, G12 and G13, couple G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to the activation of RhoA. Recently, two novel Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), PDZ-RhoGEF and LARG, have been identified to interact with the activated ,-subunits of G12/G13 and are thus believed to mediate GPCR-induced Rho activation. Although studies in neuronal cell lines have shown that G12/G13 and PDZ-RhoGEF mediate GPCR-induced neurite retraction, the role, as well as the expression of this signalling pathway, in intact brain has not been adequately studied. In the present study, we have characterized systematically the expression of G,12, G,13, PDZ-RhoGEF and LARG in various murine tissues as well as their subcellular localization in the central and peripheral nervous systems. By performing immunohistochemistry, using polyclonal antibodies raised against the above proteins, we observed that G,12, G,13 and their RhoGEF-effectors are distributed widely in the mammalian nervous system. Moreover, these proteins localize to distinct morphological compartments within neurons. While LARG and G,12 were mainly found in somata of the neurons, PDZ-RhoGEF and G,13 were predominantly localized in the neuropil of central neurons. Interestingly, PDZ-RhoGEF is a neural-specific protein, whereas LARG is nearly ubiqoutous. Our data provide evidence that the G12/13,RhoGEF-mediated pathway is present throughout the adult brain and may be involved in regulation of neuronal morphogenesis and function via GPCRs. [source]


    Association of the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism with tooth loss

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL LABORATORY ANALYSIS, Issue 2 2006
    Yoshinori Hasui
    Abstract Although tooth loss is a serious health problem for elderly people, little is known about the genetic basis for susceptibility to it. In the present study we aimed to find a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with tooth loss. DNA samples from 119 outpatients (mean age=78.8 years) were genotyped on seven polymorphisms (tumor necrosis factor-, ,1031T/C, interleukin-1, ,511C/T, interleukin-6 ,634C/G, macrophage migration inhibitory factor ,173G/C, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist variable number of tandem repeat in intron 2, matrix metalloproteinase-1 ,16071G/2G, and oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1) Ser326Cys (1245C/G)), and the results were statistically evaluated. Of the seven polymorphisms tested, only OGG1 Ser326Cys was revealed to associate with tooth loss at a statistically significant level (P=0.0086). In addition, a multivariate logistic regression analysis in which age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and ischemic heart disease were included as independent variables indicated that Ser326Cys could be an independent factor affecting tooth loss (OR, 3.191; 95%CI, 1.174,8.672). The data suggest that the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism may be associated with tooth loss. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 20:47,51, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Genetic analysis of CC16, OGG1 and GCLC polymorphisms and susceptibility to COPD

    RESPIROLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Shengming LIU
    Background and objectives: The importance of genetic susceptibility in COPD has not been determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between susceptibility to COPD and polymorphisms in the Clara cell 16 kDa secretory protein (CC16), 8-hydroxy-guanine glycosylase (OGG1) and glutamatecysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) genes in a southern Chinese population of Han nationality. Methods: A case-control study was performed on 166 paired subjects with or without COPD, who were randomly selected from a pool of 310 paired subjects. These subjects were selected from epidemiological survey participants, with matched-pairs being strictly localized in the Guangzhou urban and Shaoguan rural areas. The following polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis: 38 A/G in exon 1 of the CC16 gene, 1245C/G in exon 7 of the OGG1 gene and ,129C/T in the GCLC gene. Genotype frequencies and allelic frequencies were analysed. Results: There were no significant differences in the distribution of genotype frequencies for CC16 38 A/G, OGG1 1245C/G or GCLC ,129C/T between the COPD and non-COPD subjects. The distribution of the allelic frequencies of these three genes also showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: The genetic polymorphisms in CC16 38 A/G, OGG1 1245C/G and GCLC ,129C/T are not associated with susceptibility to COPD in a southern Chinese population of Han nationality. [source]


    IL-18 gene promoter ,137C/G and ,607C/A polymorphisms in Chinese Han children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMMUNOGENETICS, Issue 2 2007
    G. P. Dong
    Summary Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease, and both environmental and genetic factors play a role in its pathogenesis. Interleukin (IL)-18 is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine capable of inducing interferon-gamma production that is associated with the development of T1DM. The gene for IL-18 is located on chromosome 11q22.2-q22.3 and has been reported to be associated with a susceptibility to T1DM. To test the putative involvement between IL-18 gene polymorphism and predisposition to T1DM, we conducted a case-control study in Chinese Han children. The single nucleotide polymorphisms at position ,607(C/A) and ,137(C/G) in the promoter region of the IL-18 gene were analysed by sequence-specific primers-polymerase chain reaction in 118 patients with T1DM and 150 healthy controls. (1) The allele frequency of ,607A was 41.2% and 53.0%, respectively, in patients and in control subjects (P = 0.01), but the allele frequency of ,137C/G was not statistically significant (P = 0.37). (2) The distribution of CC genotype at position ,607 was significantly different between patients and normal controls (P = 0.03), while the distribution of AA genotype in patients was significantly lower than that in the controls (P = 0.03). (3) Furthermore, there was a significant increase in haplotype (,137C/,607G) and genotype combination (,137GG/ ,607CC) in patients compared with controls (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). The results of this study show that IL-18 gene promoter polymorphisms confer susceptibility to T1DM in Chinese Han children. Moreover, subjects carrying AA genotype at position ,607 of the promoter of IL-18 gene may be a low risk of T1DM development. [source]