Future Directions (future + direction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Future Directions

  • possible future direction

  • Selected Abstracts

    Governing the Majority World?

    Critical reflections on the role of occupation technology in international contexts
    Background:,Within occupational therapy, increasing attention has been focussed on international development work. However, many have critiqued the focus of knowledge development within occupational therapy and occupational science, arguing that it is focussed on Western values. Questions arise about how occupational therapy and occupational science, and the knowledge and therapeutic technologies that are associated with these communities, will affect the ,developing' world, which, recently, some have described as the Majority World. Aim and method:,Using Foucauldian analytical tools, this paper reflects on specific discourses that are foundational for development work. Specifically, this paper attempts to better understand how concepts like ,occupational justice' and the ,occupational being' are presented in the literature and relate to practices in international contexts. Within this analysis, attention is focussed on how practices associated with occupational development work might also be enmeshed in power dynamics. Results:,This paper outlines how occupational discourses may shape and order life in particular ways and challenges researchers and practitioners to develop a better understanding of how power can operate through occupational discourses and occupational therapy practices. This paper also adds to the literature through the interpretation and explication of various theories that may underpin work in international contexts. Conclusions/future directions:,Suggestions for future directions that will enable the development of more politically and culturally sensitive knowledge and practices are also explored. It is crucial that as a community we become more aware of how our theoretical frameworks may impact and shape practice. [source]

    The Current State and Future Direction of Counseling Psychology in Australia

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    Robert G.L. Pryor
    Cet article décrit l'état actuel de la psychologie du counseling en Australie en termes de forces, faiblesses, opportunités et menaces. Parmi les forces identifiées, on trouve un champ professionnel très énergique, un large éventail d'activités de plus en plus acceptées de la part du public, des revues à comité de lecture, et une activité de recherche significative s'appuyant sur un engagement manifeste dans une démarche basée sur la preuve et appliquée au counseling. Les faiblesses soulignent l'accès inéquitable en termes de coût et d'éloignement géographique aux services de counseling de larges parties de la population australienne. La technologie fournit une occasion de relever des défis d'accès, de coût et d'implantation. En outre, les rapides changements économiques fournissent des opportunités pour les counselors de travailler activement avec des clients confrontés à des changements rapides et inattendus. Clairement, la psychologie du counseling se différencie comme champ théorique, de recherche et de pratique. Simultanément, elle peut mettre à disposition les compétences des psychologues du counseling lors d'investigations transdisciplinaires et d'applications ce qui constitue l'un des plus grands défis pour les psychologues australiens du counseling. Les développements futurs de la psychologie du counseling en Australie sont dépeints. This article outlines the current state of counseling psychology in Australia in terms of its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Strengths identified include a vibrant field of professional activity, a wide range of activities, increasing levels of public acceptance, successful peer-reviewed journals, and significant research activity that underlies a widespread commitment to an evidence-based approach to counseling. Weaknesses include the inequitable access to counseling services both in terms of cost and the geographic remoteness of parts of the Australian population. Technology provides an opportunity to address access, cost, and delivery challenges. Furthermore, the rapidly changing economic landscape provides opportunities for counselors to work proactively with clients who are confronted by rapid and unplanned change. Clearly differentiating counseling psychology as a field of theory, research, and practice while at the same time being able to integrate the skills of counseling psychologists within cross-disciplinary investigations and applications constitute the greatest challenges for Australian counseling psychologists. A vision of the future development of counseling psychology in Australia is proffered. [source]

    Future Directions for the CAP Zukünftige Richtungen der GAP Les futures orientations de la PAC

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 2 2008
    Wyn Grant
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Forgiveness in Marriage: Current Status and Future Directions

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2006
    Frank D. Fincham
    Abstract: Interest in forgiveness has exploded in recent years as researchers and clinicians have begun to recognize its value for maintaining emotional well-being, physical health, and healthy intimate relationships. Forgiveness appears to be especially important in the marital relationship. This article offers an overview of forgiveness in marriage including a review of major research and clinical efforts in this area. A number of recommendations are offered for practitioners and future research directions are outlined. Marital forgiveness is seen as an exciting area for future exploration and one that is ripe with possibility. [source]

