Future Growth (future + growth)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The American Geriatrics Society Transitions Staff Leadership: Collaborating for Future Growth and Influence

Jennie Chin Hansen RN
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Prehistory of the Japanese Teratology Society: The pioneers of teratology in Japan and the founders of the Society

Yoshiro Kameyama
ABSTRACT The significant achievements of teratological research in Japan were traced from the beginning of the 20th century to the foundation of Japanese Teratology Society (JTS) in 1961 as a bird's-eye view of the prehistory of JTS. The activities of the leaders of foresight who contributed to establish the JTS and to consolidate its basis for future growth were introduced in chronological order; Japanese pioneers before 1945, early developing stage of research (1948,1954), study groups furnishing the basis of JTS (1955,1961), and the final step for JTS establishment (1960,1961). Teratological research in Japan was initiated independent of foreign studies and had obtained original findings before World War II. The studies in Japan progressed with their main target the prevention of exogeneous malformations as a feasible approach from the standpoint of practical medicine. Accordingly, a close collaboration between experimental and clinical teratologists, one of the grand traditions of JTS, was in place even before the early stages of JTS foundation. [source]

Doctoral and Postdoctoral Education in Science and Engineering: Europe in the international competition

In this article, we discuss the recent evolutions of science and engineering doctoral and postdoctoral education in Europe. Indeed, Ph.Ds are crucial to the conduct of research and innovation in the national innovation systems, as they provide a large amount of input into creating the competitive advantage, notably through basic research. First, we show that Asia, and notably China, is producing more Ph.Ds than the United States and Europe. In many EU countries, the number of Ph.Ds has levelled off or even declined recently in many natural sciences and engineering fields. Second, we discuss the European situation in the international competition for talents. We study the European brain drain question, mainly at the doctoral and postdoctoral level. We find that there is an asymmetry in the flows of Ph.D students and postdoctorates between Europe and the United States, at the advantage of this latter country. These two points , production of Ph.Ds, international flows of doctorates and postdoctorates , lead us to be concerned about the future growth and innovation in Europe. In conclusion, we outline some European policy responses in the perspective of building the European Research Area and the European Higher Education Area. [source]

Use of tree rings to study the effect of climate change on trembling aspen in Québec

Abstract In this paper, we present a new approach, based on a mixed model procedure, to quantify the tree-ring-based growth-climate relationship of trembling aspen along a latitudinal gradient from 46 to 54 °N in eastern Canada. This approach allows breaking down the growth response into general intersite and local climatic responses, and analyzing variations of absolute ring width as well as interannual variations in tree growth. The final model also integrates nonclimatic variables such as soil characteristics and the occurrence of insect outbreaks into the growth predictions. Tree level random effects on growth were important as intercepts but were nonsignificant for the climatic variables, indicating that a single climate,growth relationship was justified in our case. The response of tree growth to climate showed, however, a strong dependence on the spatial scale at which the analysis was performed. Intersite variations in tree growth were mostly dependent on variations in the thermal heat sum, a variable that showed low interannual and high intersite variation. When variation for a single site was analyzed, other variables showed up to be important while the heat sum was unimportant. Finally, future growth under six different climate change scenarios was simulated in order to study the potential impact of climate change. Results suggest only moderate growth increases in the northern portion of the gradient and a growth decrease in the southern portion under future climatic conditions. [source]

Growth of Creative Occupations in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: A Shift-Share Analysis

ABSTRACT This article uses a shift-share model to investigate the growth of creative occupations in U.S. metropolitan areas during the 1990s. Empirical findings indicate that the performance of the creative economy varied widely across the U.S., and that the highest competitive growth rates of the creative workforce occurred in the Rocky Mountain, Southeast, and Southwest regions. Further analysis focused on whether high competitive workforce growth between 1990 and 2000 translated into high competitive employment growth from 1999 to 2003. The results show that many of the areas with the highest competitive growth rates of creative economy employment from 1999 to 2003 were some of the weakest regions in terms of creative workforce growth during the 1990s. This raises questions about the extent to which jobs follow people in the creative economy, and suggests that an initial strong presence in the creative economy is not a prerequisite for future growth. [source]

