Future Research. (future + research)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Language development and fragile X syndrome: Profiles, syndrome-specificity, and within-syndrome differences

Leonard Abbeduto
Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading inherited cause of mental retardation. In this article, we review what is known about the language and related problems of individuals with FXS. In doing so, we focus on the syndrome-specific features of the language phenotype and on the organismic (i.e., genetic and individual neurocognitive and behavioral) and environmental factors associated with within-syndrome variation in the phenotype. We also briefly review those aspects of the behavioral phenotype of FXS that are relevant for understanding syndrome-specific features of, and within-syndrome variability in, language. The review includes summaries of research on the prelinguistic foundations for language development and on each of the major components of language (i.e., vocabulary, morphosyntax, and pragmatics). Throughout the review, we point out implications of existing research for intervention as well as directions for future research. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2007;13:36,46. [source]

Cellular and humoral autoimmunity directed at bile duct epithelia in murine biliary atresia,,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
Cara L. Mack
Biliary atresia is an inflammatory fibrosclerosing lesion of the bile ducts that leads to biliary cirrhosis and is the most frequent indication for liver transplantation in children. The pathogenesis of biliary atresia is not known; one theory is that of a virus-induced, subsequent autoimmune-mediated injury of bile ducts. The aim of this study was to determine whether autoreactive T cells and autoantibodies specific to bile duct epithelia are present in the rotavirus (RRV)- induced murine model of biliary atresia and whether the T cells are sufficient to result in bile duct inflammation. In vitro analyses showed significant increases in IFN-,,producing T cells from RRV-diseased mice in response to bile duct epithelial autoantigen. Adoptive transfer of the T cells from RRV-diseased mice into nave syngeneic SCID recipients resulted in bile duct,specific inflammation. This induction of bile duct pathology occurred in the absence of detectable virus, indicating a definite response to bile duct autoantigens. Furthermore, periductal immunoglobulin deposits and serum antibodies reactive to bile duct epithelial protein were detected in RRV-diseased mice. In conclusion, both cellular and humoral components of autoimmunity exist in murine biliary atresia, and the progressive bile duct injury is due in part to a bile duct epithelia,specific T cell,mediated immune response. The role of cellular and humoral autoimmunity in human biliary atresia and possible interventional strategies therefore should be the focus of future research. (HEPATOLOGY 2006;44:1231,1239.) [source]

Applying cognitive adjustment theory to cross-cultural training for global virtual teams

Julia Brandl
Abstract Global virtual teams are faced with the challenge of developing trust in a technology-mediated context to overcome anxiety and uncertainty in their interactions. Research shows that adjustment is a function of an individual's ability to manage his or her anxiety and uncertainty in an unknown context (Gudykunst, 1995). We propose that the type of cross-cultural training (CCT) received can influence cognitive adjustment in global virtual teams. Building on phenomenology and sense-making theory, we argue that training needs to develop global virtual team members' capabilities in dealing with the unknown rather than providing ready-made concepts of cultures. Managerial implications of our theoretical discussion of cognitive adjustment and how CCT influences it are discussed, as are directions for future research. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Understanding and optimizing multisource feedback

Leanne E. Atwater
This article integrates the most recent research results on the topic of multisource feedback with what researchers have learned over the years about performance feedback in general. We believe that this review and set of recommendations represent the state of the art at this time. We provide practitioners with new ideas about how to continue to improve the multisource feedback process in their organizations. We also suggest ideas for feedback providers and facilitators about how to maximize the success of the feedback process. Additionally, we provide "food for thought" for researchers concerning ideas for future research. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

International compensation practices: a ten-country comparative analysis

Kevin B. Lowe
This article presents a comparative study of compensation, by exploring nine items which measure pay and benefits practices in ten locations (nine countries and one region). First, similarities and differences in employee compensation are examined. Second, emerging issues for international compensation are identified. Third, gaps are identified between current practice and employee preferences for future compensation. Overall, the results of this study provide some support for previous research, although a number of counterintuitive findings are identified with respect to the ways in which culture might be expected to impact employee preferences for cross-cultural compensation practices. The research suggests several challenges for compensation practice and directions for future research. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Flexible models with evolving structure

Plamen P. Angelov
A type of flexible model in the form of a neural network (NN) with evolving structure is discussed in this study. We refer to models with amorphous structure as flexible models. There is a close link between different types of flexible models: fuzzy models, fuzzy NN, and general regression models. All of them are proven universal approximators and some of them [Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model with singleton outputs and radial-basis function] are interchangeable. The evolving NN (eNN) considered here makes use of the recently introduced on-line approach to identification of Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models with evolving structure (eTS). Both TS and eNN differ from the other model schemes by their gradually evolving structure as opposed to the fixed structure models, in which only parameters are subject to optimization or adaptation. The learning algorithm is incremental and combines unsupervised on-line recursive clustering and supervised recursive on-line output parameter estimation. eNN has potential in modeling, control (if combined with the indirect learning mechanism), fault detection and diagnostics etc. Its computational efficiency is based on the noniterative and recursive procedure, which combines the Kalman filter with proper initializations and on-line unsupervised clustering. The eNN has been tested with data from a real air-conditioning installation. Applications to real-time adaptive nonlinear control, fault detection and diagnostics, performance analysis, time-series forecasting, knowledge extraction and accumulation, are possible directions of their use in future research. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Trauma focus group therapy for combat-related PTSD: An update

