Future Experiments (future + experiment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

The distribution of neuroglobin in mouse eye

Purpose To determine the distribution of neuroglobin (Ngb) in mouse eye. Ngb is predominantly expressed in the nervous system,and at particularly high levels in the retina. Ngb may serve as a reactive oxygen scavenger and may protect the tissue of eye from ischemia/hypoxia injuries. However,the distribution of Ngb in the eye is still controversial. Methods Two polyclonal antibodies against Ngb were used in this immunohistochemical study, both of which were raised in rabbits. One of these two antibodies was generated against the whole recombinant protein of mouse Ngb and the other was generated against amino acid positions 55-70 of mouse and human Ngb. The expression of Ngb was analyzed with light microscopy on tissue sections. Results These two antibodies showed comparable results. Ngb was expressed in the layers of the retina, including the ganglion cell layer, inner and outer nuclear layers, inner and outer plexiform layers, the inner segments of the photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium. Ngb was also detected in other structures of the eye, including the epithelium and endothelium of cornea,the stroma of iris,the ciliary body, the lens epithelium, and the sclera. However, Ngb was not expressed in the corneal stroma, the lens capsule, the lamellar fibers of lens, the pigment epithelium of ciliary body or the pigment layer of iris. Conclusion Ngb was found widely distributed in mouse eye. This finding can be explained by the fact that most of the structures of the eye originated from neural crest/neural ectoderm. Future experiments will focus on the distribution of Ngb at the mRNA level (in situ hybridization),and the quantitative expression levels at baseline and after hypoxic/ischemic challenge. [source]

Tenuifolin, an extract derived from tenuigenin, inhibits amyloid-, secretion in vitro

J. Lv
Abstract Aim:, Previous studies have shown that tenuigenin, a crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. that is commonly used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for memory loss, can reduce the secretion of A, from cultured cells. However, the mechanism underlying this effect and the active compound derived from tenuigenin is unknown. In this study, a purified component of tenuigenin, tenuifolin, was examined and revealed to be an effective compound in vitro. Methods:, A, secretion from three sets of COS-7 cells, each carrying a plasmid expressing a different form of APP was examined following the treatment with tenuifolin. Initially, tenuifolin was determined to have no inherent toxicity to either the transfected or wild type cells at the effective concentrations. Cells were then treated with 0.5,2.0 ,g mL,1 tenuifolin for 12 h and their media were examined via an ELISA for A,1-40 and A,-42. Results:, We found that treatment with 2.0 ,g mL,1 tenuifolin significantly decreased A, secretion from COS-7 cells without altering the ratio of A,1-40 and A,-42. This effect is most probably due to inhibition of the ,-site APP cleaving enzyme as A, secretion was not inhibited from cells expressing the C99 fragment. Conclusion:, Tenuifolin is an effective compound from tenuigenin. We believe that this finding should lead the way for future experiments to determine the exact mechanism for tenuifolin's effect on A, secretion. [source]

Factors affecting the evolution of development strategies in parasitoid wasps: the importance of functional constraints and incorporating complexity

Jeffrey A. Harvey
Abstract Parasitoid wasps have long been considered as model organisms for examining optimal resource allocation to different fitness functions, such as body size and development time. Unlike insect predators, which may need to consume many prey items to attain maturity, parasitoids generally rely on a limited amount of resources that are obtained from a single source (the host). This review discusses a range of ecophysiological constraints that affect host quality and concomitantly the evolution of development strategies in parasitoids. Two macroevolutionary differences in host usage strategies (idiobiosis, koinobiosis) are initially described. Over many years, particular attention has been paid in examining a range of quantitative host attributes such as size, age, or stage, as these affect idiobiont and koinobiont parasitoid development. Parasitoids and their hosts, however, constitute only a small part of an ecological community. Consequently, host quality may be affected by a broad range of factors that may operate over variable spatial and temporal scales. Intimate factors include aggressive competition with other parasitoids and pathogens for access to host resources, whereas less intimate factors include the effects of toxic plant compounds (allelochemicals) on parasitoid performance as mediated through primary and/or secondary hosts. It is suggested that future experiments should increase the levels of trophic complexity as these influence the evolution of life history and development strategies in parasitoids. This includes integration of a suite of direct and indirect mechanisms, including biological processes occurring in different ecological realms, such as above-ground and below-ground interactions. [source]