    Geographies of Corporate Decision-Making and Control: Development, Applications, and Future Directions in Headquarters Location Research

    Murray D. Rice
    This article surveys the body of investigation related to the location of headquarters and other elite corporate decision-making activities, a research field known as quaternary location studies. The discussion includes four main sections following an introduction. The first reviews the initial development of headquarters location research from the early 20th century to 1980. The second section discusses contemporary developments and criticisms of the field that have diversified the field beyond its early focus on large-firm headquarters alone to examine the geography of all activities related to corporate decision making. We posit that incorporation of rapidly growing firms in quaternary research is a key element of this diversification. The third section examines the possibilities for further headquarters location research by making a connection between decision-making location and the literature of techno-economic paradigms. The article concludes by summarizing the current state of the field, and argues that a continued diversification of research interests and perspectives is vital to the advancement of quaternary location studies as an important contributor to improved corporate strategies and more effective public policy. [source]

    In vivo Engineering of Tissues: Biological Considerations, Challenges, Strategies, and Future Directions

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 41 2009
    V. Prasad Shastri
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    In vivo Engineering of Tissues: Biological Considerations, Challenges, Strategies, and Future Directions

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 32-33 2009
    V. Prasad Shastri
    Abstract Moving forward materials-based regenerative medicine faces many challenges to ensure clinical success. Many of these challenges lie at the interface of molecular/structural biology and materials science. This review discusses this issue from a biological and material view-point, highlighting key biological processes and variables that can impact the repair processes. From a materials design stand point, developing materials that can promote healing over scarring is the key. All indicators suggest that polymeric materials are most well-suited for de novo engineering of tissues. In addition to biomolecular signals that are involved in controlling the fate of cells and neo-tissue morphogenesis at the site of implantation, this review also discusses recent advances in design of highly functional injectable biomaterials, that show promise in controlling local biological processes. [source]

    Information and Communications Technology and Auditing: Current Implications and Future Directions

    Kamil Omoteso
    This exploratory study assesses, from a structuration theory perspective, the impact information and communications technology (ICT) tools and techniques are currently having on audit tasks, auditors (internal and external) and the organisations they work for from the point of view of coordination, control, authority and structure. Based on a triangulation of interview and questionnaire techniques, the findings indicate that ICT is re-shaping auditors' roles and outputs as well as audit organisations' structures. The findings also project the view that continuous auditing, artificial intelligence and CobiT are expected to gain more prominence while a need was also seen for new software development to help auditors match the complexity of their clients' information systems. The study's results reveal the current state of affairs of the relationship between ICT and auditing against the backdrop of continuous global ICT sophistication thereby updating ICT audit literature and the likely future direction of this relationship. [source]

    Future Directions for the Teaching and Learning of Statistics at the Tertiary Level

    Des F. Nicholl
    Summary Significant advances in, and the resultant impact of, Information Technology (IT) during the last fifteen years has resulted in a much more data based society, a trend that can be expected to continue into the foreseeable future. This phenomenon has had a real impact on the Statistics discipline and will continue to result in changes in both content and course delivery. Major research directions have also evolved during the last ten years directly as a result of advances in IT. The impact of these advances has started to flow into course content, at least for advanced courses. One question which arises relates to what impact will this have on the future training of statisticians, both with respect to course content and mode of delivery. At the tertiary level the last 40 years has seen significant advances in theoretical aspects of the Statistics discipline. Universities have been outstanding at producing scholars with a strong theoretical background but questions have been asked as to whether this has, to some degree, been at the expense of appropriate training of the users of statistics (the ,tradespersons'). Future directions in the teaching and learning of Statistics must take into account the impact of IT together with the competing need to produce scholars as well as competent users of statistics to meet the future needs of the market place. For Statistics to survive as a recognizable discipline the need to be able to train statisticians with an ability to communicate is also seen as an areà of crucial importance. Satisfying the needs of society as well as meeting the needs of the profession are considered as the basic determinants which will derive the future teaching and training of statisticians at the tertiary level and will form the basis of this presentation. [source]

