Future Generations (future + generation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Green Constitutionalism: The Constitutional Protection of Future Generations

RATIO JURIS, Issue 3 2007
The proposal I wish to elaborate can be termed the posterity provision, and it has both substantive and procedural elements. The aim of this constitutional provision is twofold. The first is to encourage state authorities to make more future-oriented deliberations and decisions. The second is to create more public awareness and improve the process of public deliberation about issues affecting near and remote future generations. It is argued that a good case can be made for the proposed reforms compared with alternative substantive constitutional environmental provisions found in existing constitutions and in the literature on legal and political theory. The main reason for this is that the proposed law constitutes a better and more adequate basis for judicial enforcement than the alternatives, which tend to be very vague or unclear. In this connection, I contend that there are both epistemological and moral reasons for introducing constitutional provisions that focus on the protection of critical natural resources essential for meeting the basic physiological needs of future people. It is also argued that the posterity provision can be defended on the basis of central ideas and ideals in recent theory of deliberative democracy. [source]

Front and Back Covers, Volume 24, Number 6.

December 200
Front cover caption, volume 24 issue 6 Front cover A television newscaster reports from a prayer meeting organized in support of Barack Obama on the eve of the US election in Kogelo, Western Kenya. Foreign and local journalists descended on this small village which is home to Mama Sarah, Obama's paternal step-grandmother. As this picture was taken, religious and cultural leaders, schoolchildren and local politicians were praying for the success of their ,son', although they were also careful to offer up prayers for John McCain. The newscaster stands in front of a painting by local artist Joachim Onyango Ndalo, famous for his colourful portrayals of historical events, African presidents and other world leaders. The painting shows Obama surrounded by political figures, including Colin Powell, Bill Clinton and the British queen. In January of this year Ndalo was forced to flee from his home in Western Kenya to Uganda during the violence that followed Kenya's contested elections between the Party of National Unity (PNU), led by President Kibaki, and the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM), the opposition party led by Raila Odinga. Although pro-Odinga, the artist was branded a traitor by some members of his community for accepting a commission to paint Stanley Livondo, a Kibaki supporter and opponent of Odinga for the Langata parliamentary seat. Ndalo's workshop and paintings were destroyed. He has since returned home and plans to send his painting to America as a gift to Obama for his inauguration. Back cover caption, volume 24 issue 6 FINANCIAL CRISIS: The financial crisis unfolding since September this year has wiped out savings and threatens livelihoods across the world. Future generations will have to pay for the nationalization of gigantic debts that we never thought we had. This crisis, the worst of its kind since the Great Depression, demands an overhaul of the world's financial system. What might anthropologists contribute, beyond our insight into the world's informal economies and peasant markets? In this issue, Keith Hart and Horacio Ortiz argue that the breakdown of the economists' intellectual hegemony demands a new approach to money more sensitive to its social dimensions and to redistributive justice. A fresh reading of Mauss and Polanyi would be one good place to start. Stephen Gudeman, in his diary of witnessing the financial markets in October, argues for the relevance of anthropological concepts such as ,spheres of exchange', a realm of people, relationships and materials that cuts across market processes and lies beyond the economic vision of Wall Street and Washington, but should be represented in policy-making. Anthropologists have produced many detailed examples of how communities make use of markets within economies. Now, as the world searches for a new system of governance, is the time for anthropologists to make their voices heard. Perhaps a President's Council of Anthropological Advisors might complement the existing Council of Economic Advisors. What better time for such a proposal than the election of a new US president with roots in Hawaii, Kansas, Indonesia and Kenya, whose mother was herself an anthropologist? [source]

Changes in the strategic management of technology: results of a global benchmarking study

R & D MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2002
Jakob Edler
This contribution analyses main changes in the strategic management of technology of the world's most technology-intensive companies from western Europe, North America and Japan. The results presented here are based on a literature review and a survey which show the following main results: first, R&D and technology have become key cornerstones of corporate and business strategy. Second, there is a growing tendency to acquire technology from external sources throughout the sample. Third, internationalization of R&D plays a very important role in the strategies of the large companies investigated and the data shows that it will certainly gain further momentum. However, internationalization of R&D is confined to the Triad regions and is not ,global'. Based on our analysis, cornerstones of a future generation of R&D/technology management are developed. [source]

The impact of firm introductory strategies on consumers' perceptions of future product introductions and purchase decisions