David W. Foy
Individual cognitive,behavioral therapy involving directed exposure to memories of traumatic events has been found to be effective in treating posttraumatic stress disorder. In this article, we present updated information on an alternative group form of exposure therapy: manualized trauma-focus group therapy (TFGT), designed as an efficient means of conducting directed exposure. We describe the cognitive,behavioral and developmental models from which the approach was derived, present an overview of session topics and a case illustration, provide guidelines for referring individuals to TFGT, and offer suggestions for future research. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol/In Session 58: 907,918, 2002. [source]

Muscle stabilization strategies in people with medial knee osteoarthritis: The effect of instability

Laura C. Schmitt
Abstract The sensation of knee instability (shifting, buckling. and giving way) is common in people with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Its influence on knee stabilization strategies is unknown. This study investigated the influence of knee instability on muscle activation during walking when knee stability was challenged. Twenty people with medial knee OA participated and were grouped as OA Stable (OAS) (n,=,10) and OA Unstable (OAU) (n,=,10) based on self-reported knee instability during daily activities. Quadriceps strength, passive knee laxity, and varus alignment were assessed and related to knee instability and muscle cocontraction during walking when the support surface translated laterally. Few differences in knee joint kinematics between the groups were seen; however, there were pronounced differences in muscle activation. The OAU group used greater medial muscle cocontraction before, during, and following the lateral translation. Self-reported knee instability predicted medial muscle cocontraction, but medial laxity and limb alignment did not. The higher muscle cocontraction used by the OAU subjects appears to be an ineffective strategy to stabilize the knee. Instability and high cocontraction can be detrimental to joint integrity, and should be the focus of future research. 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 26:1180,1185, 2008 [source]

Perspectives on research evidence and clinical practice: a survey of Australian physiotherapists

Karen Grimmer-Somers
Abstract Background and Purpose.,Physiotherapists' use of research evidence with clinical decision-making has interested researchers world-wide since 1980; however, little is known about such practices in Australia. The present survey sought information on Australian physiotherapists' perceptions of the importance of research, and barriers to uptake of evidence in clinical practice, when compared with an international cohort from 2001.,Method.,An Australian-relevant version of an English (UK) National Health Service (NHS) survey instrument was used to canvass 453 physiotherapists, randomly selected from the South Australian Physiotherapy Registration Board 2004,2005 records. The first survey was mailed in August 2005, a reminder was sent two weeks later to non-responders and a follow-up survey was sent in April 2006 to non-responders whose addresses had changed since 2005.,Results.,There was a 51% response rate. Of the non-responders, 12% were not contactable at their listed address, highlighting the mobility of Australian physiotherapists. Most respondents had undertaken research as students (59.5%) or as students and clinicians (11.5%). Of these, 37.1% were encouraged to embark on more research, and 20.5% were discouraged. The significant predictors of positive perceived importance of research were: previous research experience; being positive about undertaking further research; working in hospitals and holding a postgraduate degree. Clinicians working privately were significantly less likely than managers to be positive about research importance. The only significant predictor for not perceiving barriers to uptake of evidence was being positive about undertaking future research.,Conclusions.,The study identified constraints on uptake of evidence into practice that were related to accessing, reading and interpreting published research, and implementing findings. Found consistently across employment categories were barriers relating to lack of time, uncertainty about what the research reported, scepticism about the value of research and being isolated from peer support and literature sources. The responses indicated a positive shift towards evidence uptake since the 2001 NHS survey, suggesting an influence of increased exposure to information on evidence-based practice. A greater focus on research whilst training, the application of educational strategies for empowerment, better knowledge transfer and upskilling within the workplace, and ensuring dedicated time and organizational support for research activities are indicated. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

What moderates the too-much-choice effect?

Benjamin Scheibehenne
Core theories in economics, psychology, and marketing suggest that decision makers benefit from having more choice. In contrast, according to the too-much-choice effect, having too many options to choose from may ultimately decrease the motivation to choose and the satisfaction with the chosen option. To reconcile these two positions, we tested whether there are specific conditions in which the too-much-choice effect is more or less likely to occur. In three studies with a total of 598 participants, we systematically investigated the moderating impact of choice set sizes, option attractiveness, and whether participants had to justify their choices. We also tested the moderating role of search behavior, domain-specific expertise, and participants' tendency to maximize, in a within-subject design. Overall, only choice justification proved to be an effective moderator, calling the extent of the too-much-choice effect into question. We provide a theoretical account for our findings and discuss possible pathways for future research. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

An investigation of Detect, Practice, and Repair to remedy math-fact deficits in a group of third-grade students

Brian C. Poncy
A multiple-probe-across-problem-sets (tasks) design was used to evaluate the effects of the Detect, Practice, and Repair (DPR) on multiplication-fact fluency development in seven third-grade students nominated by their teacher as needing remediation. DPR is a multicomponent intervention and begins with a group-administered, metronome-paced assessment used to identify specific facts in need of repair. Next, Cover, Copy, and Compare (CCC) procedures are used to enhance automaticity with those specific facts. Lastly, students complete a 1-min speed drill and self-graph their fluency performance. Results showed large level and trend increases in fact fluency after DPR was applied across all three sets of multiplication problems. Discussion focuses on the importance of developing effective and efficient basic-skill-remediation procedures and directions for future research. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]