Future Development (future + development)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Future Development

  • possible future development

  • Selected Abstracts

    Books and Multimedia Reviews

    Article first published online: 4 FEB 2010
    Book reviewed in this article: Catalogue of Meteorites, Fifth Edition (Revised and Enlarged) by Monica M. Grady Extrasolar Planets: The Search for New Worlds by Stuart Clark The Moon: Resources, Future Development and Colonization by David Schrunk, Burton Sharpe, Bonnie Cooper and Madhu Thangavelu Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe by Peter D. Ward and Donald E. Brownlee [source]

    VICAID: Development and evaluation of a palmtop-based job aid for workers with severe developmental disabilities

    Frederick Furniss
    The development of technologies to assist people with severe and profound developmental disabilities to engage in constructive activity without constant support from carers may assist such persons to participate fully in vocational and other occupational activities. We describe the development, evaluation and use of VICAID, a system based on a radically simplified palmtop computer. The VICAID system enables a person with a developmental disability to access pictorial instructions designed to help him or her in the accurate completion of tasks. It also provides reminders to access the instructions, and/or alerts a job coach or supervisor should the worker's interaction with the system suggest that they are having difficulty with a task. Evaluative studies show that (1) the system is more effective than alternative supports (pictorial instructions presented in booklets) in maintaining accurate task performance, (2) that the system is preferred to such booklets by most users with severe disabilities, and (3) that it can be used in real work settings. Future development of the system will require attention to be paid to issues of training job-coaches and support workers in its setting-up and maintenance. [source]

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: development, detection and dangers,

    Stefan E. Franz
    Abstract Epoetin alfa, the first member of the family of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs), was introduced to the market in 1989. Since then development has progressed to epoetins of the third generation. Currently drugs that use alternative approaches to stimulate erythropoiesis are under development. Uptake of all available ESAs into doping has occurred rapidly after their introduction. A multitude of dangers to health are associated with the illicit use of these substances. Different approaches to detect ESAs in doping control have been developed to comply with the very diverse nature of the compounds used. Future developments in the field of ESA require the development of new techniques in doping analysis. This review gives an overview of the development of ESA and its detection methods as well as future developments. [Correction made here after initial online publication] Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Role of X chromosome defects in primary biliary cirrhosis

    Pietro Invernizzi
    Similar to the majority of autoimmune conditions, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by a striking female predominance; it is characterized by high titer serum autoantibodies to mitochondrial antigens, elevated serum immunoglobulin M, progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, and ultimately liver cirrhosis and failure. Familiarity and high concordance rates for the disease among monozygotic twins strongly support the role of genetics in the disease. Experimental efforts have been dedicated by our and other research groups to investigate the role of X chromosome abnormalities (i.e. monosomyrates and inactivation patterns) in autoimmunity. Our recent work has demonstrated enhanced X monosomy in women with PBC as well as two other female-predominant autoimmune diseases, systemic sclerosis and autoimmune thyroid disease. We will review herein the most recent evidence on the role of the X chromosome in PBC onset and discuss the potential implications. Future developments of these findings will be discussed. [source]

    Biomedical Applications of Layer-by-Layer Assembly: From Biomimetics to Tissue Engineering,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 24 2006
    Z. Tang
    Abstract The design of advanced, nanostructured materials at the molecular level is of tremendous interest for the scientific and engineering communities because of the broad application of these materials in the biomedical field. Among the available techniques, the layer-by-layer assembly method introduced by Decher and co-workers in 1992 has attracted extensive attention because it possesses extraordinary advantages for biomedical applications: ease of preparation, versatility, capability of incorporating high loadings of different types of biomolecules in the films, fine control over the materials' structure, and robustness of the products under ambient and physiological conditions. In this context, a systematic review of current research on biomedical applications of layer-by-layer assembly is presented. The structure and bioactivity of biomolecules in thin films fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly are introduced. The applications of layer-by-layer assembly in biomimetics, biosensors, drug delivery, protein and cell adhesion, mediation of cellular functions, and implantable materials are addressed. Future developments in the field of biomedical applications of layer-by-layer assembly are also discussed. [source]

