Future Effects (future + effects)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Will increased storm disturbance affect the biodiversity of intertidal, nonscleractinian sessile fauna on coral reefs?

GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 11 2008
S. J. WALKER
Abstract Relatively little is known about how the future effects of climatic change, including increases in sea level, temperature and storm severity and frequency, will impact on patterns of biodiversity on coral reefs, with the notable exception of recent work on corals and fish in tropical reef ecosystems. Sessile invertebrates such as ascidians, sponges and bryozoans occupying intertidal rubble habitats on coral reefs contribute significantly to the overall biodiversity and ecosystem function, but there is little or no information available on the likely impacts on these species from climate change. The existing strong physical gradients in these intertidal habitats will be exacerbated under predicted climatic change. By examining the distribution and abundance of nonscleractinian, sessile invertebrate assemblages exposed to different levels of wave action and at different heights on the shore around a coral reef, we show that coral reef intertidal biodiversity is particularly sensitive to physical disturbance. As physical disturbance regimes increase due to more intense storms and wave action associated with global warming, we can expect to see a corresponding decrease in the diversity of these cryptic sessile assemblages. This could impact negatively on the future health and productivity of coral reef ecosystems, given the ecosystem services these organisms provide. [source]


Differences in reproductive timing among sponges sharing habitat and thermal regime

INVERTEBRATE BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
Ana Riesgo
Abstract. The reproductive cycles of four Mediterranean demosponges (Axinella damicornis, Corticium candelabrum, Raspaciona aculeata, and Chondrosia reniformis) were investigated during 2 consecutive years. Three of the species had annual gametogenic cycles characterized by a single peak of gamete production, but members of C. candelabrum showed continuous oocyte production during the 2 years. The relationship between gametogenic dynamics and seawater temperature varied substantially among species, contrary to the widespread belief that gamete production is associated with seasonal water warming. The annual temperature increase (in June) concurred with oocyte production only in C. reniformis, although maximum temperatures were simultaneous with the production of both oocytes in R. aculeata and sperm in C. reniformis. In contrast, the annual temperature decline in October was associated with both oogenesis in A. damicornis and spermatogenesis in R. aculeata. Spermatogenesis in A. damicornis started after a 5-month period of low-temperature values (December,April in 2004 and November,March in 2005). Likewise, in C. candelabrum, spermatogenesis started after a 3-month period of low-temperature values (November,February), a period concomitant with a slow increase in oocyte production. These findings reveal that sponge species that cooccur and share similar thermal regimes may differ substantially in their timing of gamete production. If we are to predict the future effects of climate change on marine benthic communities, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge of the species-specific relationship between timing of gametogenesis and temperature, at least for those sponges that are key species in benthic communities. [source]


ASBMB and FAOBMB Inc.: Present status and future opportunities

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 7 2010
John de Jersey
Past and present relationships of three biochemistry and molecular biology organizations: the Australian Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; the Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists and Molecular Biologists (FAOBMB); and the International Union for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology are discussed. The future of these organizations, particularly FAOBMB, is then considered in the light of factors behind their current status and likely future effects of globalization, growth in Asia, changes in disciplinary focus and contribution to global issues. 2010 IUBMB IUBMB Life 62(7): 483,485, 2010 [source]


Duty Hours in Emergency Medicine: Balancing Patient Safety, Resident Wellness, and the Resident Training Experience: A Consensus Response to the 2008 Institute of Medicine Resident Duty Hours Recommendations