An analytical simulator for deploying IP telephony

K. Salah
Deploying IP telephony or voice over IP (VoIP) is a major and challenging task. This paper describes an analytical design and planning simulator to assess the readiness of existing IP networks for the deployment of VoIP. The analytical simulator utilizes techniques used for network flows and queuing network analysis to compute two key performance bounds for VoIP: delay and bandwidth. The simulator is GUI-based and has an interface with drag-and-drop features to easily construct any generic network topology. The simulator has an engine that automates and implements the analytical techniques. The engine determines the number of VoIP calls that can be sustained by the constructed network while satisfying VoIP QoS requirements and leaving adequate capacity for future growth. As a case study, the paper illustrates how the simulator can be utilized to assess the readiness to deploy VoIP for a typical network of a small enterprise. We have made the analytical simulator publicly available in order to improve and ease the process of VoIP deployment. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An OPNET-based simulation approach for deploying VoIP

K. Salah
These days a massive deployment of VoIP is taking place over IP networks. VoIP deployment is a challenging task for network researchers and engineers. This paper presents a detailed simulation approach for deploying VoIP successfully. The simulation uses the OPNET network simulator. Recently OPNET has gained a considerable popularity in both academia and industry, but there is no formal or known approach or methodology as to how OPNET can be used to assess the support and readiness of an existing network in deploying VoIP. Our approach and work presented in this paper predict, prior to the purchase and deployment of VoIP equipment, the number of VoIP calls that can be sustained by an existing network while satisfying QoS requirements of all network services and leaving adequate capacity for future growth. As a case study, we apply the simulation approach on a typical network of a small enterprise. The paper presents a detailed description of simulation models for network topology and elements using OPNET. The paper describes modeling and representation of background and VoIP traffic, as well as various simulation configurations. Moreover, the paper discusses many design and engineering issues pertaining to the deployment of VoIP. These issues include characteristics of VoIP traffic and QoS requirements, VoIP flow and call distribution, defining future growth capacity, and measurement and impact of background traffic.,Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Valuation of Deferred Taxation: Evidence from the UK Partial Provision Approach

David B. Citron
The UK provides a virtually unique environment in which to examine the information content of the partial provision approach to deferred tax accounting. In addition this issue is of particular interest to UK accounting standard setters in the light of trends towards international accounting standard harmonisation. Taking the total amount of deferred taxation to be equal to the partial balance sheet provision plus the potential portion appearing in the notes, this study tests the relationship between these various deferred tax components and market value. It also examines the economic rationale for the potential portion. The study is based on 1,512 company/years from the period 1989,1991. It finds that, while the full amount of deferred taxation is not valued by the market as a liability, there is evidence of the partial balance sheet provision being so valued. There is also evidence that the potential portion is positively related to market value, consistent with its proxying for information about future growth. This result is supported by the positive relation between the potential portion and measures of future capital spending, indicative of an underlying economic rationale for this deferred taxation component. From a regulatory perspective, the study concludes that the main benefit of the partial provision approach is that the balance sheet amount constitutes a reasonably reliable measure of the portion likely to crystallise as a liability, information that would be lost were only the full amount to be disclosed. [source]

Modernizing UK health services: ,short-sharp-shock' reform, the NHS subsistence economy, and the spectre of health care famine

Bruce G. Charlton MD
Abstract Modernization is the trend for societies to grow functionally more complex, efficient and productive. Modernization usually occurs by increased specialization of function (e.g. division of labour, such as the proliferation of specialists, in, medicine),, combined, with, increased, organization, in, order to co-ordinate the numerous specialized functions (e.g. the increased size of hospitals and specialist teams, including the management of these large groups). There have been many attempts to modernize the National Health Service (NHS) over recent decades, but it seems that none have significantly enhanced either the efficiency or output of the health care system. The reason may be that reforms have been applied as a ,drip-drip' of central regulation, with the consequence that health care has become increasingly dominated by the political system. In contrast, a ,short-sharp-shock' of radical and rapid modernization seems to be a more successful strategy for reforming social systems , in-between waves of structural change the system is left to re-orientate towards its client group. An example was the Flexner-initiated reform of US medical education which resulted in the closure of nearly half the medical colleges, an immediate enhancement in quality and efficiency of the system and future growth based on best institutional practices. However, short-sharp-shock reforms would probably initiate an NHS ,health care famine' with acute shortages and a health care crisis, because the NHS constitutes a ,subsistence economy' without any significant surplus of health services. The UK health care system must grow to generate a surplus before it can adequately be modernized. Efficient and rapid growth in health services could most easily be generated by stimulating provision outside the NHS, using mainly staff trained abroad and needs-subsidized ,item-of-service'-type payment schemes. Once there is a surplus of critically vital health services (e.g. acute and emergency provision), then radical modernization should rapidly improve the health service by a cull of low-quality and inefficient health care providers. [source]

