Future Demand (future + demand)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Precision Polymers: Monodisperse, Monomer-Sequence-Defined Segments to Target Future Demands of Polymers in Medicine

ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 32-33 2009
L. Hartmann
Abstract The established technology platforms of solid-phase-supported oligopeptide and oligonucleotide synthesis can be expanded to access fully synthetic macromolecules, preserving both the monodisperse character and the defined monomer sequence. Precision polymers are sequentially assembled from a library of functional building blocks, enabling one to program interaction capabilities or generate functions by sequence-specific positioning of functionalities. Examples are provided, showing that these monodisperse macromolecules can be conjugated to oligonucleotides, oligopeptides, or poly(ethylene glycol)s. The resulting model systems can contribute to the understanding of complex biomedical-related processes. Due to the absence of chemical and molecular-weight distributions in these multifunctional segments, exact correlation of the monomer sequence and (bio)properties is attainable. This is demonstrated by the design of carrier systems that exhibit fine-tuned interactions with plasmid DNA, actively controlling important steps in DNA delivery and transfection, such as polyplex formation, DNA compression, and release of the cargo. [source]

Social, Economic and Demographic Consequences of Migration on Kerala

K.C. Zachariah
Migration has been the single most dynamic factor in the otherwise dreary development scenario of Kerala during the last quarter of the last century. It has contributed more to poverty alleviation and reduction in unemployment in Kerala than any other factor. As a result of migration, the proportion of the population below the poverty line has declined by 12 per cent. The number of unemployed persons , estimated to be only about 13 lakhs in 1998 compared with 37 lakhs reported by the Kerala Employment Exchanges , has declined by over 30 per cent. Migration has caused nearly a million married women in Kerala to live away from their husbands. Most of these so-called "Gulf wives" experienced extreme loneliness to begin with, and were burdened with added family responsibilities to which they had not been accustomed when their husbands were with them. But over a period, and with a helping hand from abroad over the ISD, most came out of their early gloom. Their gain in autonomy, status, management skills and experience in dealing with the world outside their homes were developed the hard way and would remain with them for the rest of their lives for the benefit of their families and society. In the long run, the transformation of these million women will have contributed more to the development of Kerala society than all the temporary euphoria created by remittances and modern gadgetry. Kerala is dependent on migration for employment, subsistence, housing, household amenities, institution building, and many other developmental activities. The danger is that migration could cease, as shown by the Kuwait war of 1993, and repercussions could be disastrous for the State. Understanding migration trends and instituting policies to maintain the flow of migration is more important today than at any time in the past. Kerala workers seem to be losing out in international competition for jobs in the Gulf market. Corrective policies are needed urgently to raise their competitive edge over workers in competing countries in South and South-East Asia. Like any other industry, migration from Kerala needs periodic technological upgrading of workers. Otherwise, there is a danger that the State might lose the Gulf market permanently. The crux of the problem is Kerala workers' inability to compete with expatriates from other South and South-East Asian countries. The solution lies in equipping workers with better general education and job training. This study suggests a twofold approach. In the short run, the need is to improve the job skills of prospective emigrant workers. This could be achieved through ad hoc training programmes focussed on the job market in Gulf countries. In the long run, the need is to restructure the educational system, taking into consideration the future demand of workers not only in Kerala but also in potential destination countries all over the world, including the US and other developed countries. Kerala emigrants need not always be construction workers in the Gulf countries; they could also be software engineers in developed countries. [source]

Forecasting for the LCD monitor market

Shin-Lian Lo
Abstract The TFT-LCD (thin-film transistor,liquid crystal display) industry is one of the key global industries with products that have high clock speed. In this research, the LCD monitor market is considered for an empirical study on hierarchical forecasting (HF). The proposed HF methodology consists of five steps. First, the three hierarchical levels of the LCD monitor market are identified. Second, several exogenously driven factors that significantly affect the demand for LCD monitors are identified at each level of product hierarchy. Third, the three forecasting techniques,regression analysis, transfer function, and simultaneous equations model,are combined to forecast future demand at each hierarchical level. Fourth, various forecasting approaches and disaggregating proportion methods are adopted to obtain consistent demand forecasts at each hierarchical level. Finally, the forecast errors with different forecasting approaches are assessed in order to determine the best forecasting level and the best forecasting approach. The findings show that the best forecast results can be obtained by using the middle-out forecasting approach. These results could guide LCD manufacturers and brand owners on ways to forecast future market demands. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Forecasting Hong Kong's container throughput: an error-correction model