Derrick S. Boonea
In this research, we develop and test a model of the consumer's decision to immediately purchase a technologically advanced product or to delay such a purchase until a future generation of the product is released. We propose that for technologically advancing products, consumers consider both performance lag (how far behind am I now) and expected performance gain (how far ahead will I be if I wait to buy a future expected release) in their purchase decisions. Furthermore, we hypothesize that a firm's past product introductory strategy can significantly influence consumer perceptions of performance lag, performance gain, and the rate at which a product is advancing technologically. We also propose that these perceptions of lag, gain and rate of technological change influence purchase action and ultimately determine whether or not a consumer will delay or immediately purchase a firm's current technological offering. We investigate the above relationships by introducing a model of consumer purchase behavior that incorporates the effects of a firm's frequency and pattern of next generation product introduction, and test the impact of different introductory strategies on performance lag, gain, rate of change perceptions, and purchase action. In our first study we test our model in a monopolistic setting and show that, holding all else fixed, infrequent product upgrades and/or increasing intergenerational release times result in consumers perceiving larger performance lags and gains. We also show that, holding all else fixed, consumers with larger performance lags and/or gains are less likely to delay their purchases of the currently best available product. In our second study we test our model in a competitive setting and show that, holding all else fixed, a firm's past pattern of new product introduction can influence consumers' perceptions of the firm's product's rate of technological change. We also find that consumers are more likely to purchase products which they perceive to have higher rates of technological change. The key insight from this research is that firms have a strategic tool at their disposal that has been overlooked,the pattern of introduction of next generation products. Our findings suggest that a change in the frequency and/or pattern of introduction, in and of themselves, can influence consumers' perceptions of future product introductions, and ultimately influence their purchase actions. Specifically, we demonstrate that by better understanding consumers' purchase timing decisions, firms may be able to induce purchase on the basis of introductory frequency and pattern alone. Additionally, we demonstrate that by strategically managing consumer expectations of future product introductions, firms may be able to decrease the purchase likelihoods of competing products. Implications of our research and its application to the pattern and timing of preannouncements for new products are also explored. [source]

Necessity to establish new risk assessment and risk communication for human fetal exposure to multiple endocrine disruptors in Japan

Emiko Todaka
ABSTRACT, Our recent study clearly shows that fetuses are exposed to multiple chemicals including endocrine disruptors in Japan. Although the embryo and fetus stages are the most sensitive period to chemicals in humans' life cycle, the health effects of the chemicals such as endocrine disruptors to them are largely unknown. The conventional risk assessment method cannot assess the risk to fetuses precisely. Now we need a new risk assessment, in which the target is fetuses and not the adults, in addition to the conventional risk assessment At the same time, we also need a new strategy to practically eliminate the risk for the future generations. To make the strategy effective, we suggest a new approach to reduce the risk and avoid the possible adverse health effects, using primary, secondary and tertiary preventions as they are used in public health. We also suggest a new concept of "pre-primary prevention" to reduce the risk for fetuses. Furthermore, to make this method even more practical, we suggest a new risk communication method. In this paper, we present a framework of risk avoidance of multiple chemical exposure to fetuses. [source]


Gordon Freedman
The historical circumstances,scientific, social, and economic,that brought forth the great museums of the world no longer exist. In their place is a new public context that shifts attention from museums whose business is objects to organizations whose business is information. At the same time, the economic-survival mechanism of museums is shifting from grand philanthropy to innovative development programs and market-sensitive commercial endeavors. Meeting the needs of the next generations of visitors and cultivating the next generation of funders will not be simple. Massive changes in the social fabric of the nation will soon demand new kinds of institutions that play new roles in society. Museums that meet this challenge will not simply be competing with other sectors of society for public attention and funds. Future success will require the fundamental reinvention of museums so that their purpose is obvious and their mission is clearly aligned with the needs of future generations. [source]

Nation to Nation: Defining New Structures of Development in Northern Quebec

Caroline Desbiens
Abstract: In February 2002, the Crees of Quebec and the Quebec government signed a new agreement that was designed to implement new structures of economic development in northern Quebec. The document, known as "La Paix des Braves" (Peace of the Braves), was characterized as a "nation-to-nation" agreement and promises greater participation by the Crees in the management and exploitation of natural resources on the territory. Starting from the premise that the Crees and the Québécois do not simply compete for the resources of James Bay but can be said to define and firm up the boundaries of their respective nation in and through the use of these resources, this article explores the close intertwining of colonialism, culture, and the economy in James Bay, as well as its potential impact on the new agreement. First, it analyzes how the Crees and the Québécois have articulated nationhood in relation to land and resources, particularly over the past three decades. Second, it examines how these discourses are informed by a third national scale, that of Canada. The intersection among nature, nation, and economic development in northern Quebec is a key example of how resources are embedded in complex national geographies that are shaped across a broad historical span. Although sustainability is often defined in terms of the needs of future generations, this article calls for greater attention to past colonial and political relations in defining structures of development that ensure the renewal of resources. [source]

Should we beware of the Precautionary Principle?

ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 33 2001
Christian Gollier
How should society deal with risks when there is scientific uncertainty about the size of these risks? There has been much recent discussion of the Precautionary Principle, which states that lack of full scientific knowledge should not be used as a reason to postpone cost,effective preventive measures. We show in this paper that the Precautionary Principle contradicts one important intuition about the right way to act in the face of risk, namely the principle of ,looking before you leap'. When we expect to learn more about the future, the effectiveness of our preventive measures will be greater if we learn before we act. However, a number of other ways of taking uncertainty into account are consistent with a reasonable interpretation of the Precautionary Principle. First, postponing preventive measures may increase our vulnerability to damage, which induces a precautionary motive for risk,prevention, similar to the precautionary savings motive. Secondly, stronger preventive actions often yield more flexibility for the future, so that acting early has an option value. Thirdly, when better information comes from a process of learning,by,doing, the risk associated with early events is amplified by the information they yield about the future. This plays a role analogous to that of an increase in risk aversion, making us more cautious. Fourthly, because imperfect knowledge of the risk makes it difficult to insure, the social cost of risk should include a risk premium. Finally, uncertainty about the economic environment enjoyed by future generations should be taken into account. This raises the benefit of acting early to prevent long,term risks. If the Precautionary Principle sometimes gives good and sometimes gives bad advice, there is no escape from the need to undertake a careful cost,benefit analysis. We show that standard cost,benefit analysis can be refined to take account of scientific uncertainty, in ways that balance the Precautionary Principle against the benefits of waiting to learn before we act. Furthermore, it is important that they be used to do so, for instinct is an unreliable guide in such circumstances. Abandoning cost,benefit analysis in favour of simple maxims can result in some seriously misleading conclusions. [source]

Rethinking civic education in the age of biotechnology

Huey-li Li
In this paper, I first examine the three justifications most often provided for differentiating, discounting, or even disclaiming the present generation's moral responsibility to future generations. I then discuss ideological critiques of, and educational solutions to, the complicity of formal educational institutions in propagating these justifications. Finally, I inquire into the ethical postulates by which prefigurative democratic civic and citizenship education could facilitate civic engagement in deliberating about intergenerational relations. I argue that, by challenging such hegemonic cultural values as atomistic individualism, contractual social relations, the pursuit of progress, and the sharp division between ethics and epistemology, prefigurative civic education serves as the first step toward egalitarian intergenerational relations. [source]

Assessing human germ-cell mutagenesis in the Postgenome Era: A celebration of the legacy of William Lawson (Bill) Russell,

Andrew J. Wyrobek
Abstract Birth defects, de novo genetic diseases, and chromosomal abnormality syndromes occur in ,5% of all live births, and affected children suffer from a broad range of lifelong health consequences. Despite the social and medical impact of these defects, and the 8 decades of research in animal systems that have identified numerous germ-cell mutagens, no human germ-cell mutagen has been confirmed to date. There is now a growing consensus that the inability to detect human germ-cell mutagens is due to technological limitations in the detection of random mutations rather than biological differences between animal and human susceptibility. A multidisciplinary workshop responding to this challenge convened at The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the applicability of an emerging repertoire of genomic technologies to studies of human germ-cell mutagenesis. Workshop participants recommended large-scale human germ-cell mutation studies be conducted using samples from donors with high-dose exposures, such as cancer survivors. Within this high-risk cohort, parents and children could be evaluated for heritable changes in (a) DNA sequence and chromosomal structure, (b) repeat sequences and minisatellites, and (c) global gene expression profiles and pathways. Participants also advocated the establishment of a bio-bank of human tissue samples from donors with well-characterized exposure, including medical and reproductive histories. This mutational resource could support large-scale, multiple-endpoint studies. Additional studies could involve the examination of transgenerational effects associated with changes in imprinting and methylation patterns, nucleotide repeats, and mitochondrial DNA mutations. The further development of animal models and the integration of these with human studies are necessary to provide molecular insights into the mechanisms of germ-cell mutations and to identify prevention strategies. Furthermore, scientific specialty groups should be convened to review and prioritize the evidence for germ-cell mutagenicity from common environmental, occupational, medical, and lifestyle exposures. Workshop attendees agreed on the need for a full-scale assault to address key fundamental questions in human germ-cell environmental mutagenesis. These include, but are not limited to, the following: Do human germ-cell mutagens exist? What are the risks to future generations? Are some parents at higher risk than others for acquiring and transmitting germ-cell mutations? Obtaining answers to these, and other critical questions, will require strong support from relevant funding agencies, in addition to the engagement of scientists outside the fields of genomics and germ-cell mutagenesis. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Agriculture Under the Public Eye: Who Cares for What