US,Mexico fresh vegetable trade: the effects of trade liberalization and economic growth

Jaime E. Málaga
NAFTA; Vegetables; Trade liberalization; Mexico Abstract Studies of US-Mexico vegetable trade have generally emphasized the importance of US tariffs in determining the competitive advantage of US producers. Even so, research has identified at least four factors related primarily to the different levels of economic development in the US and Mexico that also have important effects on US-Mexico agricultural trade in general and fresh vegetable trade in particular. These include the differential growth rates of US and Mexican real wages, production technology (yields), and per capita income as well as cyclical movements in the real Mexican Peso/US Dollar exchange rate. This study examines the relative contribution of NAFTA and the development-related factors to likely future changes in US fresh vegetable imports from Mexico. The analysis employs an econometric simulation model of US and Mexican markets for five fresh vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers, squash, bell peppers, and onions) accounting for 80% of US fresh vegetable imports. The results suggest that the 1994,1995 Peso devaluation rather than NAFTA was primarily responsible for the sharp increase in US imports of Mexican vegetables observed in the first years following the implementation of NAFTA. Over time, however, the results suggest that differences in the growth rates of US and Mexican production yields and, to a lesser extent, of US and Mexican real incomes and/or real wage rates could plausibly contribute more to the future growth of US tomato, squash, and onion imports from Mexico than the trade liberalizing effects of NAFTA. [source]

Darwinism,a new paradigm for organizational behavior?

Nigel Nicholson
The Special Issue reflects a growing interest in Darwinian ideas and their increasing application to work and organizational issues, analyzes factors that have impeded its adoption as a paradigm and considers the prospects for future growth. After a brief introduction to key concepts in the new Darwinism, some histories, and controversies are traced. Causes for the particularly slow uptake of the paradigm in Organizational Behavior (OB) are discussed, as well as some of the common misconceptions and incorrect attributions that have been leveled at evolutionary theory. The paper then overviews the scope and contents of the Special Issue (SI) papers, and concludes by considering future prospects for the field. The authors argue that the paradigm has compelling significance and wide applicability to the full range of OB topics and interests. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Debating about the Discount Rate:The Basic Economic Ingredients

Christian Gollier
We provide various arguments in favour of a decreasing term structure. They are based on a precautionary argument given the rapid accumulation oif uncertainties affecting the future growth of our economies. We recommend a real discount rate of 2% for time horizons exceeding 50 years. A risk premium should be added to this rate if the project yields cash flows that are positively correlated with the growth of the economy. [source]

Market response models and marketing practice

Dominique M. Hanssens
Abstract Market response models are intended to help scholars and managers understand how consumers individually and collectively respond to marketing activities, and how competitors interact. Appropriately estimated effects constitute a basis for improved decision making in marketing. We review the demand and supply of market response models and we highlight areas of future growth. We discuss two characteristics that favour model use in practice, viz. the supply of standardized models and the availability of empirical generalizations. Marketing as a discipline and market response models as a technology may often not receive top management attention. In order to have enhanced relevance for senior management, we argue that marketing models should be cross-functional, include short- and long-term effects, and be considerate of capital markets. We also identify emerging opportunities for marketing model applications in areas such as public policy and litigation. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Context: Past, Present, and Future

Jon Kabat-Zinn
Baer's review (2003; this issue) suggests that mindf ulness-based interventions are clinically efficacious, but that better designed studies are now needed to substantiate the field and place it on a firm foundation for future growth. Her review, coupled with other lines of evidence, suggests that interest in incorporating mindfulness into clinical interventions in medicine and psychology is growing. It is thus important that professionals coming to this field understand some of the unique factors associated with the delivery of mindfulness-based interventions and the potential conceptual and practical pitfalls of not recognizing the features of this broadly unfamiliar landscape. This commentary highlights and contextualizes (1) what exactly mindfulness is, (2) where it came from, (3) how it came to be introduced into medicine and health care, (4) issues of cross-cultural sensitivity and understanding in the study of meditative practices stemming from other cultures and in applications of them in novel settings, (5) why it is important for people who are teaching mind-fulness to practice themselves, (6) results from 3 recent studies from the Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society not reviewed by Baer but which raise a number of key questions about clinical applicability, study design, and mechanism of action, and (7) current opportunities for professional training and development in mindfulness and its clinical applications. [source]