Future Fractures (future + fractures)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Childhood Fractures Do Not Predict Future Fractures: Results From the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study,,

Stephen R Pye
Abstract Childhood fractures are common. Their clinical relevance to osteoporosis and fractures in later life is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive risk of childhood fracture on the risk of fracture in later life. Men and women ,50 yr of age were recruited from population registers for participation in the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study (EPOS). Subjects completed an interviewer administered questionnaire that included questions about previous fractures and the age at which the first of these fractures occurred. Lateral spine radiographs were performed to ascertain prevalent vertebral deformities. Subjects were followed prospectively by postal questionnaire to determine the occurrence of clinical fractures. A subsample of subjects had BMD measurements performed. Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the predictive risk of childhood fracture between the ages of 8 and 18 yr on the risk of future limb fracture and logistic regression was used to determine the association between reported childhood fractures and prevalent vertebral deformity. A total of 6451 men (mean age, 63.8 yr) and 6936 women (mean age, 63.1 yr) were included in the analysis. Mean follow-up time was 3 yr. Of these, 574 (8.9%) men and 313 (4.5%) women reported a first fracture (any site) between the ages of 8 and 18 yr. A recalled history of any childhood fracture or forearm fracture was not associated with an increased risk of future limb fracture or prevalent vertebral deformity in either men or women. Among the 4807 subjects who had DXA measurements, there was no difference in bone mass among those subjects who had reported a childhood fracture and those who did not. Our data suggest that self-reported previous childhood fracture is not associated with an increased risk of future fracture in men or women. [source]

Long-Term Fracture Prediction by DXA and QUS: A 10-Year Prospective Study,

Alison Stewart PhD
Abstract This study investigated the ability of DXA and QUS to predict fractures long term when measured around the time of the menopause. We found both DXA and QUS are able to predict both any fracture and "osteoporotic" fractures and that QUS can predict independently of BMD. Introduction: There are now many treatments available for prevention of osteoporotic fracture. To be cost-effective, we need to target those most at risk. This study examines the ability of DXA and QUS to predict fractures in an early postmenopausal population of women. Materials and Methods: We prospectively measured 3883 women who had been randomly selected from a community-based register. At baseline, they were measured using DXA of spine and hip (Norland XR-26) and QUS of the heel (Walker Sonix UBA 575). Follow-up had a mean of 9.7 ± 1.1 (SD) years. All incident fractures were identified and validated by examination of X-ray reports, and these were compared with those without fracture in a Cox-regression model to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). Results: We found adjusted HRs for any fracture per 1 SD reduction in spine BMD to be 1.61 (1.42-1.83), whereas neck of femur BMD was 1.54 (1.34-1.75). Areas under the curve (AUC) for a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis were 0.62 for spine BMD and 0.59 for neck BMD. In a subgroup where QUS was also measured, the HR for a 1 SD reduction in BMD was 1.69 (1.29-2.22) for spine BMD and 1.55 (1.17-2.06) for neck BMD. The HR for a 1 SD reduction in broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) was 1.53 (1.19-1.96), and 1.44 (1.12-1.86) when further adjusted for neck BMD. The AUCs were 0.63 for spine BMD, 0.59 for neck BMD, and 0.62 for BUA. When only osteoporotic fractures were examined, the HRs increased in all situations. BUA showed the highest HR of 2.25 (1.51-3.34), and when further adjusted for neck BMD was 2.12 (1.38-3.28). Conclusions: In conclusion, it may be possible to scan women around the time of the menopause to predict future fractures. It seems that, for "osteoporotic" fractures, BUA may be an improved predictor of fractures in comparison with DXA, because the relative risk is highest for BUA, and independent of BMD. [source]

Hyperkyphotic Posture and Risk of Future Osteoporotic Fractures: The Rancho Bernardo Study,

Mei-Hua Huang
Abstract It is unknown whether kyphosis of the thoracic spine is an independent risk factor for future osteoporotic fractures. In 596 community-dwelling women, we found that with increasing kyphosis, there was a significant trend of increasing fracture risk that was independent of previous history of fractures or BMD. Introduction: It is unknown whether kyphosis of the thoracic spine is an independent risk factor for future osteoporotic fractures. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 596 community-dwelling women, 47-92 years of age. Between 1988 and 1991, BMD of the hip and spine and kyphosis were measured. Kyphosis was measured by counting the number of 1.7-cm blocks necessary to place under the occiput so participants could lie flat without neck hyperextension. New fractures were reported over an average follow-up of 4 years. Results: Using a cut-off of at least one block, 18% of the participants had hyperkyphotic posture (range, one to nine blocks). There were 107 women who reported at least one new fracture (hip, spine, wrist, clavicle, shoulder, arm, hand, rib, pelvis, leg, or ankle). In logistic regression analyses, older women with hyperkyphotic posture (defined as at least one block) had a 1.7-fold increased risk of having a future fracture independent of age, prior fracture, and spine or hip BMD (95% CI: 1.00-2.97; p = 0.049). There was a significant trend of increasing fracture risk with increasing number of blocks, with ORs ranging from 1.5 to 2.6 as the number of blocks increased from one to at least three blocks compared with those with zero blocks (trend p = 0.03; models adjusted for age, baseline fracture, spine or hip BMD). Stratification by baseline fracture status and controlling for other possible confounders or past year falls did not change the results. Conclusions: Whereas hyperkyphosis may often result from vertebral fractures, our study findings suggest that hyperkyphotic posture itself may be an important risk factor for future fractures, independent of low BMD or fracture history. [source]