    Comments on the Present Status and Future Directions of Postgraduate Medical Education

    Marvin Moser MD Editor in Chief
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Competencies Conference: Future Directions in Education and Credentialing in Professional Psychology

    Nadine J. Kaslow
    The Competencies Conference: Future Directions in Education and Credentialing in Professional Psychology was organized around eight competency-focused work groups, as well as work groups on specialties and the assessment of competence. A diverse group of psychologists participated in this multisponsored conference. After describing the background and structure of the conference, this article reviews the common themes that surfaced across work groups, with attention paid to the identification, training, and assessment of competencies and competence. Recommendations to advance competency-based education, training, and credentialing in professional psychology are discussed. This is one of a series of articles published together in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology. Several other articles that resulted from the Competencies Conference will appear in Professional Psychology: Research and Practice and The Counseling Psychologist. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol. [source]

    The scientifically-minded psychologist: Science as a core competency

    Kathleen J. Bieschke
    At the Competencies Conference: Future Directions in Education and Credentialing in Professional Psychology, the Scientific Foundations and Research Competencies Work Group focused on identifying how psychologists practice scientifically. This article presents the subcomponents associated with the core competency of scientific practice. The subcomponents include: 1) access and apply current scientific knowledge habitually and appropriately; 2) contribute to knowledge; 3) critically evaluate interventions and their outcomes; 4) practice vigilance about how sociocultural variables influence scientific practice; and 5) routinely subject work to the scrutiny of colleagues, stakeholders, and the public. In addition, the article briefly discusses how the depth of training for and assessment of each subcomponent will vary by training model. Implications and future directions for individual psychologists, training programs, and the profession are discussed. This is one of a series of articles published in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology. Several other articles that resulted from the Competencies Conference will appear in Professional Psychology: Research and Practice and The Counseling Psychologist. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol. [source]

    Sensation Seeking, the Activation Model, and Mass Media Health Campaigns: Current Findings and Future Directions for Cancer Communication

    Michael T. Stephenson
    The Activation Model of Information Exposure highlights the potential for individual differences in arousal in response to information, as well as the consequences of these patterns for information processing and seeking. Over the past 2 decades, the theoretical approach has generated considerable research in health communication. Most applications, however, have focused on substance use among adolescents and young adults. In this article, we assess the relevance of the activation approach for cancer communication. Although a wide range of communication efforts related to cancer prevention and treatment stand to benefit from acknowledgement of individual differences in optimal levels of arousal, we also acknowledge issues and challenges that remain for work on the Activation Model and sensation seeking. In reaching this conclusion, we explore some limitations of the Activation Model in its current form and point to new directions for future research. [source]

    Workshop on Advancements in Modelling Physical-biological Interactions in Fish Early-life History: Recommended Practices and Future Directions

    2006 in Nantes, 5 April, Elizabeth North (U.S.A.), France Co-Chairs: Alejandro Gallego (U.K.), Pierre Petitgas (France)
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Thyroid Imaging in the Dog: Current Status and Future Directions

    O. Taeymans
    This review describes the advantages and disadvantages of radiography, ultrasonography, and nuclear medicine in the 2 most frequent thyroid pathologies of the dog: acquired primary hypothyroidism and thyroid neoplasia. Ultrasonography and scintigraphy remain the 2 most indicated imaging modalities for these thyroid abnormalities. However, as in human medicine, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also have potential indications. This is especially the case in the evaluation of the extent, local invasiveness, and local or distant metastases of thyroid neoplasia. Based on experience with different imaging modalities in people, we suggest future directions in the imaging of the canine thyroid gland. [source]