EUROCHOICES, Issue 2 2004
Cees Veerman
Summary Agriculture Under the Public Eye: Who Cares for What? The new CAP is becoming geared towards a more sustainable agriculture that takes account of the needs of future generations. Achieving sustainability, however, means meeting three challenges-, (a) profit - strengthening the viability and competitiveness of the agricultural sector; (b) planet - the ecological challenge of promoting good environmental practices; and (c) people-the social challenge to improve the living conditions and economic opportunities in rural areas. In the food chain we see responses to consumer concerns about food safety, quality and welfare issues through the development and implementation of mandatory and voluntary quality control and assurance schemes. And the consolidation and internationalisation of the food retailing and the manufacturing industry is expected to continue. An important duality has emerged. On the one side, we find a state system of regulation, on the other a system of self-regulation, largely driven by the major forces in supply chain management, the food retailers in particular. A simple and effective regulatory environment for the agri-food complex is essential if we are to achieve our competitiveness goals. One of the priorities for discussion by politicians, therefore, should be whether current and expected policy and industry developments should lead to a review of the balance between markets and government, ,who cares for what?' l'agriculture aux yeux des politiques publiques qui doit faire quoi? La nouvelle PAC est maintenant bien orientée vers une agriculture plus durable, en mesure de tenir compte des besoins des générations futures. Une véritable durabilityé suppose cependant que soient relevés trois défis: a) le profit - renforcer la viabilityé et la compétitivité du secteur agricole; b) la planète - le défiécologique de promouvoir des pratiques favorables à l'environnement; c) les gens - le défi social d'améliorer les conditions de vie et les opportunités économiques dans les zones rurales. Du côté des filières alimentaires, la réponse à trouver aux inquiétudes des consommateurs vis à vis de la qualityé sanitaire et organoleptique des produits devrait pouvoir venir de l'élaboration de contrôles de qualityé et de systèmes d'assurances, à appliquer sur la base du volontariat ou à rendre obligatoires. En même temps, il faut s'attendre à la continuation du mouvement vers l'affermissement du rôle des industries alimentaires et du commerce de détail, ainsi qu'à leur internationalisation. Un système dual vient d'émerger: d'un côté, un système de réglementations étatiques, de l'autre, une autodiscipline, pilotée par les plus solides des maillons de la filière, en particulier les grandes surfaces. Un environnement réglementaire à la fois simple et efficace est essentiel pour atteindre l'objectif de compétitivité du complexe agroalimentaire, II en résulte que, pour les pouvoirs publics, une des grandes questions à discuter est de savoir dans quelle mesure l' évolution des conditions politiques et celle du développement industriel imposent une révision de l'équilibre actuel entre les marchés et les autorités gouvernementales; en d'autres termes, qui doit faire quoi ? Landwirtschaft in der öffentlichen Meinung; Wer ist wofür zuständig? Die neue GAP wird gerade auf eine nachhaltigere Landwirtschaft hin ausgerichtet, welche die Bedürfnisse der kommenden Generationen berücksichtigt. Nachhaltigkeit kann jedoch nur erzielt werden, wenn den folgenden drei Herausforderungen Rechnung getragen wird: (a) Ökonomie , Stärkung der Leistungs- und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Landwirtschaftssektors; (b) Ökologie , Förderung umweltgerechter Verfahrensweisen; und (c) Soziales - Verbesserung der Lebensbedingungen und der wirtschaftlichen Lage im ländlichen Raum. Im Bereich der Nahrungsmittelkette wird den Bedenken der Verbraucher hinsichtlich der Nahrun gsmittelsicherheit, der Qualität und der Wohlfahrt durch die Entwicklung und Implementierung von obligatorischen und freiwilligen Qualitätskontrollen und Sicherheitsprogrammen Rechnung getragen. Es ist davon auszugehen, dass sich die Konsolidierung und Lnternationalisierung im Bereich des Lebensmitteleinzel-handels und der weiterverarbeitenden Industrie fortsetzen wird. Es ist eine bedeutsame Dualität entstanden. Auf der einen Seite erfolgt eine Regulierung seitens des Staates, auf der anderen Seite erfolgt eine Selbstregulierung durch die Vermarktungskette, insbesondere durch den Lebensmitteleinzelhandel. Eine sowohl einfache als auch wirksame Regulierung der Agrar- und Ernährungswirtschaft ist von grundlegender Bedeutung für das Erreichen unserer Wettbewerbsziele. Daher sollte in der Politik mit Priorität diskutiert werden, ob die gegenwärtige und zukünftige Politik und auch die industrielle Entwicklung zu einem neuen Gleichgewicht zwischen Markt und Staatseingriffen führen sollte: Wer ist wofür zuständig? [source]