    X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging in biology and medicine

    Tatjana Paunesku
    Abstract Characteristic X-ray fluorescence is a technique that can be used to establish elemental concentrations for a large number of different chemical elements simultaneously in different locations in cell and tissue samples. Exposing the samples to an X-ray beam is the basis of X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). This technique provides the excellent trace element sensitivity; and, due to the large penetration depth of hard X-rays, an opportunity to image whole cells and quantify elements on a per cell basis. Moreover, because specimens prepared for XFM do not require sectioning, they can be investigated close to their natural, hydrated state with cryogenic approaches. Until several years ago, XFM was not widely available to bio-medical communities, and rarely offered resolution better then several microns. This has changed drastically with the development of third-generation synchrotrons. Recent examples of elemental imaging of cells and tissues show the maturation of XFM imaging technique into an elegant and informative way to gain insight into cellular processes. Future developments of XFM,building of new XFM facilities with higher resolution, higher sensitivity or higher throughput will further advance studies of native elemental makeup of cells and provide the biological community including the budding area of bionanotechnology with a tool perfectly suited to monitor the distribution of metals including nanovectors and measure the results of interactions between the nanovectors and living cells and tissues. J. Cell. Biochem. 99: 1489,1502, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Facilities for high-pressure research with the diamond anvil cell at GSECARS

    Guoyin Shen
    An overview of facilities for high-pressure research with the diamond anvil cell (DAC) at the GeoSoilEnviroCARS (GSECARS) sector at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne, Illinois) is presented. There are three operational experimental stations (13-ID-C, 13-ID-D and 13-BM-D) where DAC instrumentation is installed for various types of experiments at high pressure and extreme temperature conditions. A fourth station (13-BM-C) is under construction and will be operational in 2006. While most X-ray diffraction experiments have been undertaken with powder samples so far, there is a growing demand for single-crystal diffraction (SCD) at high pressure. As one of the principal components at GSECARS, SCD is currently under rapid development. Other relevant techniques have also been developed for obtaining complementary information from powder or single-crystal samples at high pressure. For example, an on-line Brillouin system is installed and operational at 13-BM-D for acoustic velocity and single-crystal elasticity determinations. In addition, various X-ray spectroscopy techniques (e.g. X-ray emission and X-ray Raman) are employed for measuring electronic and magnetic properties. Future developments are discussed with the DAC program at GSECARS. [source]

    Psychological Well-being: Evidence Regarding its Causes and Consequences,

    Felicia A Huppert
    This review focuses on positive aspects of well-being, or flourishing. It examines evidence for the causes of positive well-being and also its consequences, including beneficial effects for many aspects of cognitive functioning, health, and social relationships. The neurobiological basis of psychological well-being is examined, and recent data on brain activation and neurochemical pathways are presented. Individuals vary widely in their habitual level of psychological well-being, and there is evidence for a seminal role of social factors and the early environment in this process. It is often assumed that the drivers of well-being are the same as (but in the opposite direction to) the drivers of ill-being, but while this is true for some drivers, others have more selective effects. Future developments in the science of well-being and its application require a fresh approach,beyond targeting the alleviation of disorder to a focus on personal and interpersonal flourishing. A universal intervention approach is outlined which may both increase population flourishing and reduce common mental health problems. [source]

    Future developments in global livestock and grains markets: the impacts of livestock productivity convergence in Asia-Pacific

    Allan N. Rae
    Increasing livestock product consumption in many Asian countries has been accompanied by growth in some countries' imports of feedgrains for their domestic livestock sectors. This contributes to debate over future levels of grain imports. Yet projections often pay little attention to developments in livestock production. The impacts of technological catch-up in livestock production on trade in livestock and grains products among countries in the Asia-Pacific region are assessed. Tests are conducted of the hypothesis that productivity levels in the Asia-Pacific region are converging. Projections of livestock productivity are made and incorporated in a modified GTAP model. The consequences for regional and global trade in livestock and grains products are explored. [source]