Triple-Decker Transition-Metal Complexes (CnHn)M(B6C)M(CnHn) (M = Fe, Ru, Mn, Re; n = 5, 6) Containing Planar Hexacoordinate Carbon Atoms

Si-Dian Li
Abstract A density functional theory investigation is presented in this work on a new class of triple-decker complexes (CnHn)M(B6X)M(CnHn) (M = Fe, Ru, Mn, Re; X = B, C, N; n = 5, 6) containing almost perfect planar hexacoordinate carbon atoms and other planar hexacoordinate nonmetals at the centers of the B6X middle-deckers. Effective d,, coordination interactions between the partially filled 3d orbitals of the transition-metal center and the delocalized , orbitals of the three parallel ligands maintain the stabilities of these triple-decker complexes. The strong IR absorption peaks of (CnHn)M(B6X)M(CnHn) complexes mainly originate from the in-plane and off-plane vibrations of their planar hexacoordinate nonmetal centers. The results obtained in this work provide a possible new approach to characterize planar hexacoordinate carbon-containing systems in future experiments and expand the structural domain of transition-metal complexes by introducing inorganic B6X middle-deckers into traditional sandwich-type structures. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

Sensitivity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains for colicins under different experimental conditions

Bart J.A.M. Jordi
Abstract Twenty Escherichia coli strains producing well-characterised colicins were tested for their inhibitory activity against five Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains using different media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The five STEC strains used were of serotype O26, O111, O128, O145 and O157:H7 which are frequently isolated serotypes associated with disease in humans. The main route of infection for humans is through the eating of badly cooked or handled beef. The major reservoir for STEC strains in cattle is the rumen. To mimic the situation in the rumen of cattle, overlay assays were also performed under anaerobic conditions in the presence of 30% rumen fluid. Colicins E1, E4, E8-J, K and S4 are most active against STEC strains under anaerobic conditions in the absence or presence of rumen fluid. These colicins will be used in future experiments with the aim to eradicate the presence of STEC in cattle. [source]

Trends and methodological impacts in soil CO2 efflux partitioning: A metaanalytical review

Abstract Partitioning soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux (RS) into autotrophic (RA; including plant roots and closely associated organisms) and heterotrophic (RH) components has received considerable attention, as differential responses of these components to environmental change have profound implications for the soil and ecosystem C balance. The increasing number of partitioning studies allows a more detailed analysis of experimental constraints than was previously possible. We present results of an exhaustive literature search of partitioning studies and analyse global trends in flux partitioning between biomes and ecosystem types by means of a metaanalysis. Across all data, an overall decline in the RH/RS ratio for increasing annual RS fluxes emerged. For forest ecosystems, boreal coniferous sites showed significantly higher (P<0.05) RH/RS ratios than temperate sites, while both temperate or tropical deciduous forests did not differ in ratios from any of the other forest types. While chronosequence studies report consistent declines in the RH/RS ratio with age, no difference could be detected for different age groups in the global data set. Different methodologies showed generally good agreement if the range of RS under which they had been measured was considered, with the exception of studies estimating RH by means of root mass regressions against RS, which resulted in consistently lower RH/RS estimates out of all methods included. Additionally, the time step over which fluxes were partitioned did not affect RH/RS ratios consistently. To put results into context, we review the most common techniques and point out the likely sources of errors associated with them. In order to improve soil CO2 efflux partitioning in future experiments, we include methodological recommendations, and also highlight the potential interactions between soil components that may be overlooked as a consequence of the partitioning process itself. [source]

Simulation of two-dimensional turbulent flows in a rotating annulus

Brian D. Storey
Abstract Rotating water tank experiments have been used to study fundamental processes of atmospheric and geophysical turbulence in a controlled laboratory setting. When these tanks are undergoing strong rotation the forced turbulent flow becomes highly two dimensional along the axis of rotation. An efficient numerical method has been developed for simulating the forced quasi-geostrophic equations in an annular geometry to model current laboratory experiments. The algorithm employs a spectral method with Fourier series and Chebyshev polynomials as basis functions. The algorithm has been implemented on a parallel architecture to allow modelling of a wide range of spatial scales over long integration times. This paper describes the derivation of the model equations, numerical method, testing and performance of the algorithm. Results provide reasonable agreement with the experimental data, indicating that such computations can be used as a predictive tool to design future experiments. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Transition metal,boron complexes BnM: From bowls (n = 8,14) to tires (n = 14)

