Future Diagnostic (future + diagnostic)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

MRI-based morphometric analysis of typical and atypical brain development

David N. Kennedy
Abstract The neuroinformatics landscape in which human brain morphometry occurs has advanced dramatically over the past few years. Rapid advancement in image acquisition methods, image analysis tools and interpretation of morphometric results make the study of in vivo anatomic analysis both challenging and rewarding. This has revolutionized our expectations for current and future diagnostic and investigative work with the developing brain. This paper will briefly cover the methods of morphometric analysis that available for neuroanatomic analysis, and tour some sample results from a prototype retrospective database of neuroanatomic volumetric information. From these observations, issues regarding the anatomic variability of developmental maturation of neuroanatomic structures in both typically and atypically developing populations can be discussed. MRDD Research Reviews 2003;9:155,160. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Basic principles of MRI and morphometry studies of human brain development

David N. Kennedy
Magnetic resonance imaging has undergone dramatic development in the past years. This has been paralleled by developments in the tools for extracting quantitative information from these images in support of capturing the anatomic features of brain development in living humans. This has revolutionized our expectations for current and future diagnostic and investigative work with the developing brain. This paper will cover the classes of information that are readily available in the MR image, the mechanisms for extracting quantitative results, and a sample of the application of these types of methods to developmental issues. These applications highlight tissue- and anatomic-based contrasts in the nature and rate of developmental maturation within the brain. This will be followed by a discussion of the emergent themes of developmental science as elucidated by these classes of observation. [source]

Altered aquaporin 9 expression and localization in human hepatocellular carcinoma

HPB, Issue 1 2009
Srikanth Padma
Abstract Background:, In addition to the biochemical components secreted in bile, aquaporin (AQP) water channels exist in hepatocyte membranes to form conduits for water movement between the sinusoid and the bile canaliculus. The aim of the current study was to analyse AQP 9 expression and localization in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and non-tumourigenic liver (NTL) tissue from patients undergoing hepatic resection. Methods:, Archived tissue from 17 patients was sectioned and analysis performed using an antibody raised against AQP 9. Slides were blind-scored to determine AQP 9 distribution within HCC and NTL tissue. Results:, Aquaporin 9 was predominantly expressed in the membranes of hepatocytes and demonstrated zonal distribution relative to hepatic sinusoid structure in normal liver. In HCC arising in the absence of cirrhosis AQP 9 remained membrane-localized with zonal distribution in the majority of NTL. By contrast, AQP 9 expression was significantly decreased in the HCC mass vs. pair-matched NTL. In HCC in the presence of cirrhosis, NTL was characterized by extensive AQP 9 staining in the membrane in the absence of zonal distribution and AQP 9 staining in NTL was significantly greater than that observed in the tumour mass. Conclusions:, These data demonstrate that human HCC is characterized by altered AQP 9 expression and AQP 9 localization in the NTL mass is dependent on underlying liver pathology. Given the central role of AQPs in normal liver function and the potential role of AQPs during transformation and progression, these data may prove valuable in future diagnostic and/or therapeutic strategies. [source]

Cervical column morphology in patients with skeletal open bite

L Sonnesen
Structured Abstract Authors,,, Sonnesen L, Kjr I Objectives,,, To examine and compare the cervical column morphology in adult patients with skeletal open bite with the cervical column morphology of an adult control group with neutral occlusion and normal craniofacial morphology. Design,,, A retrospective case,control study. Setting and Sample Population,,, Thirty-eight open bite patients, 27 women, aged 17,39 years, and 11 males, aged 18,40 years were compared with 21 controls, 15 females, aged 23,40 years, and six males aged 25,44 years from profile radiographs. Outcome measure,,, From each individual a visual assessment of the cervical column and angular measurements of the craniofacial dimensions were performed on profile radiographs. Results,,, In the open bite group 42.1% had cervical column body fusion, and 13.2% had posterior arch deficiency. The fusion always occurred between C2 and C3. Cervical column deviations occurred significantly more often in the open bite group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Associations were found between fusions of the cervical column and maxillary retrognathia (p < 0.05), large maxillary inclination (p < 0.05) and large cranial base angle (p < 0.05). Associations were also found between posterior arch deficiency and maxillary retrognathia (p < 0.05) and cranial base angle (p < 0.05). The craniofacial parameter most important for the fusions and posterior arch deficiency was the maxillary retrognathia (p < 0.01, R,2 = 0.20; p < 0.05, R,2 = 0.26, respectively). Conclusion,,, New associations between skeletal open bite and cervical column deviations are described. It is suggested that this knowledge is incorporated in future diagnostic and orthodontic treatment planning. [source]

Pathological airway remodelling in inflammation

Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson
Abstract Introduction:, Airway remodelling refers to a wide pattern of patophysiological mechanisms involving smooth muscle cell hyperplasia, increase of activated fibroblasts and myofibroblasts with deposition of extracellular matrix. In asthma, it includes alterations of the epithelial cell layer with goblet cell hyperplasia, thickening of basement membranes, peri-bronchial and peri-broncheolar fibrosis. Moreover, airway remodelling occurs not only in asthma but also in several pulmonary disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and systemic sclerosis. Asthma treatment with inhaled corticosteroids does not fully prevent airway remodelling and thus have restricted influence on the natural course of the disease. Objectives:, This review highlights the role of different fibroblast phenotypes and potential origins of these cells in airway remodelling. Results:, During inflammatory conditions, such as asthma, fibroblasts can differentiate into an active, more contractile phenotype termed myofibroblast, with expression of stress fibres and alpha-smooth muscle actin. The origin of myofibroblasts has lately been debated, and three sources have been identified: recruitment and differentiation of resident tissue fibroblasts; fibrocytes , circulating progenitor cells; and epithelial,mesenchymal transition. Conclusion:, It is clear that airway mesenchymal cells, including fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, are more dynamic in terms of differentiation and origin than has previously been recognised. Considering that these cells are key players in the remodelling process, it is of utmost importance to characterise specific markers for the various fibroblast phenotypes and to explore factors that drive the differentiation to develop future diagnostic and therapeutic tools for asthma patients. Please cite this paper as: Westergren-Thorsson G, Larsen K, Nihlberg K, Andersson-Sjland A, Hallgren O, Marko-Varga G and Bjermer L. Pathological airway remodelling in inflammation. Clin Respir J 2010; 4 (Suppl. 1): 1,8. [source]