    3446: Management and therapy of MGD

    Purpose Treatment of Meibomian gland dysfunction varies greatly among eye care providers.Practitioners have noted widespread deficiencies in the patient education. As a result, suboptimal and ineffective therapy is commonly practiced and abandoned prematurely as ineffective. The aim of the subcommittee was to review the current practice and published evidence of medical and surgical treatment options for Meibomian gland dysfunction and to identify areas with conflicting or lack of evidence, observations, concepts or even mechanisms were further research is required. Methods To achieve this a comprehensive review of clinical textbooks and scientific literature was performed and the quality of published evidence graded according to an agreed standard, using objective criteria for clinical and basic research studies. Results Lid warming and cleansing, artificial lubricants, systemic tetracyclines, topical antibiotic and or antibiotic-steroid combinations are commonly prescibed. Future developments are described. Conclusion The subcommittee have prsented current and future treatment options for Meibomian gland dysfunction. [source]

    Immediate Provisional for Single-Tooth Implant Replacement with Brånemark System: Preliminary Report

    Edward Hui MDS, FDSRCS, FRCDC
    Abstract: Background: The success of osseointegrated implants ad modum Brånemark for single-tooth restorations is documented. Future developments should aim at improving the benefits to patients by decreasing treatment time, minimizing surgical stages, and maximizing esthetic outcomes. Using knowledge from studies of immediate implant placement, one-stage, immediate loading protocols, the authors developed the immediate provisional. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a protocol to provide an immediate solution for restoring a single missing tooth in the esthetic zone. The protocol should be simple, predictable, cost effective, and allow the use of other techniques to improve esthetic outcome. Materials and Method: This prospective clinical study included 24 patients treated from August 1999 to October 2000. Single-tooth implant replacement was done according to immediate provisional protocol. Thirteen of the 24 patients had immediate implant placement after tooth extraction. All implants were placed in the esthetic zone. During surgery, emphasis was placed on obtaining primary stability by achieving bicortical anchorage and maximum insertion torque of at least 40 Ncm. CeraOne (Nobel Biocare) abutments were used, and provisional crowns were fabricated immediately before wound closure. The occlusion was protected by adjacent teeth. Results: Within the follow-up period of between 1 month and 15 months, all fixtures in the 24 patients were stable. Crestal bone loss greater than one thread-width was not detected. The esthetic result was considered satisfactory by all patients. Conclusions: The implant placement and restoration protocol used in this study showed promising initial results for both the immediate implant and healed extraction site groups. The desirable goals of patient satisfaction, excellent esthetic outcomes, and no increase in treatment cost were achieved in this protocol. Further studies to elucidate the potential of the immediate provisional protocol are justified. [source]

    Hypervideo application on an experimental control system as an approach to education

    Debevc, Matja
    Abstract Hypervideo, as an interactive tool with links within video frames, is becoming widely used in multimedia presentations for e-learning applications. Its concept of rich multimedia presentation together with temporal based link objects, gives a chance for use in engineering education courses, where many practical work and experiments are needed. In the article we present a strategy for the development and navigation of hypervideo application, to be used in engineering education. Example of magnetic suspension system experiment was built as hypervideo application. The system usability was tested with two methods, software usability measurement inventory (SUMI) evaluation and general approach to usability engineering. Test results have shown that hypervideo increases the users' motivation to work and helps students recognize, organize and present specific information. By applying some of the proposed improvements in future development, hypervideo could be a significant tool in the future of engineering education. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 16: 31,44, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.20116 [source]

    Evaluation of the skin sensitizing potency of chemicals by using the existing methods and considerations of relevance for elicitation

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 1 2005
    David A. Basketter
    The Technical Committee of Classification and Labelling dealing with harmonized classification of substances and classification criteria under Directive 67/548/EEC on behalf of the European Commission nominated an expert group on skin sensitization in order to investigate further the possibility for potency consideration of skin sensitizers for future development of the classification criteria. All substances and preparations should be classified on the basis of their intrinsic properties and should be labelled accordingly with the rules set up in the Directive 67/548/EEC. The classification should be the same under their full life cycle and in the case that there is no harmonized classification the substance or preparation should be self-classified by the manufacturer in accordance with the same criteria. The Directive does not apply to certain preparations in the finished state, such as medical products, cosmetics, food and feeding stuffs, which are subject to specific community legislation. The main questions that are answered in this report are whether it would be possible to give detailed guidance on how to grade allergen potency based on the existing methods, whether such grading could be translated into practical thresholds and whether these could be set for both induction and elicitation. Examples are given for substances falling into various potency groups for skin sensitization relating to results from the local lymph node assay, the guinea pig maximization test, the Buehler method and human experience. [source]