Fetal alcohol syndrome through the eyes of parents

Jocie DeVries
Although fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) was first identified by research scientists in the USA in 1973, it was not until 1989 when an adoptive parent, Michael Dorris, wrote The Broken Cord, that a practical description of the disability came into public awareness. Within the next 2 years, parents of children diagnosed with this disability teemed up with interested professionals to organize the FAS Family Resource Institute (FAS*FRI). This educational non-profit organization has now devoted over a decade to their mission to identify, understand and care for individuals with fetal alcohol syndrome/effects (FAS/E) and to prevent this disability from occurring in future generations. Their mission has necessitated the identification of a behavioral phenotype for FAS/E, the development of a professional training curriculum, and operation of a national family advocacy and mentoring network. By adding their own families' experiences to the information gathered from thousands of other families with diagnosed children, they have accumulated enough experiential, frontline reports which are similar enough to serve as their research science base. [source]

Novel vaccine strategies with protein antigens of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Edwin Swiatlo
Abstract Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are a major cause of mortality throughout the world. This organism is primarily a commensal in the upper respiratory tract of humans, but can cause pneumonia in high-risk persons and disseminate from the lungs by invasion of the bloodstream. Currently, prevention of pneumococcal infections is by immunization with vaccines which contain capsular polysaccharides from the most common serotypes causing invasive disease. However, there are more than 90 antigenically distinct serotypes and there is concern that serotypes not included in the vaccines may become more prevalent in the face of continued use of polysaccharide vaccines. Also, certain high-risk groups have poor immunological responses to some of the polysaccharides in the vaccine formulations. Protein antigens that are conserved across all capsular serotypes would induce more effective and durable humoral immune responses and could potentially protect against all clinically relevant pneumococcal capsular types. This review provides a summary of work on pneumococcal proteins that are being investigated as components for future generations of improved pneumococcal vaccines. [source]

Public Pension Reform in the United Kingdom: What Effect on the Financial Well-Being of Current and Future Pensioners?,

FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 1 2005
Richard Disney
Abstract Unlike many tax and benefit changes, reforms to public pension programmes take many years to have their full effect. This paper examines the effect of reforms to the public pension programme in the United Kingdom on the state retirement incomes of current generations of pensioners and on the prospective state incomes of future generations of pensioners. We show that, for an individual with lifetime earnings close to male average earnings, the UK pension system is at its most generous to those reaching the state pension age around the year 2000, but that the introduction of the state second pension and the pension credit postpones this peak for individuals on lower incomes and for those with substantial periods out of paid employment spent with caring responsibilities. We also consider how the ,mix' of benefits, particularly between the contributory and income-tested sectors, could change over time, and the impact that this would have on incentives to save for retirement. [source]

Social Security and Growth in an Altruistic Economy

Berthold U. Wigger
This paper studies the macroeconomic impact of private and public intergenerational transfers in the presence of endogenous growth. It focuses on two-sided altruism implying that individuals have both a motive to make gifts to their parents and a motive to leave bequests to their children. The growth effects of social security depend on whether children are making gifts to their parents or parents are leaving bequests to their children. Which of the transfers is operative, in turn, depends on the size of social security benefits. Social security is legislated endogenously. The introduction of a social security program which definitely reduces per capita income growth and harms future generations is contemplated by altruistic individuals even if non-altruistic individuals disapprove it. [source]

Nuclear production of hydrogen: When worlds collide

R. B. Duffey
Abstract A particularly important role for nuclear power in the future will be in alleviating the potential for climate change by avoiding greenhouse and particulate emissions. The corollary is the key link to the hydrogen economy, where the introduction of hydrogen into the transportation sector will benefit the environment only when low carbon sources, such as nuclear reactors, are the primary energy source for hydrogen production. The future could well be the Hydrogen Age. We show that a major reduction in greenhouse emissions worldwide can be obtained by synergistic nuclear-electric-renewable production of hydrogen, thus alleviating potential effects on future generations. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Some ideas for QFT research