    Multimodal Analgesia for Chronic Pain: Rationale and Future Directions

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue S2 2009
    Charles E. Argoff MD
    ABSTRACT Chronic pain is a multifaceted disease requiring multimodal treatment. Clinicians routinely employ various combinations of pharmacologic, interventional, cognitive,behavioral, rehabilitative, and other nonmedical therapies despite the paucity of robust evidence in support of such an approach. Therapies are selected consistent with the biopsychosocial model of chronic pain, reflecting the subjective nature of the pain complaint, and the myriad stressors that shape it. Elucidating mechanisms that govern normal sensation in the periphery has provided insights into the biochemical, molecular, and neuroanatomic correlates of chronic pain, an understanding of which is leading increasingly to mechanism-specific multidrug therapies. Peripheral and central neuroplastic reorganization underlying the disease of chronic pain is influenced by patient-specific emotions, cognition, and memories, further impairing function and idiosyncratically defining the illness of chronic pain. Clinical perceptions of these and related subjective elements associated with the suffering of chronic pain drive psychosocial treatments, including, among other options, relaxation therapies, coping skills development, and cognitive,behavioral therapy. Treatment selection is thus guided by comprehensive assessment of the phenomenology and inferred pathophysiology of the pain syndrome; patient goals, preferences, and expectations; behavioral, cognitive, and physical function; and level of risk. Experiential, practice-based evidence may be necessary for improving patient care, but it is insufficient; certainly, well-designed studies are needed to support therapeutic decision making. This review will discuss the biochemical basis of pain, factors that govern its severity and chronicity, and foundational elements for current and emerging multimodal treatment strategies. [source]

    Pain Measurement: Present Concerns and Future Directions

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 7 2007
    Karen Feldt PhD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    PHACE Syndrome: Current Knowledge, Future Directions

    Denise W. Metry M.D.
    This article represents a summary of the discussions held at that workshop, which was attended by a broad range of medical specialists. [source]

    Infantile Hemangiomas: Current Knowledge, Future Directions.

    Proceedings of a Research Workshop on Infantile Hemangiomas
    First page of article [source]

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Female Sexual Response: Overview of Techniques, Results, and Future Directions

    Kenneth R. Maravilla
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming a frequently used tool in the study of sexual physiology and neurophysiology. Aim., This report reviews various MRI methods used to study the female sexual arousal response. Methods., Retrospective review of pertinent literature. Results., Dynamic genital MRI studies enable the visualization of the physiologic arousal response that provides the direct observation of the time course and magnitude of this response, along with the variability that appears to occur in women with sexual arousal disorder. Functional brain MR studies are described and summarized along with an overview of what we have learned. Finally, the speculation on how we may be able to use MRI technology to better understand the female sexual response and to help in validating new drug treatments or in devising new treatment strategies for sexual dysfunction is also presented. Conclusions., Neuroimaging has already been proven as an invaluable research tool to study the sexual response in women both in the pelvis as well as within the brain. Using these techniques, major inroads are being made to improve the understanding of the sexual arousal process in women. Maravilla KR, and Yang CC. Magnetic resonance imaging and the female sexual response: Overview of techniques, results, and future directions. J Sex Med 2008;5:1559,1571. [source]

    Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs: Future Directions for Screening and Intervention in the Emergency Department

    Rebecca M. Cunningham MD
    Abstract This article is a product of a breakout session on injury prevention from the 2009 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on "Public Health in the ED: Screening, Surveillance, and Intervention." The emergency department (ED) is an important entry portal into the medical care system. Given the epidemiology of substance use among ED patients, the delivery of effective brief interventions (BIs) for alcohol, drug, and tobacco use in the ED has the potential to have a large public health impact. To date, the results of randomized controlled trials of interventional studies in the ED setting for substance use have been mixed in regard to alcohol and understudied in the area of tobacco and other drugs. As a result, there are more questions remaining than answered. The work group developed the following research recommendations that are essential for the field of screening and BI for alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in the ED. 1) Screening,develop and validate brief and practical screening instruments for ED patients and determine the optimal method for the administration of screening instruments. 2) Key components and delivery methods for intervention,conduct research on the effectiveness of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in the ED on outcomes (e.g., consumption, associated risk behaviors, and medical psychosocial consequences) including minimum dose needed, key components, optimal delivery method, interventions focused on multiple risk behaviors and tailored based on assessment, and strategies for addressing polysubstance use. 3) Effectiveness among patient subgroups,conduct research to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from a BI for substance use, including research on moderators and mediators of intervention effectiveness, and examine special populations using culturally and developmentally appropriate interventions. 4) Referral strategies,a) promote prospective effectiveness trials to test best strategies to facilitate referrals and access from the ED to preventive services, community resources, and substance abuse and mental health treatment; b) examine impact of available community services; c) examine the role of stigma of referral and follow-up; and d) examine alternatives to specialized treatment referral. 5) Translation,conduct translational and cost-effectiveness research of proven efficacious interventions, with attention to fidelity, to move ED SBIRT from research to practice. [source]