Michael K. FungArticle first published online: 28 DEC 200
Abstract A three-player oligopoly model is devised to capture the competitive interaction between operators of the Hong Kong container terminals, the Hong Kong midstream and the Singapore container terminals in providing container handling services. The oligopoly model is then estimated statistically and thereby the structural parameters can be identified. The results of the estimation confirm a substitutability between the services supplied by operators of different types (terminal versus midstream) and different locations (Hong Kong versus Singapore). Moreover, the model proposed in this article generates forecasts of demand for Hong Kong's container handling services that are more accurate than those reported by the government authority, and suggests an earlier construction of new terminals to meet future demand. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Coordinated dynamic control of marketing and production

Jian Yang
Abstract We study the dynamic profit maximization problem for a firm exercising control on both marketing and production. The firs marketing effort impacts the current-period demand, which in turn affects future demand in a dissipating fashion. Under linear-cost and zero-leadtime assumptions, we show that the firm should follow base-point rules for both marketing and production, whereas trends of the base points reflect a certain complementarity between marketing and production. We obtain comparable results when marketing costs are convex. Our computational study identifies conditions under which simple fixed-marketing-effort and fixed-marketing-target heuristics would perform well. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Naval Research Logistics 2009 [source]

Net transition probabilities: an approach to subnational level projections of households and housing demand based on census data

Peter McDonald
Abstract The authors set out to make medium-term projections of housing demand for subnational regions of Australia. Projections of the numbers of households by household type and age of a household reference person were required. The only possible source of input data at a subnational level was the quinquennial censuses. An innovative approach was developed specifically for the purpose of these projections. This involved the use of ,net transition probabilities' estimated from net changes in household classification types for individuals between censuses in the past, which are then projected into the future. The results of the projection for the period 1996,2001 were evaluated against 2001 Census results. Net transition probabilities were found to be robust, in that their age and sex specific profiles were very similar from one intercensal period to the next. The evaluation concluded that the model used is both practical and highly effective. Overall, the authors found that the projections have a high degree of reliability and produce very useful information concerning the future demand for housing at a regional level. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Fernando T. Camacho
ABSTRACT,:,This paper examines a two-period model of an investment decision in a network industry characterized by demand uncertainty, economies of scale and sunk costs. In the absence of regulation we identify the market conditions under which a monopolist decides to invest early as well as the underlying overall welfare output. In a regulated environment, we consider a monopolist who faces no downstream (final good) competition but is subject to retail price regulation. We identify the welfare-maximizing regulated prices when the unregulated market outcome is set as the benchmark. We show that if the regulator can commit to ex post regulation , that is, regulated prices that are contingent to future demand realization , then regulated prices that allow the firm to recover its total costs of production are welfare-maximizing. Thus, under ex post price regulation there is no need to compensate the regulated firm for the option to delay that it foregoes when investing today. We argue, however, that regulators cannot make this type of commitment and, therefore, price regulation is often ex ante , that is, regulated prices are not contingent to future demand. We show that the optimal ex ante regulation, and the extent to which regulated prices need to incorporate an option to delay, depend on the nature of demand uncertainty. [source]


Jeannine Millsteed
ABSTRACT The unequal distribution of health workers across Australia in favour of urban areas affects the provision of effective health services to rural and remote communities. Additional pressures on the current and future supply of occupational therapists may arise from a restructuring of the health labour force and demographic changes in the age structure of the population. Projections made on the basis of these data indicate that employment growth for occupational therapists will create a demand for 9600 therapists in 2005, or 79.9% more than the number of occupational therapists employed in 1994. Factors such as reductions in the level of immigration and the number of people of working age, and a diminishing population of school leavers to fill student places in universities will make it difficult to meet the projected demand for occupational therapists. Occupational therapy labour force planning suffers from a lack of detailed data on under-serviced areas. Such data are critical for clarifying the magnitude of the projected discrepancy between future demand and supply needs for occupational therapists in rural and urban areas in Australia. [source]

Market share, cost-based dumping, and anti-dumping policy

Thusnelda Tivig
This paper studies the occurrence of dumping and the implications of anti-dumping duties in a deterministic price-setting two-period duopoly model for differentiated products. When current market shares matter for future demand, cost-based dumping can be profitable. Dumping thus arises as a form of investment in market shares. This might trigger the application of anti-dumping law. We further show that correctly anticipated duties do not necessarily hinder firms from selling below costs. The mere existence of anti-dumping law, however, significantly changes the structure of the game, leading to higher first-period prices for both firms. JEL Classification: F12, F13 Parts de marché, dumping défini par les coûts, et politiques anti-dumping. Ce mémoire étudie le phénomène de dumping et les implications des droits compensatoires anti-dumping dans un modèle de duopole de produits différenciés dans un cadre de deux périodes où le processus de définition des prix est déterministe. Quand la nature présente des parts de marché a des cons´equences sur la demande future, le dumping défini par les coûts peut être profitable. Dans ce cas, le dumping émerge en tant que forme d'investissement dans le renforcement des parts de marché. Voilà qui peut déclencher l'application de la loi anti-dumping. On montre que des droits compensatoires correctement anticipés n'empêchent pas nécessairement les entreprises de vendre à des prix plus bas que leurs coûts. Cependant, le seul fait de l'existence de la loi anti-dumping modifie substantiellement la structure du jeu et conduit les deux entreprises àétablir des prix plus élevés dans la première période. [source]

Representative marketing-oriented study on implants in the Austrian population.