Isaac Horowitz
Feedback theory is much less popular now than 5 years ago. However, there is little question that the problem of achieving desired system tolerances from uncertain plants, at minimum cost of feedback, will remain an important, enduring one for many future generations. Although much progress has been made, it is minuscule in comparison with the extent of the problem. The purpose here is to suggest some significant QFT research problems, some tantalizingly on the boundary of the unknown. There have been in the past many suggestions for improvements in feedback synthesis. Most e.g. the Smith Regulator (Int. J. Control 1983;38:977) have been illusory, because they were formulated in a qualitative context, without the disciplines of quantitative uncertainty and performance specifications, degrees of freedom, sensor noise, plant modification, etc. Without such disciplines, it is impossible to properly evaluate competing techniques. The reader is referred to the 1991 Survey paper for some background, Horowitz (Int. J. Control 1991;53(2):255). Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Distributional Impacts of Pension Policy in Argentina: Winners and Losers within and Across Generations

Camila Arza
The paper deals with the life-cycle intra- and intergenerational income transfers operated by the pension system in Argentina by estimating the internal rates of return obtained by different generations and types of workers from their participation in the system. The empirical analysis confirms that earlier generations of workers benefited from higher social security returns than later generations, which retired under a matured system with large deficits. The worst-affected cohorts were those born after 1920, particularly suffering from a social security crisis and falling real wages. For future generations retiring fully under the new mixed pension system, returns will more closely depend on financial market performance and the evolution of administration costs. Intragenerational transfers were also observed for all cohorts under study, as a result of the original system design as well as adjustments adopted during the implementation process. The real distributional impact of progressive benefit formulas could, however, be offset by state transfers to cover pension deficits and forward tax shifting in a context of unequal pension coverage. [source]

Thinking about ageing issues

Dalmer D. Hoskins
Advances in longevity and falling birth rates have a profound impact on our societies, in both the industrialized and developing worlds. Demographic ageing is causing considerable concern, if not alarm, in many circles. Yet the public debate about the future of social security is often lacking in accurate and objective information. It is easier to focus on the "burden" of ageing on society than attempt to better understand the complex, interrelated nature of the issues involved, especially the rising numbers of persons of working age who are inactive and contributing neither taxes nor social security contributions. Whether the mode of pension financing is public or private, retirement income of the non-active older population must be paid out of the economic gains of the younger working population. Social security policy is all about making plans now for future generations. This means more carefully defining the terms of the public debate, articulating more clearly the desired objectives and policies. [source]

Spiritual Seeking, Narcissism, and Psychotherapy: How Are They Related?

This study used data from a long-term longitudinal study of men and women to examine the relations among spirituality, narcissism, and psychotherapy. The findings indicated that in late adulthood (age late 60s/mid 70s) spirituality was related to autonomous or healthy narcissism but was unrelated to willful (overt) or hypersensitive (covert) narcissism, two pathological forms of the construct. Autonomy in early adulthood (age 30s) was a significant predictor of spirituality in late adulthood (a time interval of close to 40 years) and this relation was mediated by involvement in psychotherapy in midlife. Autonomy was related positively, and hypersensitivity was related negatively, to concern for the welfare of future generations. These findings are discussed in light of current concerns about the social implications of the therapeutic culture. [source]

Persistence of Traumatic Memories in World War II Prisoners of War

(See editorial comments by Dr. Jules Rosen, 2347), on pp 234
OBJECTIVES: To assess the long-term effects of the prisoner of war (POW) experience on U.S. World War II (WWII) veterans. DESIGN: Exploratory study. SETTING: Participants were recruited through the Hines Veterans Affairs Hospital; a POW reunion in Orlando, Florida; and the WWII veterans periodical, "The QUAN." PARTICIPANTS: One hundred fifty-seven American military veterans who were former WWII POWs. MEASURMENTS: Participants completed a mailed survey describing their POW experiences, POW effects on subsequent psychological and physical well-being, and ways in which these experiences shaped major decisions in their lives. RESULTS: Participants from the European and Pacific theaters reported that their captivity during WWII affected their long-term emotional well-being. Both groups reported high rates of reflection, dreaming, and flashbacks pertaining to their POW experiences, but Pacific theater POWs did so at higher rates in the present than in the past. Large portions of both groups reported greater rumination on POW experiences after retirement. Finally, 16.6% of participants met the requirements of a current, clinical diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on the Mississippi PTSD scale, with PTSD rates in Pacific theater POWs (34%) three times those of European theater POWs (12%). CONCLUSION: Traumatic memories and clinical levels of PTSD persist for WWII POWs as long as 65 years after their captivity. Additionally, rumination about these experiences, including flashbacks and persistent nightmares, may increase after retirement, particularly for those held in the Pacific theater. These findings inform the current therapeutic needs of this elderly population and future generations of POWs from other military conflicts. [source]

