Future Exploration (future + exploration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


A Systematic Review of Gender Differences in Mortality after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery and Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Issue 10 2007
Catherine Kim M.D., M.P.H.
Abstract Gender differences exist in outcomes, particularly early mortality, for percutaneous interventions (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Better understanding of this issue may target areas for improvement for all patients undergoing revascularization. Therefore, we summarized the evidence on gender differences in PCI and CABG outcomes, particularly early mortality, and mediators of this difference. Using the key terms "women" or "gender," "revascularization," "coronary artery bypass," "angioplasty," "stent," and "coronary intervention," we searched MEDLINE from 1985 to 2005 for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and registries reporting outcomes by gender. Bibliographies and the Web sites of cardiology conferences were also reviewed. The literature was examined to identify gender differences in outcomes and mediators of these differences. We identified 23 studies reporting outcomes by gender for CABG and 48 studies reporting outcomes by gender for PCI. The majority of studies noted greater in-hospital mortality in women than in men, with mortality differences resolving with longer follow-up. Early mortality differences were reduced but not consistently eliminated after adjustment for comorbidities, procedural characteristics, and body habitus. Power to detect gender differences after multivariate adjustment was limited by declining mortality rates and small sample size. Gender was an independent risk factor for complications after both CABG and PCI. Women experience greater complications and early mortality after revascularization. Future exploration is needed of gender differences in quality of care and benefit from combinations of stenting and antiplatelet, and anticoagulant medications in order to optimize treatment. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Forgiveness in Marriage: Current Status and Future Directions

FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2006
Frank D. Fincham
Abstract: Interest in forgiveness has exploded in recent years as researchers and clinicians have begun to recognize its value for maintaining emotional well-being, physical health, and healthy intimate relationships. Forgiveness appears to be especially important in the marital relationship. This article offers an overview of forgiveness in marriage including a review of major research and clinical efforts in this area. A number of recommendations are offered for practitioners and future research directions are outlined. Marital forgiveness is seen as an exciting area for future exploration and one that is ripe with possibility. [source]


Prudent evidence-fettered shared decision making

JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 2 2010
Elizabeth (Libby) Bogdan-Lovis MA
Abstract In its brief tenure evidence-based medicine (EBM) has proven to be a powerful magnet for criticism, while at the same time it has demonstrated impressive resilience. Located within the ongoing critical discourse surrounding the strengths and weaknesses of an EBM approach is the persistent question of the proper place of the social sciences relative to other disciplinary perspectives. This article considers one way the social sciences might usefully illuminate EBM-mediated human interactions to influence policy. We focus on the ethical nexus of the human impulse for unlimited consumption of health care resources in those situations where there exist competing clinical management options and suggest strategies for resource-preserving shared decision making. We conclude that a frugal default option is a fruitful avenue for future exploration in such situations. [source]


THE EVOLUTION OF A MODEL TRAP IN THE CENTRAL APENNINES, ITALY: FRACTURE PATTERNS, FAULT REACTIVATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CATACLASTIC ROCKS IN CARBONATES AT THE NARNI ANTICLINE

JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
F. Storti
Recent hydrocarbon discoveries in the Southern Apennines of Italy have focussed attention on the importance of studying fracturing and cataclasis in carbonate rocks because of their fundamental impact on reservoir permeability and connectivity. The Narni Anticline in the central Apennines consists of a stack of easterly-verging carbonate thrust sheets compartmentalized by extensional and strike-slip fault zones. The structure provides afield analogue for studying the evolution of superimposed fold- and fault-related fractures in carbonate reservoir rocks. The fracture pattern at the Narni Anticline developed as a result of three mechanisms: (a) layer-parallel shortening predating folding and faulting; (b) thrust-related folding and further thrust breakthrough; and (c) extensional and strike-slip faulting. Along-strike (longitudinal) fractures developed during progressive rollover fault-propagation folding, and their intensity depends on the precise structural position within the fold: fracture intensity is high in the forelimb and low in the crest. The 3-D architecture of the mechanical anisotropy associated with thrusting, folding, and related fracturing constrained the location and geometry of subsequent extensional and strike-slip faulting. The superimposition in damage zones of a fault-related cleavage on the pre-existing fracture pattern, which is associated with layer-parallel shortening and thrust-related folding, resulted in rock fragmentation and comminution, and the development of cataclastic bands. The evolution of fracturing in the Narni Anticline, its role in constraining thrust breakthrough trajectories and the location of extensional and strike-slip faults, and the final development of low-permeability cataclastic bands, will be relevant to studies of known oilfields in the Southern Apennines, as well as for future exploration. [source]