Si-Dian Li
Abstract Transition metal,boron complexes BnM have been predicted at density functional theory level to be molecular bowls (n = 8,14) hosting a transition metal atom (M) inside or molecular tires (n = 14) centered with a transition metal atom. Small Bn clusters prove to be effective inorganic ligands to all the VB,VIIIB transition metal elements in the periodic table. Density functional evidences obtained in this work strongly suggest that bowl-shaped fullerene analogues of Bn units exist in small BnM complexes and the bowl-to-tire structural transition occur to the first-row transition metal complexes BnM (M = Mn, Fe, Co) at n = 14, a size obviously smaller than n = 20 where the 2D-3D structural transition occurs to bare Bn. The half-sandwich-type B12Cr (C3v), full sandwich-type (B12)2Cr (D3d), bowl-shaped B14Fe (C2), and tire-shaped B14Fe (D7d) and B14Fe, (C7v) are the most interesting prototypes to be targeted in future experiments. These BnM complexes may serve as building blocks to form extended boron-rich BnMm tubes or cages (m , 2) or as structural units to be placed inside carbon nanotubes with suitable diameters. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2006 [source]

Analyses of Sexual Reproductive Success in Transgenic and/or Mutant Plants

Cristiane P. G. Calixto
The pistil, the female reproductive organ of plants, is a key player in the success of sexual plant reproduction. Ultimately, the production of fruits and seeds depends on the proper pistil development and function. Therefore, the identification and characterization of pistil expressed genes is essential for a better understanding and manipulation of the plant reproduction process. For studying the function of pistil expressed genes, transgenic and/or mutant plants for the genes of interest are used. The present article provides a review of methods already exploited to analyze sexual reproductive success. We intend to supply useful information and to guide future experiments in the study of genes affecting pistil development and function. [source]

Disease progression of human SOD1 (G93A) transgenic ALS model rats

Arifumi Matsumoto
Abstract The recent development of a rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in which the rats harbor a mutated human SOD1 (G93A) gene has greatly expanded the range of potential experiments, because the rats' large size permits biochemical analyses and therapeutic trials, such as the intrathecal injection of new drugs and stem cell transplantation. The precise nature of this disease model remains unclear. We described three disease phenotypes: the forelimb-, hindlimb-, and general-types. We also established a simple, non-invasive, and objective evaluation system using the body weight, inclined plane test, cage activity, automated motion analysis system (SCANET), and righting reflex. Moreover, we created a novel scale, the Motor score, which can be used with any phenotype and does not require special apparatuses. With these methods, we uniformly and quantitatively assessed the onset, progression, and disease duration, and clearly presented the variable clinical course of this model; disease progression after the onset was more aggressive in the forelimb-type than in the hindlimb-type. More importantly, the disease stages defined by our evaluation system correlated well with the loss of spinal motor neurons. In particular, the onset of muscle weakness coincided with the loss of approximately 50% of spinal motor neurons. This study should provide a valuable tool for future experiments to test potential ALS therapies. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Silicon drift and pixel devices for X-ray imaging and spectroscopy

G. Lutz
Starting from the basic photon detection process in semiconductors, the function, principles and properties of sophisticated silicon detectors are discussed. These detectors are based on, or inspired by, the semiconductor drift detector. They have already shown their potential in X-ray astronomy (pn-CCD) and in X-ray spectroscopy (silicon drift diode), and further detector types (DEPFET pixel detector and macro-pixel detector) are under development for several other future experiments. The detectors seem to be very well suited for synchrotron radiation experiments. [source]

Revisiting the parametrization of equation of state of dark energy via SNIa data

Dao-Jun Liu
ABSTRACT In this paper, we revisit the parametrizations of the equation of state of dark energy and point out that comparing merely the ,2 of different fittings may not be optimal for choosing the ,best' parametrization. Another figure of merit for evaluating different parametrizations based on the area of the w(z) ,z band is proposed. In light of the analysis of some two-parameter parametrizations and models based on available SNIa data, the area of w(z) ,z band seems to be a good figure of merit, especially in the situation that the value of ,2min for different parametrizations are very close. Therefore, we argue that both the area of the w(z) ,z band and ,2min should be synthetically considered for choosing a better parametrization of dark energy in the future experiments. [source]