    Research Using Emergency Department,related Data Sets: Current Status and Future Directions

    Jon Mark Hirshon MD
    Abstract The 2009 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference focused on "Public Health in the ED: Surveillance, Screening and Intervention." One conference breakout session discussed the significant research value of health-related data sets. This article represents the proceedings from that session, primarily focusing on emergency department (ED)-related data sets and includes examples of the use of a data set based on ED visits for research purposes. It discusses types of ED-related data sets available, highlights barriers to research use of ED-related data sets, and notes limitations of these data sets. The paper highlights future directions and challenges to using these important sources of data for research, including identification of five main needs related to enhancing the use of ED-related data sets. These are 1) electronic linkage of initial and follow-up ED visits and linkage of information about ED visits to other outcomes, including costs of care, while maintaining deidentification of the data; 2) timely data access with minimal barriers; 3) complete data collection for clinically relevant and/or historical data elements, such as the external cause-of-injury code; 4) easy access to data that can be parsed into smaller jurisdictions (such as states) for policy and/or research purposes, while maintaining confidentiality; and 5) linkages between health survey data and health claims data. ED-related data sets contain much data collected directly from health care facilities, individual patient records, and multiple other sources that have significant potential impact for studying and improving the health of individuals and the population. [source]

    Future Directions: A Simulation-based Continuing Medical Education Network in Emergency Medicine

    John A. Vozenilek MD
    First page of article [source]

    Survival Analysis in Clinical Trials: Past Developments and Future Directions

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 4 2000
    Thomas R. Fleming
    Summary. The field of survival analysis emerged in the 20th century and experienced tremendous growth during the latter half of the century. The developments in this field that have had the most profound impact on clinical trials are the Kaplan-Meier (1958, Journal of the American Statistical Association53, 457,481) method for estimating the survival function, the log-rank statistic (Mantel, 1966, Cancer Chemotherapy Report50, 163,170) for comparing two survival distributions, and the Cox (1972, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B34, 187,220) proportional hazards model for quantifying the effects of covariates on the survival time. The counting-process martingale theory pioneered by Aalen (1975, Statistical inference for a family of counting processes, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley) provides a unified framework for studying the small- and large-sample properties of survival analysis statistics. Significant progress has been achieved and further developments are expected in many other areas, including the accelerated failure time model, multivariate failure time data, interval-censored data, dependent censoring, dynamic treatment regimes and causal inference, joint modeling of failure time and longitudinal data, and Baysian methods. [source]

    Wildlife Population Assessment: Past Developments and Future Directions

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 1 2000
    S. T. Buckland
    Summary. We review the major developments in wildlife population assessment in the past century. Three major areas are considered: mark-recapture, distance sampling, and harvest models. We speculate on how these fields will develop in the next century. Topics for which we expect to see methodological advances include integration of modeling with Geographic Information Systems, automated survey design algorithms, advances in model-based inference from sample survey data, a common inferential framework for wildlife population assessment methods, improved methods for estimating population trends, the embedding of biological process models into inference, substantially improved models for conservation management, advanced spatiotemporal models of ecosystems, and greater emphasis on incorporating model selection uncertainty into inference. We discuss the kind of developments that might be anticipated in these topics. [source]

    Dynamic Capabilities: Current Debates and Future Directions

    Mark Easterby-Smith
    The field of dynamic capabilities has developed very rapidly over the last ten years. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the concept, and identify two major current debates around the nature of dynamic capabilities and their consequences. We then review recent progress as background to identifying the contributions of the seven papers in this special issue, and discuss the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative studies for investigating dynamic capabilities. We conclude with recommendations for future research arguing for more longitudinal studies which can examine the processes of dynamic abilities over time, and for studies in diverse industries and national contexts. [source]