    Longitudinal development of hand function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy

    Aim The aim of this study was to describe how the usefulness of the hemiplegic hand develops in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 18 months and 8 years. Method A prospective longitudinal study of 43 children (22 males, 21 females) with unilateral CP was conducted. Inclusion age was 18 months to 5 years 4 months (mean 2y 8mo [SD 1y 1mo]). Children were assessed with the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) 3 to 11 times per child over a mean period of 4 years 6 months. Two models were used for grouping children: by AHA score at 18 months and by Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) levels. Estimated average motor development curves were fitted with a nonlinear mixed-effects model. Results Children with a high AHA score (high ability level) at 18 months reached a significantly higher ability level and at a higher progression rate than children with a low 18-month AHA score. Limits of development differed between the three MACS levels. Interpretation Results indicate that the AHA score at 18 months can be used to discuss future development of affected hand use in bimanual tasks in children with unilateral CP. [source]

    Epidemiology of gestational diabetes mellitus and its association with Type 2 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2 2004
    A. Ben-Haroush
    Abstract Gestational diabetes (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance that begins or is first recognized during pregnancy. Although it is a well-known cause of pregnancy complications, its epidemiology has not been studied systematically. Our aim was to review the recent data on the epidemiology of GDM, and to describe the close relationship of GDM to prediabetic states, in addition to the risk of future deterioration in insulin resistance and development of overt Type 2 diabetes. We found that differences in screening programmes and diagnostic criteria make it difficult to compare frequencies of GDM among various populations. Nevertheless, ethnicity has been proven to be an independent risk factor for GDM, which varies in prevalence in direct proportion to the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in a given population or ethnic group. There are several identifiable predisposing factors for GDM, and in the absence of risk factors, the incidence of GDM is low. Therefore, some authors suggest that selective screening may be cost-effective. Importantly, women with an early diagnosis of GDM, in the first half of pregnancy, represent a high-risk subgroup, with an increased incidence of obstetric complications, recurrent GDM in subsequent pregnancies, and future development of Type 2 diabetes. Other factors that place women with GDM at increased risk of Type 2 diabetes are obesity and need for insulin for glycaemic control. Furthermore, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and afterwards may be more prevalent in women with GDM. We conclude that the epidemiological data suggest an association between several high-risk prediabetic states, GDM, and Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is suggested as a pathogenic linkage. It is possible that improving insulin sensitivity with diet, exercise and drugs such as metformin may reduce the risk of diabetes in individuals at high risk, such as women with polycystic ovary syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, and a history of GDM. Large controlled studies are needed to clarify this issue and to develop appropriate diabetic prevention strategies that address the potentially modifiable risk factors. Diabet. Med. 20, ***,*** (2003) [source]

    Expanding field of purinergic signaling

    Geoffrey Burnstock
    Abstract This article attempts to paint a broad picture of the extraordinary explosive recent developments in the purinergic signaling field. After a brief historical review and update of purinoceptor subtypes, the focus is on the physiological roles of purines and pyrimidines. These are considered both in terms of short-term signaling in neurotransmission, secretion, and vasodilatation and in long-term (trophic) signaling in development, regeneration, proliferation, and cell death. Examples of trophic signaling include cartilage development in limb buds, glial cell proliferation, development of skeletal muscle, changes in receptor expression in smooth-muscle phenotypes, maturation of testicular spermatids, and bone remodeling. Plasticity of purinoceptor expression in pathological conditions is described, including the increase in the purinergic component of parasympathetic nervous control of the human bladder in interstitial cystitis and outflow obstruction and in sympathetic cotransmitter control of blood vessels in hypertensive rats, the appearance of P2X7 receptors in the glomeruli of the kidney from diabetic and transgenic hypertensive animal models, and up-regulation of P2X1 and P2Y2 receptor mRNA in hearts of rats with congestive heart failure. The role of P2X3 receptors in nociception is considered, and a new hypothesis about purinergic mechanosensory transduction in the gut is explored. A personal view of some of the areas ripe for future development concludes this article, including a discussion of different strategies that could lead to the development of purinergic therapeutic agents. Drug Dev. Res. 52:1,10, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Laboratory simulation of the salt weathering of schist: II.