Effect of parental ageing on offspring developmental and survival attributes in an aphidophagous ladybird, Cheilomenes sexmaculata

K. Singh
Abstract The present study is the first attempt to investigate the effect of parental ageing of Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) on total developmental period, developmental rate, adult weight on emergence, longevity, egg to adult survival and age-specific survivorship of the offspring. Young parents (10,20 day old) produced offspring with the shortest total developmental period, highest development rate, highest weight on emergence, greater longevity and highest survival. Age-specific survivorship of the offspring of younger parents declined later than the offspring of middle (30,40 day old) and old (50,60 day old) aged parents. This study would help in understanding the effect of parental ageing on future generations of predaceous ladybird beetles and would be helpful in designing mass multiplication programme of the bioagent, C. sexmaculata, in the laboratory. [source]

The Golden Rule and the Potentiality Principle: Future Persons and Contingent Interests

Kai M. A. Chan
abstract,Duties to future persons are central to numerous key ethical issues including contraception, abortion, genetic selection, treatment of the environment, and population control. Nevertheless, we still seem to be lacking Parfit's ,Theory X', a general theory of beneficence whose appropriateness extends to future generations. Starting from the Golden Rule (TGR), R. M. Hare purportedly derived counterintuitive duties to potential people and ,the potentiality principle'. However, I argue that Hare's derivation involves a hidden and unjustifiable extension from TGR, and show how the most plausible form of TGR is compatible with multiple contradictory principles for the treatment of future persons. I appeal to our own preferences to argue that one extension of TGR follows the spirit of TGR, while the other is deeply implausible. Using the plausible extension, I derive a Contingent Interests Principle (CIP) that offers much promise as Parfit's elusive Theory X. In contrast to Hare's interpretation of TGR, this application provides solid justification for rejecting the potentiality principle. [source]

Challenges of antiangiogenic cancer therapy: trials and errors, and renewed hope

Miguel Ángel Medina
,,Introduction ,,What can we learn from the previous failures? ,,Signs of hope ,,Another turn of the screw: a surrogate marker, at last ,,Future avenues for the vascular therapy of cancer Abstract Angiogenesis inhibition has been proposed as a general strategy to fight cancer. However, in spite of the promising preclinical results, a first generation of antiangiogenic compounds yielded poor results in clinical trials. Conceptual errors and mistakes in the design of trials and in the definition of clinical end-points could account for these negative results. In this context of discouraging results, a second generation of antiangiogenic therapies is showing positive results in phases II and III trials at the beginning of the twenty-first century. In fact, several combined treatments with conventional chemotherapy and antiangiogenic compounds have been recently approved. The discovery and pharmacological development of future generations of angiogenesis inhibitors will benefit from further advances in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in human angiogenesis. New styles of trials are necessary, to avoid missing potential therapeutic effects. Different clinical end-points, new surrogate biomarkers and methods of imaging will be helpful in this process. Real efficacy in clinical trials may come with the combined use of antiangiogenic agents with conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and combinations of several antiangiogenic compounds with different mechanisms of action. Finally, the existing antiangiogenic strategies should include other approaches such as vascular targeting or angioprevention. [source]

Multigenerational analysis of spatial structure in the terrestrial, food-deceptive orchid Orchis mascula

Hans Jacquemyn
Summary 1In long-lived, terrestrial orchids, strong aggregation of adults and recruits within populations and pronounced spatial association between recruits and adults can be expected when seed dispersal is limited, probabilities of seed germination decrease with increasing distance from mother plants and/or not all mother plants contribute to future generations. When individuals are distributed evenly across life-history stages, these processes can also be expected to result in a significant fine-scale spatial genetic structure in recruits that will persist into the adult-stage class. 2We combined detailed spatial genetic and point pattern analyses across different generations with parentage analyses to elucidate the role of the diverse processes that might determine spatial structure in Orchis mascula. 3Analyses of spatial point patterns showed a significant association between adults and recruits and similar clustering patterns for both. Weak, but highly significant spatial genetic structure was observed in adults and recruits, but no significant differences were observed across life stages, indicating that the spatial genetic structure present in recruits persists into the adult stage. 4Parentage analyses highlighted relatively short seed dispersal distances (median offspring-recruitment distance: 1.55 and 1.70 m) and differential contribution of mother plants to future generations. 5Persistence of fine-scale spatial genetic structure from seedlings into the adult stage class is consistent with the life history of O. mascula, whereas relatively large dispersal distances of both pollen and seeds compared to the fine-scale clustering of adults and seedlings suggest overlapping seed shadows and mixing of genotypes within populations as the major factors explaining the observed weak spatial genetic structure. 6Nonetheless, comparison of the spatial association between recruits and adults with the genetic analysis of offspring-parent distances suggests that the tight clustering of recruits around adults was probably caused by decreasing probabilities of seed germination with increasing distance from mother plants. 7Synthesis. This study shows that the approach presented here, which combines spatial genetic and spatial pattern analyses with parentage analyses, may be broadly applied to other plant species to elucidate the processes that determine spatial structure within their populations. [source]