    Race, Ethnicity, and Culture in Child Development: Contemporary Research and Future Directions

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2006
    Stephen M. Quintana
    The editors of this special issue reflect on the current status and future directions of research on race, ethnicity, and culture in child development. Research in the special issue disentangles race, ethnicity, culture, and immigrant status, and identifies mediators of sociocultural variables on developmental outcomes. The special issue includes important research on normal development in context for ethnic and racial minority children, addresses racial and ethnic identity development, and considers intergroup processes. The methodological innovations as well as challenges of current research are highlighted. It is recommended that future research adhere to principles of cultural validity described in the text. [source]

    Methods for Disseminating Research Products and Increasing Evidence-Based Practice: Promises, Obstacles, and Future Directions

    Michael E. Addis
    Although several different rationales for psychotherapy dissemination research have been well articulated, the most effective means for bringing research products to clinical practice have yet to be determined. Two commonly proposed methods are the dissemination of empirically supported treatments and the dissemination of general evidence-based stances to clinical decision making. Obstacles to either approach include (a) practical constraints on practitioners' ability to use research products, (b) lack of research on process and outcome of both empirically supported treatments and existing services in different practice contexts, (c) lack of research on acceptability of research products to end users including practitioners, clients, and administrators, (d) lack of research on training in the integration of science and practice at the undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels, (e) systemic economic contingencies that favor or punish evidence-based decision making, and (f) the tendency to construct dissemination as a hierarchical and unidirectional process of transmission from research to clinical practice. Each obstacle is considered in detail and followed by recommendations for ways to broaden the scope of dissemination efforts. [source]

    Early Intervention for Trauma: Current Status and Future Directions

    Brett T. Litz
    Although psychological debriefing (PD) represents the most common form of early intervention for recently traumatized people, there is little evidence supporting its continued use with individuals who experience severe trauma. This review identifies the core issues in early intervention that need to be addressed in resolving the debate over PD. It critiques the available evidence for PD and the early provision of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Based on available evidence, we propose that psychological first aid is an appropriate initial intervention, but that it does not serve a therapeutic or preventive function. When feasible, initial screening is required so that preventive interventions can be used for those individuals who may have difficulty recovering on their own. Evidence-based CBT approaches are indicated for people who are at risk of developing posttraumatic psychopathology. Guidelines for managing acutely traumatized people are suggested and standards are proposed to direct future research that may advance our understanding of the role of early intervention in facilitating adaptation to trauma. [source]

    Do mood disorders alter crying? a pilot investigation

    Jonathan Rottenberg Ph.D.
    Abstract Clinical commentators widely interpret crying as a sign of depressed mood. However, there is virtually no empirical data on this topic, and the evidence that mood disorders alter crying is surprisingly weak. This study compared mood disordered patients to a nonpsychiatric reference group on the frequency, antecedents, and consequences of crying behavior using a well-validated questionnaire measure of crying. Forty-four outpatients diagnosed with three forms of mood pathology were age and gender matched to a reference group of 132 participants sampled to be representative of the Dutch population. Both groups completed the Adult Crying Inventory, which provides estimates of the self-reported frequency, antecedents, and consequences of crying behavior. Depression severity and psychiatric symptom severity data were also collected from patients. Compared with the reference group, patients with mood pathology reported increased cry proneness to negative antecedents. By contrast, patients and controls did not differ in reported cry proneness to positive antecedents. Patients reported less mood improvement after crying than did controls. Among male patients, but not female patients, depression severity was associated with increased crying proneness and increased crying frequency. This pilot investigation suggests that mood disorders increase the frequency of negative emotional crying, and may also alter the functions of this behavior. Mood disorders may influence male crying to a greater extent than female crying. Future directions designed to clarify the causal pathways between mood disorders and alterations in crying behavior are discussed. Depression and Anxiety 0:1,7, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]