    Fragmentation of fine schist particles
    Abstract Recent developments in long term landform evolution modelling have created a new demand for quantitative salt weathering data, and in particular data describing the size distribution of the weathered rock fragments. To enable future development of rock breakdown models for use in landscape evolution and soil production models, laboratory work was undertaken to extend existing schist/salt weathering fragmentation studies to include an examination of the breakdown of sub-millimetre quartz chlorite schist particles in a seasonally wet tropical climate. Laser particle sizing was used to assess the impact of different experimental procedures on the resulting particle size distribution. The results reveal that salt weathering under a range of realistic simulated tropical wet season conditions produces a significant degree of schist particle breakdown. The fragmentation of the schist is characterized by splitting of the larger fragments into mid-sized product with finer material produced, possibly from the breakdown of mid-sized fragments when weathering is more advanced. Salinity, the salt addition method and temperature were all found to affect weathering rates. Subtle differences in mineralogy also produce variations in weathering patterns and rates. It is also shown that an increase in drying temperature leads to accelerated weathering rates, however, the geometry of the fracture process is not significantly affected. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Statistical approaches in landscape genetics: an evaluation of methods for linking landscape and genetic data

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2009
    Niko Balkenhol
    The goal of landscape genetics is to detect and explain landscape effects on genetic diversity and structure. Despite the increasing popularity of landscape genetic approaches, the statistical methods for linking genetic and landscape data remain largely untested. This lack of method evaluation makes it difficult to compare studies utilizing different statistics, and compromises the future development and application of the field. To investigate the suitability and comparability of various statistical approaches used in landscape genetics, we simulated data sets corresponding to five landscape-genetic scenarios. We then analyzed these data with eleven methods, and compared the methods based on their statistical power, type-1 error rates, and their overall ability to lead researchers to accurate conclusions about landscape-genetic relationships. Results suggest that some of the most commonly applied techniques (e.g. Mantel and partial Mantel tests) have high type-1 error rates, and that multivariate, non-linear methods are better suited for landscape genetic data analysis. Furthermore, different methods generally show only moderate levels of agreement. Thus, analyzing a data set with only one method could yield method-dependent results, potentially leading to erroneous conclusions. Based on these findings, we give recommendations for choosing optimal combinations of statistical methods, and identify future research needs for landscape genetic data analyses. [source]


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2005
    Emily Chamlee-Wright
    The microfinance movement has gained tremendous popularity over the past 30 years, but it is still far from meeting its full potential. The industry stands at a crossroads between increased commercialisation and increased philanthropic aid. Standard economic discourse does little to resolve the debate. F. A. Hayek's concept of the,extended order' sheds new light on how we might understand the future development of microfinance. [source]

    How Does Structural Reform Affect Regional Development?

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2000
    Resolving Contradictory Theory with Evidence from India
    Abstract: Regional theory offers little coherent guidance on the prospects for interregional development after structural reform in developing nations. In this paper I suggest a basic set of hypotheses in which the neoliberal nation-state is simultaneously a reduced state (less concerned about promoting regional balance) and an enlarged state (directing development toward selected regions). Under the new regulatory structure the location of post-reform investments may be expected to favor the coast, advanced regions, and existing metropolises (especially the edge areas); these expectations may be more true for foreign direct investments than domestic investments (especially the direct investments of the state). I use disaggregated pre- and post-reform industrial data from India to test the hypotheses. The results offer partial to full support for all hypotheses, providing evidence of the return of cumulative causation, and raising concerns about the political economy of future development in the lagging regions. [source]