Forecasting the Bayes factor of a future observation

Roberto Trotta
ABSTRACT I present a new procedure to forecast the Bayes factor of a future observation by computing the predictive posterior odds distribution. This can assess the power of future experiments to answer model selection questions and the probability of the outcome, and can be helpful in the context of experiment design. As an illustration, I consider a central quantity for our understanding of the cosmological concordance model, namely, the scalar spectral index of primordial perturbations, nS. I show that the Planck satellite has over 90 per cent probability of gathering strong evidence against nS= 1, thus conclusively disproving a scale-invariant spectrum. This result is robust with respect to a wide range of choices for the prior on nS. [source]

A gene repertoire for nitrogen transporters in Laccaria bicolor

Eva Lucic
Summary ,,Ectomycorrhizal interactions established between the root systems of terrestrial plants and hyphae from soil-borne fungi are the most ecologically widespread plant symbioses. The efficient uptake of a broad range of nitrogen (N) compounds by the fungal symbiont and their further transfer to the host plant is a major feature of this symbiosis. Nevertheless, we far from understand which N form is preferentially transferred and what are the key molecular determinants required for this transfer. ,,Exhaustive in silico analysis of N-compound transporter families were performed within the genome of the ectomycorrhizal model fungus Laccaria bicolor. A broad phylogenetic approach was undertaken for all families and gene regulation was investigated using whole-genome expression arrays. ,,A repertoire of proteins involved in the transport of N compounds in L. bicolor was established that revealed the presence of at least 128 gene models in the genome of L. bicolor. Phylogenetic comparisons with other basidiomycete genomes highlighted the remarkable expansion of some families. Whole-genome expression arrays indicate that 92% of these gene models showed detectable transcript levels. ,,This work represents a major advance in the establishment of a transportome blueprint at a symbiotic interface, which will guide future experiments. [source]

Ribosomal RNA transcriptional activation and processing in hamster rubrospinal motoneurons: Effects of axotomy and testosterone treatment

Paul D. Storer
Abstract Rubrospinal motoneurons (RSMN) represent a population of androgen receptor-expressing central motoneurons with limited regenerative potential relative to their peripheral counterparts. A key determinant of regenerative capability lies in the nucleolar reaction of injured neurons. To date, characterization of the nucleolar reaction in injured central motoneurons has not been accomplished. Furthermore, it has been documented that testosterone propionate (TP) augments peripheral motoneuron regeneration through regulation of the nucleolar reaction to injury. In this study, the effects of injury alone, or in conjunction with TP, on the nucleolar response of injured RSMN were examined using in situ hybridization (ISH) techniques. Castrated adult male hamsters were subjected to right spinal cord hemisection at the C7/T1 vertebral level. Half the animals were subcutaneously implanted with one Silastic TP capsule, with the other half sham implanted. ISH for precursor 45S and mature 28S rRNA was accomplished with a 3H-labeled ribosomal DNA probe specific to the external transcribed spacer region or to the 28S region of the ribosomal gene, respectively. Postoperative times of 2, 6, and 24 hours were selected for examination of precursor 45S rRNA (i.e., rRNA transcriptional activation) levels and 0.25, 2, 4, and 14 days for examination of mature rRNA (i.e., ribosome) levels. Transcriptional activation of the rRNA gene was rapidly and transiently increased in injured RSMN, analogously to previously documented effects of injury on rRNA transcription in peripheral motoneurons, but, in contrast, this did not translate into an increase in mature ribosomes. TP administration failed to affect positively the nucleolar response of injured RSMN at all. From this study, a key component underlying inherent differences in the regenerative capacity of peripheral vs. central motoneurons has been identified, which can be targeted in future experiments designed to enhance the regenerative potential of selective neuronal populations. J. Comp. Neurol. 458:326,333, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Genotype and time of day shape the Populus drought response