Abstract: The number of dental implants inserted annually worldwide has been estimated to come close to a million. But the level of information available to patients about realistic, evidence-based treatment options by implants is often enough more than fragmentary, and what is disseminated by the media and the industry does not always reflect evidence-based empirical data. This survey of 1000 adults presented with 18 questions was designed to shed light on several points. These were (1) level of subjective patient information, (2) sources of information and prejudices, (3) future demand for implant treatment and target groups for patient information campaigns, and (4) potential misinformation, information deficits, discrepancies of information and how these come about. Of those questioned, 20% said unprompted that implants were a possibility to replace missing teeth. When prompted, 72% said that they knew about dental implants. Most of those questioned felt poorly informed about the options for replacing missing teeth and many knew less about implants than about other alternatives. The dentist was said to be the desired source of information, but 77% of those questioned reported that their dentists did not practice implant dentistry. More than 79% of those questioned did not know whether their dentist worked with implants. Forty-four percent thought that implants should only be placed by specially trained doctors. Sixty-one percent were of the opinion that dentists who provide implant dentistry were better qualified than their nonimplanting colleagues. Half of those questioned attributed implant failures to allergies and incompatibilities, the other half to poor medical care. Only 29% incriminated poor oral hygiene as a cause of implant failure. Future strategies should be geared to more professional public relations and patient information. Internationally operating qualified implant institutions could contribute much to balance discrepant information. Résumé Le nombre d'implants dentaires insérés annuellement dans le monde se chiffrerait à environ un million. Mais le niveau d'information disponible du patient en ce qui concerne les options de traitement basées sur l'évidence est souvent fragmentaire, et l'information dispensée par les média et l'industrie ne reflète pas toujours ces options. Cette enquête réalisée sur mille adultes ayant reçu un questionnaire de 18 questions a été effectuée afin de mettre en évidence certains points. Ces derniers étaient 1) le niveau de l'information subjective du patient, 2) les sources d'information et préjudices, 3) la demande future pour le traitement implantaire et les groupes cibles pour les campagnes d'information des patients, 4) les mauvaises informations potentielles, les déficits d'information, les désaccords de l'information et les causes de ces derniers. De ces personnes questionnées, 20% ont répondu spontanément que les implants étaient un moyen de remplacer les dents manquantes. Lorsqu'ils étaient interrogés, 72% ont répondu connaître les implants dentaires. La plupart de ces personnes se sentaient cependant peu informées sur les options de remplacement des dents manquantes et beaucoup d'entre-elles possédaient très peu d'information sur les implants par rapport aux autres possibilités existantes. Le dentiste semblait être la source préférentielle d'information mais 77 % des personnes questionnées ont rapporté que leur dentiste ne plaçait pas d'implant. Plus de 79% ne savaient pas si leur dentiste pratiquait l'implantologie. Quarante-quatre pour cent étaient persuadés que les implants ne pouvaient être placés que par des spécialistes. Soixante et un pour cent pensaient que les dentistes pratiquant de la dentisterie implantaire étaient plus qualifiés que les autres collègues. La moitié attribuait les échecs implantaires aux allergies et aux incompatiblités, l'autre moitié aux mauvais soins médicaux. Seul 29% incriminaient la mauvaise hygiène buccale comme une cause d'échec implantaire. Des stratégies futures devraient être orientées vers davantage de relations publiques professionnelles et d'informations du patient. Des institutions d'implants internationales pourraient grandement contribuer à changer cette mauvaise information. Zusammenfassung Eine repräsentative marketing-orientierte Studie über Implantate in der Bevölkerung von Oesterreich. Teil I: Stand der Information, Informationsquellen und Bedürfnis bezüglich Patienteninformation Die Anzahl weltweit gesetzter Implantate pro Jahr wird auf fast eine Million geschätzt. Aber die den Patienten zur Verfügung stehende Information über realistische, auf Evidenz basierende Behandlungsmöglichkeiten mit Implantaten ist mehr als lückenhaft. Was durch die Medien und durch die Industrie verbreitet wird, wiederspiegelt nicht immer auf Evidenz basierende empirische Daten. Diese Untersuchung an 1000 Erwachsenen, welchen 18 Fragen gestellt wurden, wurde entwickelt, um Licht auf verschiedene