    Effects of salinity on copper accumulation in the common killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    Jonathan Blanchard
    Abstract Results of laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that salinity influences the accumulation of copper. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to examine the effect of salinity on copper accumulation in a teleost fish across a comprehensive range of salinity from freshwater to seawater. This was done in an effort to identify potential target tissues and differences in chemical interactions across salinities that will aid in the development of a seawater biotic ligand model (BLM) for copper. Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) were acclimated to five salinities (0, 5, 11, 22, and 28 ppt) and exposed to three copper concentrations (0 [nominal], 30, and 150 ,g L,1), yielding 15 treatment groups. Fish from each group were sampled for tissue copper analysis at 0, 4, 12, and 30 d postexposure. Whole-body and liver accumulations were highest at lower salinities. The liver accounted for 57 to 86% of the whole-body copper even though it accounted for less than 4% of the body mass. Similarly, the gill accumulated more copper at lower salinities, whereas the intestine generally accumulated more copper at higher salinities. Speciation calculations indicate that CuCO3 likely accounts for much of the accumulation, possibly with some contributions from CuOH+ and Cu(OH)2. The free ion, Cu2+, does not appear to be associated with copper accumulation. However, the differences in physiology and in the concentrations of competing cations across salinities suggest that speciation alone cannot explain accumulation. The present findings may have implications for future development of a BLM for saline environments by identifying potential target tissues. [source]

    Students' evaluation of online course materials in Fixed Prosthodontics: a case study

    Elizabeth S. Pilcher
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess a new online course format for dental students. Preclinical Fixed Prosthodontics I is a didactic and laboratory course given in the first year of the dental school curriculum. In the spring semester of 1999, the didactic portion of the course was offered in a web-based format as a supplement to the traditional lecture format. Methods: The study population was 53 first year dental students at one school. The study design was a one group post test without a control group. The online questionnaire consisted of multiple choice questions, Leikert scale questions and open-ended questions. Data were collected using Filemaker Pro and analyzed using EpiInfo. Results: Student response rate was 96% (52/53). All of the students responded that they felt comfortable with their computer skills in utilizing this course format. Most (96%) responded that the online materials were either very helpful or helpful to them. About half, (54%) recommended that the online format be continued as a supplement to traditional lectures, while 28% recommended replacing traditional lectures with the new format in order to provide more laboratory time in the course. The syllabus, lecture materials, bulletin board and handouts were found to be the most helpful online features. The least helpful features were the listserve, decision tree, and e-mail options. Most frequently mentioned strengths of the online material were listed as 1) the ability to view material at their own pace and at a time convenient to them, 2) quality photographs in lecture materials and 3) online quizzes. Weaknesses of the course were ranked by students as 1) problems with access to the materials and the intranet system, 2) taking quizzes online and 3) difficulty in printing the web-based lecture materials. Conclusions: The delivery of web-based material as a course supplement in Fixed Prosthodontics I was determined to be an overall success. Fine tuning of problems with access to the materials took place throughout the course. The student feedback will help direct future development of web-based course materials in the dental school curriculum. [source]

    Quantitative Removal of Mercury(II) from Water Through Bulk Liquid Membranes by Lipophilic Polyamines

    Nicoletta Spreti
    Abstract Transport of mercury(II) and copper(II) ions through bulk liquid membranes has been studied, the former because of its toxicity and wide distribution in the environment, the latter for comparative purposes. The abilities of two carriers, the known N,N, -bis[2-(hexadecylamino)ethyl]- N,N, -bis(hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (bis-HE16ED) and the new N,N,-bis(p -octyloxybenzyl)-3,6-dioxaoctane-1,8-diamine (bis- pODODA), to complex and transport the selected metal ions are reported. Bis-HE16ED is a good carrier for Cu2+ ions, but the high stability of the carrier/Hg2+ ion complex in the membrane results in a lack of its transport. On the other hand, the new carrier displays a very high efficiency in Hg2+ ion transport, effecting quantitative transfer of the metal ion into the receiving phase within 24 h, despite its chelating region being only slightly different from that in bis-HE16ED. The ability of bis- pODODA to transport 100,% of Hg2+ efficiently in consecutive cycles is also reported. This result provides a basis for future development of a decontamination process based on a carrier-mediated transport system. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