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 9 2010
Mary Jo Wagner MD
Abstract Representatives of emergency medicine (EM) were asked to develop a consensus report that provided a review of the past and potential future effects of duty hour requirements for EM residency training. In addition to the restrictions made in 2003 by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), the potential effects of the 2008 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on resident duty hours were postulated. The elements highlighted include patient safety, resident wellness, and the resident training experience. Many of the changes and recommendations did not affect EM as significantly as other specialties. Current training standards in EM have already emphasized patient safety by requiring continuous on-site supervision of residents. Resident fatigue has been addressed with restrictions of shift lengths and limitation of consecutive days worked. One recommendation from the IOM was a required 5-hour rest period for residents on call. Emergency department (ED) patient safety becomes an important concern with the decrease in the availability and in the patient load of a resident consultant that may result from this recommendation. Of greater concern is the already observed slower throughput time for admitted patients waiting for resident care, which will increase ED crowding and decrease patient safety in academic institutions. A balance between being overly prescriptive with duty hour restrictions and trying to improve resident wellness was recommended. Discussion is included regarding the appropriate length of EM training programs if clinical experiences were limited by new duty hour regulations. Finally, this report presents a review of the financing issues associated with any changes. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:1004,1011 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]


Modelling the long-term sustainability of indigenous hunting in Manu National Park, Peru: landscape-scale management implications for Amazonia

JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
Taal Levi
Summary 1. ,Widespread hunting throughout Amazonia threatens the persistence of large primates and other vertebrates. Most studies have used models of limited validity and restricted spatial and temporal scales to assess the sustainability. 2. ,We use human-demographic, game-harvest and game-census data to parameterize a spatially explicit hunting model. We explore how population growth and spread, hunting technology and effort, and source,sink dynamics impact the density of black spider monkeys Ateles chamek over time and space in the rainforests of south-eastern Peru. 3. ,In all scenarios, spider monkey populations, which are vulnerable to hunting, persist in high numbers in much of Manu National Park over the next 50 years. Nonetheless, shotguns cause much more depletion than traditional bow hunting by Matsigenka (Machiguenga) indigenous people. 4. ,Maintenance of the current indigenous lifestyle (dispersed settlements, bow hunting) is unlikely to deplete spider monkeys and, by extension, other fauna, despite rapid human population growth. This helps explain why large, pre-Colombian human populations did not drive large primates to extinction. When guns are used, however, spider monkeys quickly become depleted around even small settlements, with depletion eventually reversing the short-term harvest advantage provided by shotgun hunting. Thus, our models show that when guns are used, limits on settlement numbers can reduce total depletion. 5. ,Synthesis and applications. Our framework lets us visualize the future effects of hunting, population growth, hunting technology and settlement spread in tropical forests. In Manu Park, the continued prohibition of firearms is important for ensuring long-term hunting sustainability. A complementary policy is to negotiate limits on new settlements in return for development aid in existing settlements. The advantage of the latter approach is that settlement numbers are more easily monitored than is hunting effort or technology. Similar policies could help to reduce landscape-scale depletion of prey species in human-occupied reserves and protected areas throughout the Amazon. [source]


Long-term effects of climate change on vegetation and carbon dynamics in peat bogs

JOURNAL OF VEGETATION SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008
Monique M.P.D. Heijmans
Abstract Questions: What are the long-term effects of climate change on the plant species composition and carbon sequestration in peat bogs? Methods: We developed a bog ecosystem model that includes vegetation, carbon, nitrogen and water dynamics. Two groups of vascular plant species and three groups of Sphagnum species compete with each other for light and nitrogen. The model was tested by comparing the outcome with long-term historic vegetation changes in peat cores from Denmark and England. A climate scenario was used to analyse the future effects of atmospheric CO2, temperature and precipitation. Results: The main changes in the species composition since 1766 were simulated by the model. Simulations for a future warmer, and slightly wetter, climate with doubling CO2 concentration suggest that little will change in species composition, due to the contrasting effects of increasing temperatures (favouring vascular plants) and CO2 (favouring Sphagnum). Further analysis of the effects of temperature showed that simulated carbon sequestration is negatively related to vascular plant expansion. Model results show that increasing temperatures may still increase carbon accumulation at cool, low N deposition sites, but decrease carbon accumulation at high N deposition sites. Conclusions: Our results show that the effects of temperature, precipitation, N-deposition and atmospheric CO2 are not straightforward, but interactions between these components of global change exist. These interactions are the result of changes in vegetation composition. When analysing long-term effects of global change, vegetation changes should be taken into account and predictions should not be based on temperature increase alone. [source]