Punkte zu werfen. Die Punkte betrafen (1) Stand der subjektiven Patienteninformation; (2) Informationsquellen und Vorurteile; (3) zukünftiger Bedarf an Implantatbehandlungen und Zielgruppen für Propaganda zur Patienteninformation; (4) potentielle Fehlinformation, Informationsdefizite, Diskrepanzen in der Information und wie diese zustande kommen. Von den gefragten Individuen sagten ohne Vorinformation 20%, dass Implantate eine Varainte für den Ersatz von fehlenden Zähnen darstellen. Mit Vorinformation sagten 72%, dass sie von dentalen Implantaten Kenntnis haben. Die meisten der Befragten fühlten sich über die Möglichkeiten bezüglich Ersatz fehlender Zähne schlecht informiert und viele wussten weniger über Implantate als über andere Behandlungsvarianten. Es wurde gesagt, der Zahnarzt sei die gewünschte Informationsquelle, aber 77% der Befragten berichteten, dass ihr Zahnarzt keine Behandlungen mit Implantaten anbietet. Mehr als 79% der Befragten wussten nicht, ob ihr Zahnarzt mit Implantaten arbeitet. Vierundvierzig Prozent dachten, dass Implantate nur durch speziell ausgebildete Aerzte gesetzt werden sollten. Einundsechzig Prozent waren der Meinung, dass Zahnärzte, welche Implantatbehandlungen anbieten, besser qualifiziert sind als ihre nicht-implantierenden Kollegen. Die Hälfte der Befragten führten Implantatmisserfolge auf Allergien und Unverträglichkeiten zurück, die andere Hälfte auf schlechte medizinische Nachsorge. Nur 29% bezeichneten eine schlechte Mundhygiene als Ursache für Implantatmisserfolge. Zukünftige Studien sollten Richtung professioneller Publikums- und Patienteninformation gesteuert werden. International tätige qualifizierte Implantatinstitutionen könnten beträchtlich zum Ausgleich von widersprüchlichen Informationen beitragen. Resumen El número de implantes dentales insertados anualmente en todo el mundo se ha estimado cercano al millón. Pero el nivel de información disponible para los pacientes acerca de opciones de tratamiento reales con implantes basados en la evidencia es frecuentemente mas bien fragmentaria y lo que se disemina por los medios y la industria no siempre refleja los datos empíricos basados en la evidencia. Esta encuesta de 1000 adultos que presentaba 18 preguntas fue diseñada para dar luz en determinados puntos. Estos fueron (1) nivel subjetivo de información de los pacientes; (2) fuentes de información y prejuicios; (3) demanda futura para tratamiento de implantes y grupos diana para campañas de información; (4) desinformación potencial, déficit de información, discrepancias de información y como se generan. De aquellos a los que se preguntó, 20% dijeron espontáneamente que los implantes eran una posibilidad para reemplazar dientes ausentes. Cuando se les preguntó, 72% dijeron que sabían acerca de los implantes dentales. La mayoría de los encuestados se sentían pobremente informados acerca de las opciones para reemplazar dientes ausentes y muchos sabían menos acerca de los implantes que sobre otras alternativas. Se dijo que el dentista era la fuente de información mas deseada, pero 77% de los encuestados manifestó que sus dentistas no practicaban implantología. Mas del 79% de los encuestados no sabían si su dentista trabajaba con implantes. El 44% pensaba que los implantes debían ponerse solamente por doctores especialmente entrenados. El 61% eran de la opinión de que los dentistas que realizaban odontología de implantes estaban mejor cualificados que sus colegas que no lo hacían. La mitad de los encuestados atribuían los fracasos de los implantes a alergias e incompatibilidades, la otra mitad a pobres cuidados médicos. Solo el 29% incriminó a la pobre higiene oral como causa de fracaso de los implantes. La futura estrategia debe ser encaminada a unas relaciones públicas más profesionales y a más información del paciente. Las instituciones de implantes cualificadas que operan internacionalmente podrían contribuir a equilibrar la información discrepante. [source]

The role of the senior health care worker in critical care

Paula Ormandy
Summary ,,This article identifies that the introduction of the support worker role in the critical care team facilitates flexibility when organizing and managing patient care ,,Qualified nurses' time can be used more effectively, enhancing the quality of the patient care delivered ,,Aspects of the qualified nurses' workload in critical care can be shared and delegated successfully to unqualified staff ,,It is our view that staffing levels in critical care environments need to be reviewed with more flexible working practices to meet the current and future demands of critical care ,,There is a need for national consensus amongst qualified nurses to clarify and define the role of the support worker and develop a critical care competency framework to standardize training ,,To ensure proficiency, adequate training and appropriate accountability, support workers require regulation by a nationally recognized body [source]