    Regulation of natural genetic transformation and acquisition of transforming DNA in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Ola Johnsborg
    Abstract The ability of pneumococci to take up naked DNA from the environment and permanently incorporate the DNA into their genome by recombination has been exploited as a valuable research tool for 80 years. From being viewed as a marginal phenomenon, it has become increasingly clear that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation is a powerful mechanism for generating genetic diversity, and that it has the potential to cause severe problems for future treatment of pneumococcal disease. This process constitutes a highly efficient mechanism for spreading ,-lactam resistance determinants between streptococcal strains and species, and also threatens to undermine the effect of pneumococcal vaccines. Fortunately, great progress has been made during recent decades to elucidate the mechanism behind natural transformation at a molecular level. Increased insight into these matters will be important for future development of therapeutic strategies and countermeasures aimed at reducing the spread of hazardous traits. In this review, we focus on recent developments in our understanding of competence regulation, DNA acquisition and the role of natural transformation in the dissemination of virulence and ,-lactam resistance determinants. [source]

    Integration of a Chemical-Responsive Hydrogel into a Porous Silicon Photonic Sensor for Visual Colorimetric Readout

    Lisa M. Bonanno
    Abstract The incorporation of a chemo-responsive hydrogel into a 1D photonic porous silicon (PSi) transducer is demonstrated. A versatile hydrogel backbone is designed via the synthesis of an amine-functionalized polyacrylamide copolymer where further amine-specific biochemical reactions can enable control of cross-links between copolymer chains based on complementary target,probe systems. As an initial demonstration, the incorporation of disulfide chemistry to control cross-linking of this hydrogel system within a PSi Bragg mirror sensor is reported. Direct optical monitoring of a characteristic peak in the white light reflectivity spectrum of the incorporated PSi Bragg mirror facilitates real-time detection of the hydrogel dissolution in response to the target analyte (reducing agent) over a timescale of minutes. The hybrid sensor response characteristics are shown to systematically depend on hydrogel cross-linking density and applied target analyte concentration. Additionally, effects due to responsive hydrogel confinement in a porous template are shown to depend on pore size and architecture of the PSi transducer substrate. Sufficient copolymer and water is removed from the PSi transducer upon dissolution and drying of the hydrogel to induce color changes that can be detected by the unaided eye. This highlights the potential for future development for point-of-care diagnostic biosensing. [source]

    Electronic Structure of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Au(111) Surfaces: The Impact of Backbone Polarizability

    LinJun Wang
    Abstract Modifying metal electrodes with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) has promising applications in organic and molecular electronics. The two key electronic parameters are the modification of the electrode work function because of SAM adsorption and the alignment of the SAM conducting states relative to the metal Fermi level. Through a comprehensive density-functional-theory study on a series of organic thiols self-assembled on Au(111), relationships between the electronic structure of the individual molecules (especially the backbone polarizability and its response to donor/acceptor substitutions) and the properties of the corresponding SAMs are described. The molecular backbone is found to significantly impacts the level alignment; for molecules with small ionization potentials, even Fermi-level pinning is observed. Nevertheless, independent of the backbone, polar head-group substitutions have no effect on the level alignment. For the work-function modification, the larger molecular dipole moments achieved when attaching donor/acceptor substituents to more polarizable backbones are largely compensated by increased depolarization in the SAMs. The main impact of the backbone on the work-function modification thus arises from its influence on the molecular orientation on the surface. This study provides a solid theoretical basis for the fundamental understanding of SAMs and significantly advances the understanding of structure,property relationships needed for the future development of functional organic interfaces. [source]

    Selective Angle Electroluminescence of Light-Emitting Diodes based on Nanostructured ZnO/GaN Heterojunctions