Olivia Wilkins
Summary As exposure to episodic drought can impinge significantly on forest health and the establishment of productive tree plantations, there is great interest in understanding the mechanisms of drought response in trees. The ecologically dominant and economically important genus Populus, with its sequenced genome, provides an ideal opportunity to examine transcriptome level changes in trees in response to a drought stimulus. The transcriptome level drought response of two commercially important Populus clones (P. deltoides P. nigra, DN34, and P. nigra P. maximowiczii, NM6) was characterized over a diurnal period using a 4 2 2 complete randomized factorial anova experimental design (four time points, two genotypes and two treatment conditions), using Affymetrix Poplar GeneChip microarrays. Notably, the specific genes that exhibited changes in transcript abundance in response to drought differed between the genotypes and/or the time of day that they exhibited their greatest differences. This study emphasizes the fact that it is not possible to draw simple, generalized conclusions about the drought response of the genus Populus on the basis of one species, nor on the basis of results collected at a single time point. The data derived from our studies provide insights into the variety of genetic mechanisms underpinning the Populus drought response, and provide candidates for future experiments aimed at understanding this response across this economically and ecologically important genus. [source]

Correlation of hemocyte counts with different developmental parameters during the last larval instar of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta

Susann Beetz
Abstract We determined the changes in hemocyte titer and in the abundance of hemocyte types of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta during the fourth and fifth larval stadium and the beginning of the pupal stadium. As we analyzed the samples of individual insects at daily intervals, we were able to correlate phenotypical features, body weight, as well as total protein content and lysozyme activity in the hemolymph with the observations on hemocytes. In the course of the fifth larval stadium, the hemocyte titer decreased slightly and declined further after pupation. Using calculated values for total hemocyte numbers, females had about five times and males three times more hemocytes in the circulating population at the beginning of the wandering stage (in the middle of the fifth larval stadium) than immediately after the last larval,larval molt (from the fourth to the fifth larval stadium). This sexual difference was mainly due to an increase in the number of plasmatocytes, which was more prominent in females than in males. Granular cells were dominant in early fifth larval stadium while plasmatocytes were the most abundant cells in pupae. Oenocytoids and spherule cells disappeared during the wandering stage. Lysozyme activity in the hemolymph rose to a maximum during the wandering stage, with females having lysozyme values twice as high as those for males. These changes in lysozyme activity, however, did not correlate with the increase of total hemolymph protein titer which occurred already at the beginning of the wandering stage. We postulate that changes in hemocyte titers are under direct hormonal control, which has to be proven in future experiments. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

,O sibling, where art thou?'- a review of avian sibling recognition with respect to the mammalian literature

Shinichi Nakagawa
ABSTRACT Avian literature on sibling recognition is rare compared to that developed by mammalian researchers. We compare avian and mammalian research on sibling recognition to identify why avian work is rare, how approaches differ and what avian and mammalian researchers can learn from each other. Three factors: (1) biological differences between birds and mammals, (2) conceptual biases and (3) practical constraints, appear to influence our current understanding. Avian research focuses on colonial species because sibling recognition is considered adaptive where,mixing potential'of dependent young is high; research on a wide range of species, breeding systems and ecological conditions is now needed. Studies of acoustic recognition cues dominate avian literature; other types of cues (e.g. visual, olfactory) deserve further attention. The effect of gender on avian sibling recognition has yet to be investigated; mammalian work shows that gender can have important influences. Most importantly, many researchers assume that birds recognise siblings through,direct familiarisation'(commonly known as associative learning or familiarity); future experiments should also incorporate tests for,indirect familiarisation'(commonly known as phenotype matching). If direct familiarisation proves crucial, avian research should investigate how periods of separation influence sibling discrimination. Mammalian researchers typically interpret sibling recognition in broad functional terms (nepotism, optimal outbreeding); some avian researchers more successfully identify specific and testable adaptive explanations, with greater relevance to natural contexts. We end by reporting exciting discoveries from recent studies of avian sibling recognition that inspire further interest in this topic. [source]

DNA Microarray Experiments: Biological and Technological Aspects

BIOMETRICS, Issue 4 2002
Danh V. Nguyen
Summary. DNA microarray technologies, such as cDNA and oligonucleotide microarrays, promise to revolutionize biological research and further our understanding of biological processes. Due to the complex nature and sheer amount of data produced from microarray experiments, biologists have sought the collaboration of experts in the analytical sciences, including statisticians, among others. However, the biological and technical intricacies of microarray experiments are not easily accessible to analytical experts. One aim for this review is to provide a bridge to some of the relevant biological and technical aspects involved in microarray experiments. While there is already a large literature on the broad applications of the technology, basic research on the technology itself and studies to understand process variation remain in their infancy. We emphasize the importance of basic research in DNA array technologies to improve the reliability of future experiments. [source]