Adverse Outcomes of Osteoporotic Fractures in the General Population,

L Joseph Melton III MD
Abstract Osteoporotic fractures exact a terrible toll on the population with respect to morbidity and cost, and to a lesser extent mortality, which will increase dramatically with the growing elderly population. Attention has focused on the 12-20% excess deaths after hip fracture, but most are caused by underlying medical conditions unrelated to osteoporosis. More important is fracture-related morbidity. An estimated 10% of patients are disabled by hip fracture, and 19% require institutionalization, accounting for almost 140,000 nursing home admissions annually in this country. Distal forearm and vertebral fractures less commonly result in nursing home placement, but about 10% of postmenopausal women have vertebral deformities that cause chronic pain, and a substantial minority have poor function after forearm fracture. These fractures interfere greatly with the activities of daily living, and all of them can have a substantial negative impact on quality of life. Annual expenditures for osteoporotic fracture care in the United States ($17.5 million in 2002 dollars) are dominated by hip fracture treatment, but vertebral fractures, distal forearm fractures, and importantly, the other fractures related to osteoporosis contribute one-third of the total. Although all fracture patients are at increased risk of future fractures, few of them are currently treated for osteoporosis, and only a subset (i.e., those with vertebral fractures) are considered candidates for many clinical trials. Eligibility criteria should be expanded and fracture end-points generalized to acknowledge the overall burden of osteoporotic fractures. [source]

Trends and determinants of antiresorptive drug use for osteoporosis among elderly women,

Sylvie Perreault PhD
Abstract Aim It has been established that women who have had a first osteoporotic fracture are at a significantly greater risk of future fractures. Effective antiresorptive treatments (ART) are available to reduce this risk, yet little information is available on trends in ART drug use among the elderly. The objective is to estimate the rate ratio (RR) of having an ART prescription filled among elderly women and its relation to selected determinants from 1995 through 2001. Method A cohort design was used. Through random sampling, we selected 40% of the women aged 70 years and older listed in the Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec (RAMQ) health database. The women were grouped into four cohorts (for 1995, 1996, 1998 and 2000). January 1 was established as the index date within each cohort (1995, 1996, 1998 and 2000). The dependent variable was the RR of having at least one prescription of ART drugs filled during the year following the index date among women with and without prior use. ART users were divided in two groups: bone-specific drugs (bisphosphonates, calcitonin, raloxifen) and HRT (hormone replacement therapy). The independent variable was whether or not (control) there had been an osteoporotic-related fracture. The RR was determined for having at least one prescription of bone-specific drugs or of HRT filled during the year following the index date using a Cox regression adjusted for age, chronic disease score (CDS) and prior bone mineral density (BMD) test. Results Crude rates of BMD testing (per 500 person-years) ranged from 20.4 (1995) to 41.1 (2000) in women who had had an osteoporotic-related fracture, and from 4.4 to 15.3 in controls. The crude rate of women (per 100 person-years) who had had an osteoporotic-related fracture and who took at least one bone-specific drug during follow-up ranged from 1.9 in 1995 to 31 in 2000 among those with prior osteoporotic-related fracture, and from 0.5 in 1995 to 11 in 2000 for controls; the corresponding figures for HRT ranged 6.7 in 1995 to 13 in 2000, and from 8.4 in 1995 to 11 in 2000 respectively. BMD test is the only major factor affecting the adjusted RR of having a prescription filled for bone-specific drugs (RR of 10.44; 6.91,15.79 in 1995 and RR of 3.68; 3.30,4.10 in 2000) or HRT (RR of 2.08; 1.64,2.64 in 1995 and RR of 1.44; 1.17,1.77 in 2000), particularly among women who had not had prior use. The fact of having a fracture status does significantly affect the RR of having at least one bone-specific drug prescription filled only among women without prior use (RR of 1.71; 1.26,2.33 in 1996 and RR of 1.77; 1.44,2.19 in 2000). The fact of being younger did not affect the RR of having at least one prescription of bone-specific drugs filled, but being younger increased the RR of filling a prescription of HRT. Conclusions Significant change was seen over time in the number of BMD tests ordered and ART use. Effective osteoporosis interventions are not optimal in the treatment of elderly women in a Canadian health-care system who have had an osteoporotic fracture, given that approximately 25% of women who had had an osteoporotic-related fracture were users of ART. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]