    Hang-Kuei Fu
    Abstract Selective angle electroluminescence of violet light with a peak wavelength of 405,nm from light-emitting diodes based on nanostructured p-GaN/ZnO heterojunctions is reported. The fabrication of well-aligned nanobottles with excellent crystalline quality is achieved by chemical vapor deposition at temperatures as low as 450,°C with a specially designed upside-down arrangement of substrate configuration. Selective angle light sources are essential in our daily life. With the geometry of the nanobottle waveguides, it is very easy to realize such a practical application. Therefore, the discovery reported here should be very useful for the future development of many unique optoelectronic devices. [source]

    Importance of arterial stiffness as cardiovascular risk factor for future development of new type of drugs

    Pierre Boutouyrie
    Abstract Cardiovascular risk prediction relies on classical risk factors such as age, gender, lipids, hypertension, smoking and diabetes. Although the value of such scales of risk is high for populations, its value for individual is reduced and too much influenced by non-modifiable risk factors (age and gender). Biomarkers of risk have been deceiving and genome wide scan approach is too recent. Target organ damage may help in selecting patients at high risk and in determining intervention. Aortic pulse wave velocity, an index of aortic stiffness, has been widely validated as providing additional risk predictions beyond and above classical risk factors, and has now entered into official guidelines. Many interventions (dietary, behaviour, drug treatment) were shown to influence arterial stiffness positively, but little evidence of a direct effect of intervention on arterial stiffness independent of blood pressure is available. New pharmacological targets and new drugs need to be identified. To become a surrogate endpoint for drug development, there is a need to demonstrate that regression arterial stiffness is associated with improved outcome. In parallel to this demonstration, points to be improved are the homogenization and spreading of the technique of measurement, the establishment of a reference value database. [source]

    Gene expression analysis of BCR/ABL1-dependent transcriptional response reveals enrichment for genes involved in negative feedback regulation

    Petra Håkansson
    Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-positive leukemia is characterized by the BCR/ABL1 fusion protein that affects a wide range of signal transduction pathways. The knowledge about its downstream target genes is, however, still quite limited. To identify novel BCR/ABL1-regulated genes we used global gene expression profiling of several Ph-positive and Ph-negative cell lines treated with imatinib. Following imatinib treatment, the Ph-positive cells showed decreased growth, viability, and reduced phosphorylation of BCR/ABL1 and STAT5. In total, 142 genes were identified as being dependent on BCR/ABL1-mediated signaling, mainly including genes involved in signal transduction, e.g. the JAK/STAT, MAPK, TGFB, and insulin signaling pathways, and in regulation of metabolism. Interestingly, BCR/ABL1 was found to activate several genes involved in negative feedback regulation (CISH, SOCS2, SOCS3, PIM1, DUSP6, and TNFAIP3), which may act to indirectly suppress the tumor promoting effects exerted by BCR/ABL1. In addition, several genes identified as deregulated upon BCR/ABL1 expression could be assigned to the TGFB and NFkB signaling pathways, as well as to reflect the metabolic adjustments needed for rapidly growing cells. Apart from providing important pathogenetic insights into BCR/ABL1 -mediated leukemogenesis, the present study also provides a number of pathways/individual genes that may provide attractive targets for future development of targeted therapies. This article contains Supplementary Material available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1045,2257/suppmat. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Martin Ou
    ABSTRACT. Numerous authors have asserted that suburbanization contributes to many problems in both suburban and inner city localities. Research of suburban development demonstrates variations in spatial patterns, the intensity of spatial processes, and the social and economic status of new suburbanites. While some forms of suburban development could cause serious problems throughout the urban region, other forms could be perceived as processes improving the quality of life in suburbia. This paper seeks to investigate different types of suburban development in the Prague urban region over the past fifteen years of transformation. The focus of my interest is residential suburbanization, which is one of the most significant spatial processes today in the settlement systems of post-socialist countries. The theoretical part of the contribution deals with the differentiation of spatial processes changing the suburban zone. Here I discuss the concepts of several processes of suburban development and their distinctive impact on both suburban and inner city localities. The empirical part of the contribution is based on an analysis of migration flows in the various localities of the Prague urban region in the period 1995 to 2003. I attempt to describe the magnitude and spatial patterns of suburbanization and the composition of migrants to suburbia. The paper concludes with a discussion about the possible future development of suburbanization in the Prague urban region. [source]