THE GEOLOGY AND HYDROCARBON HABITAT OF THE SARIR SANDSTONE, SE SIRT BASIN, LIBYA

JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
G. Ambrose
The Jurassic , Lower Cretaceous Sarir Sandstone Cformerly known as the Nubian Sandstone) in the SE Sirt Basin is composed of four members which can be correlated regionally using a lithostratigraphic framework. These synrift sandstones unconformably overlie a little known pre-rift succession, and are in turn unconformably overlain by post-rift marine shales of Late Cretaceous age. Within the Sarir Sandstone are two sandstone-dominated members, each reflecting a rapid drop in base level, which are important oil reservoirs in the study area. Between these sandstones are thick shales of continental origin which define the architecture of the reservoir units. This four-fold lithostratigraphic subdivision of the Sarir Sandstone contrasts with previous schemes which generally only recognised three members. The sandstones below the top-Sarir unconformity host in excess of 20 billion barrels of oil in-place. The dominant traps are structural (e.g. Sarir C field), stratigraphic (e.g. Messla field), hanging-wall fault plays (e.g. UU1,65 field) and horst-block plays (e.g. Calanscio field). Three Sarir petroleum systems are recognised in the SE Sirt Basin. The most significant relies on post-rift (Upper Cretaceous) shales, which act as both source and seal. The Variegated Shale Member of the Sarir Sandstone may also provide source and seal; while a third, conceptual petroleum system requires generation of non-marine oils from pre-rift (?Triassic) source rocks in the axis of the Sarir Trough. The intrabasinal Messla High forms a relatively rigid block at the intersection of two rift trends, around which stress vectors were deflected during deposition of the syn-rift Sarir Sandstone. Adjacent troughs accommodated thick, post-rift shale successions which comprise excellent source rocks. Palaeogene subsidence facilitated oil generation, and the Messla High was a focus for oil migration. Wrenching on master faults with associated shale smear has facilitated fault seal and the retention of hydrocarbons. In the Calanscio area, transpressional faulting has resulted in structural inversion with oil entrapment in "pop-up" horst blocks. Elsewhere, transtensional faulting has resulted in numerous fault-dependent traps which, in combination with stratigraphic and truncation plays, will provide the focus for future exploration. [source]


Development and validation of the brief Relational, Individual and Collective (brief RIC) Self-Aspects scale

ASIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
Elizabeth A. Hardie
A brief nine-item context-free version of the 30-item Relational, Individual and Collective (RIC) Self-Aspects scale was developed for use in short surveys and time-constrained telephone interviews. Two monocultural studies were conducted using Australian samples. In Study 1 (N = 175 university students) the Brief RIC demonstrated internal reliability, factorial validity and convergent construct validity with the original RIC. In Study 2 (N = 1000 adults) the three-factor structure was replicated and demographic correlates of self-aspects revealed new directions for future exploration. The Brief RIC will benefit from further validation, particularly in cross-cultural samples, but appears to be suitable for research purposes which require brevity. [source]


Telomerase: not just for the elongation of telomeres,

BIOESSAYS, Issue 2 2006
Rodrigo T. Calado
Telomerase RNA component (TERC) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) function together to elongate telomeres and to protect chromosomal ends. Recent studies have discovered that overexpression of telomerase's TERT subunit promoted epidermal stem-cell mobilization, hair growth and stem-cell proliferation without changes in length of telomeres.1,2 This telomerase functional characteristic is TERC independent and is operated through a mechanism other than telomere elongation. These findings open new doors for future explorations to understand telomerase function and its interaction with other cell components in the regulation of cell senescence and tumorigenesis. BioEssays 28: 109,112, 2006. 2006 Wiley periodicals, Inc. [source]