Envisioning Power in Mexico: Legitimacy, Crisis, and the Practice of Patrimony

Elizabeth Emma Ferry
Yet once he broadened his interests to peasant studies and the history of capitalism, he never returned to make a sustained examination of power in Mexico. This article extends Wolf's insights into an analysis of the current political and economic situation in Mexico. I focus on the practice of categorizing objects as the inalienable property of a given collective, such as a city, region, institution, or nation. These possessions , often referred to as patrimonio (patrimony) , are understood to have been handed down from prior generations and intended to be handed down in turn to future generations. I look at this mode of characterizing property in the areas of subsoil resources, collectively held land, and "cultural properties." [source]

Preparing for "diastole": Advanced training opportunities for academic hospitalists

Vineet Arora MD
Abstract Academic hospital medicine can be described as comprising periods of "systole," during which hospitalists provide clinical care, and periods of "diastole," the portion of a hospitalist's time spent in nonclinical activities. Far from being a period of relaxation, diastole is an active component of a hospitalist's work, the time devoted to the pursuit of career advancement. This period is a critical opportunity for career development in terms of medical research, education, quality improvement, or administration. An appropriate balance of systole and diastole may potentially prevent burnout and allow hospitalists opportunities to focus on academic advancement. Although an increasing number of residency graduates opt for a career in academic hospital medicine, few are prepared for the period of diastole. This article describes several career options in academic hospital medicine, specifically, opportunities in education, research, quality improvement, and administrative opportunities. By informing future hospitalists about the career opportunities within academic hospital medicine possible through managing their diastolic time, we hope that future generations of trainees will be better prepared to enter this field. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2006;1:368,377. © 2006 Society of Hospital Medicine. [source]

Material Flow Indicators in the Czech Republic in Light of the Accession to the European Union

Jan Kovanda
Summary This article deals with the economy-wide material flows in the Czech Republic in 1990,2006. It presents in brief the overall trends of the material flow indicators in 1990,2002. The major part of the article is focused on the years 2002,2006, which immediately preceded and followed the accession of the Czech Republic to the European Union in 2004. It is shown that this accession had quite a significant impact on the volume and character of the material flows of the Czech Republic. The accession was beneficial from an economic point of view, as it allowed for an increased supply of materials needed for economic growth. Furthermore, it was accompanied by an improvement in the efficiency of material transformation into economic output. From an environmental and broader sustainability point of view, however, this accession brought about some controversial outcomes. There was a significant increase in the net export of environmental pressure, on one hand, and an increase in net additions to the physical stock of the economy, on the other. Although the former is controversial from the viewpoint of equity in sharing area and resources, the latter places an additional burden on future generations because all physical stocks will turn into waste and emissions at some point, when their life span expires. [source]

Generative Uncle and Nephew Relationships

Robert M. Milardo
This study investigates generativity, or a concern for future generations, in the relationships between uncles and nephews. Using in-depth interviews, 21 uncles and 31 nephews were interviewed in Wellington, New Zealand and Bangor, Maine. Uncles describe themselves as supplements to parents, as friends, or as surrogate parents. Uncles act as mentors by providing nephews with advice and sometimes criticism. They act as intergenerational buffers and family historians by engaging in family work with nephews, providing insights into the behavior of parents or siblings. In turn, nephews provide uncles with insights into the behavior of family members. This study contributes to the literatures on generativity, men and caregiving, and more broadly third-party influences in family relationships. [source]

Taking the Future Seriously: On the Inadequacies of the Framework of Liberalism for Environmental Education

Dirk Willem Postma
International reports on environmental policy promote ,education for sustainable development' as an instrument for realising environmental awareness, values and attitudes consistent with the liberal concept of ,sustainable development'. In this paper the ethical and political-philosophical assumptions of (education for) sustainable development will be criticised. First, it will be argued that (Rawlsian) liberal ethics cannot include obligations towards future generations. Second, the commentary focuses on the economic perspective underlying this liberal framework, its anthropocentric bias and the hierarchical distinction between public and private spheres. Third, to offer a more adequate framework for environmental education, some fruitful ideas within neo-republicanism will be examined. [source]