Future Decisions (future + decision)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Framing Justice: Using the Concept of Procedural Justice to Advance Political Communication Research

John C. Besley
Efforts aimed at increasing civic-mindedness must consider both what encourages and what discourages political engagement. Procedural justice argues that individuals care about the fairness of decision-making or deliberative procedures beyond whether the outcome of any future decision goes in their preferred direction. In turn, perceptions of procedural fairness influence participant satisfaction, commitment to the organization, perceived legitimacy of authorities, and willingness to volunteer on an organization's behalf. The concept of procedural justice holds significant promise for addressing questions in political communication research, particularly those examining the impacts of public engagement. Thus, we offer a synthesis of procedural justice research to support a model for studying procedural justice as a type of framing to which individuals are exposed during participation in civic life and, in so doing, try to make more explicit the previously implicit communicative aspects of procedural justice. [source]


Hanming Fang
We empirically implement a dynamic structural model of labor supply and welfare program participation for agents with potentially time-inconsistent preferences. Using panel data on the choices of single women with children from the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLSY) 1979, we provide estimates of the degree of time-inconsistency, and of its influence on the welfare take-up decision. With these estimates, we conduct counterfactual experiments to quantify a measure of the utility loss stemming from the inability to commit to future decisions, and the potential gains from commitment mechanisms such as welfare time limits and work requirements. [source]

Determinants of Performance Measurement: An Investigation into the Decision to Conduct Citizen Surveys

Esteban G. Dalehite
This article develops and tests a comprehensive framework explaining the decision to measure performance, specifically the decision of local governments to conduct citizen surveys. It is structured around a fundamental distinction between subjective performance measures obtained for use in decision making and those that are produced solely for their symbolic value. The author suggests that the field of public administration may be taking a simplified view concerning the promotion and adoption of citizen surveys, overlooking important aspects of the decision-making process of performance-oriented public managers and neglecting the impact of politics and symbols. Political rationality may undercut managerial rationality in the decision to adopt citizen surveys, and symbolic adoption may be the underlying cause of low levels of information use. This study identifies policies to increase adoption of citizen surveys but cautions that simply promoting the adoption of surveys as inherently good may be a naive and wasteful course of action. Practitioners who have already made the decision to measure subjective performance through citizen surveys, or are facing such a decision, can find in this analysis a structure to assess past decisions or guide future decisions. [source]

Quantifizierung der Schäden infolge Hochwassereinwirkung: Fallstudie Eilenburg

BAUTECHNIK, Issue 12 2005
Jochen Schwarz Dr.-Ing.
Die für das Katastrophenmanagement notwendige Abschätzung der Schäden unter Hochwassereinwirkung ist eine entscheidende, aber bislang methodisch-wissenschaftlich noch unzureichend vorbereitete Aufgabenstellung. In Anlehnung an die für die Risikoanalyse Erdbeben entwickelte Vorgehensweise wird überprüft, inwieweit methodische Grundlagen übernommen werden können bzw. modifiziert werden müssen, und welche Kenngrößen aus Datenerhebungen abzuleiten sind. Dabei wird neben der Hochwassereinwirkung in Form der Überflutungshöhe als wesentliche Neuerung der Einfluß der Bauwerksparameter berücksichtigt. Die Bauweisen sind danach in Verletzbarkeitsklassen einzuordnen, denen einwirkungsabhängig charakteristische strukturelle Schäden bzw. Durchfeuchtungsgrade zugewiesen werden können, die letztlich auch die Höhe des Schadens (Kosten) bestimmen. Wie anhand der Fallstudie Eilenburg gezeigt werden kann, können mit dem gewählte Ansatz für ein vorgegebenes Szenarium Gebiete mit besonders verletzbarer Bauwerksstruktur identifiziert und Empfehlungen für künftige Bebauung abgeleitet werden. Ein Schlüsselelement in der Vorgehensweise liegt in der Aufbereitung der erforderlichen bzw. geeigneten Datenebenen, die über Schadensfunktionen zu verknüpfen sind. Der Beitrag gibt eine Übersicht zu den Vorgehensweisen im mesoskaligen und mikroskaligen Betrachtungsmaßstab. Wie am Beispiel der Stadt Eilenburg gezeigt wird, können mit den bereitgestellten ingenieurmäßigen Hilfsmitteln und Datenebenen die aufgetretenen Schäden durch das Hochwasser 2002 in ihrer Höhe und Verteilung reinterpretiert werden. Assessment of damage due to flood impact: the case study of Eilenburg. Estimating damage caused by flood impact is an important, yet scientifically and methodically insufficiently investigated task, which is necessary for preparing the management of catastrophes. Alluding to the procedure developed in the risk analysis of earthquakes it is checked, whether methodical fundamentals can be transferred or have to be modified, and which parameters must be derived from data surveys. As an essential improvement, in addition to the inundation level, the influence of the buildings' parameters are considered. Subsequently, the building types are sorted into vulnerability classes, to which characteristic structural damages, depending on the impact, or humidity penetration ratios can be assigned, which ultimately determine the extent of the damage and the resulting cost. As can be shown for the case study of Eilenburg, areas with unusually high vulnerability of the building stock can be identified by applying the chosen approach assuming a defined scenario, leading to recommendations for future decisions on building in the area. A key element of the procedure lies in the preparation of the required or, respectively, usable data, which must be linked by damage functions. The paper gives an overview of the approaches for observations on mesoscale and microscale. As can be shown on the example of the town Eilenburg, with the provided tools and data, the damages caused by the flood in August 2002 can be reinterpreted regarding their height and distribution. [source]