Future Considerations (future + consideration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Are there interactive effects of mate availability and predation risk on life history and defence in a simultaneous hermaphrodite?

Abstract Encountering mates and avoiding predators are ubiquitous challenges faced by many organisms and they can affect the expression of many traits including growth, timing of maturity and resource allocation to reproduction. However, these two factors are commonly considered in isolation rather than simultaneously. We examined whether predation risk and mate availability interact to affect morphology and life-history traits (including lifetime fecundity) of a hermaphroditic snail (Physa acuta). We found that mate availability reduced juvenile growth rate and final size. Predator cues from crayfish induced delayed reproduction, but there were no reduced fecundity costs associated with predator induction. Although there were interactive effects on longevity, lifetime fecundity was determined by the number of reproductive days. Therefore, our results indicate a resource-allocation trade-off among growth, longevity and reproduction. Future consideration of this interaction will be important for understanding how resource-allocation plasticity affects the integration of defensive, life-history and mating-system traits. [source]

Factors Influencing Levels of Credit-Card Debt in College Students,

Jill M. Norvilitis
The current study examined the relationship between money attitudes, impulsivity, locus of control, life satisfaction, and stress and credit-card debt in 227 college students. Students reported an average credit-card debt of $ 1,518, with over 75% of students holding at least one credit card. Students with credit cards from on-campus solicitation had higher debt-to-income ratios than did those with credit cards from other sources. Personality variables were generally unrelated to level of debt, although they were related to attitudes toward money. Many students requested information about credit and debt, suggesting that knowledge of financial issues may be an important variable for future consideration. [source]

Contextualizing instruction: Leveraging students' prior knowledge and experiences to foster understanding of middle school science

Ann E. Rivet
Abstract Contextualizing science instruction involves utilizing students' prior knowledge and everyday experiences as a catalyst for understanding challenging science concepts. This study of two middle school science classrooms examined how students utilized the contextualizing aspects of project-based instruction and its relationship to their science learning. Observations of focus students' participation during instruction were described in terms of a contextualizing score for their use of the project features to support their learning. Pre/posttests were administered and students' final artifacts were collected and evaluated. The results of these assessments were compared with students' contextualizing scores, demonstrating a strong positive correlation between them. These findings provide evidence to support claims of contextualizing instruction as a means to facilitate student learning, and point toward future consideration of this instructional method in broader research studies and the design of science learning environments. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 45: 79,100, 2008 [source]

State of Research in High-consequence Hospital Surge Capacity

Carl H. Schultz MD
High-consequence surge research involves a systems approach that includes elements such as healthcare facilities, out-of-hospital systems, mortuary services, public health, and sheltering. This article focuses on one aspect of this research, hospital surge capacity, and discusses a definition for such capacity, its components, and future considerations. While conceptual definitions of surge capacity exist, evidence-based practical guidelines for hospitals require enhancement. The Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA) definition and benchmarks are extrapolated from those of other countries and rely mainly on trauma data. The most significant part of the HRSA target, the need to care for 500 victims stricken with an infectious disease per one million population in 24 hours, was not developed using a biological model. If HRSA's recommendation is applied to a sample metropolitan area such as Orange County, California, this translates to a goal of expanding hospital capacity by 20%,25% in the first 24 hours. Literature supporting this target is largely consensus based or anecdotal. There are no current objective measures defining hospital surge capacity. The literature identifying the components of surge capacity is fairly consistent and lists them as personnel, supplies and equipment, facilities, and a management system. Studies identifying strategies for hospitals to enhance these components and estimates of how long it will take are lacking. One system for augmenting hospital staff, the Emergency System for Advance Registration of Volunteer Health Professionals, is a consensus-derived plan that has never been tested. Future challenges include developing strategies to handle the two different types of high-consequence surge events: 1) a focal, time-limited event (such as an earthquake) where outside resources exist and can be mobilized to assist those in need and 2) a widespread, prolonged event (such as pandemic influenza) where all resources will be in use and rationing or triage is needed. [source]

Self-reported functional ability predicts three-year mobility and mortality in community-dwelling older persons

Ryuichi Kawamoto
Background:, A comprehensive evaluation of the functions of community-dwelling older persons was conducted in 1988. Three years after the 1988 study commenced, the relationship between these background factors and changes during the subsequent 3 years were examined. Methods: ,The study was a comprehensive evaluation of the daily functions of community-dwelling elderly people, and encompassed age, gender, mode of living, marital status, financial status, family relationships, basic activities of daily living, visual and hearing impairment, a history of disease, self-related feeling, social role, social support, habits and physical exercise and the relationship between independence and survival for 3 years after the basic study. The subjects were 2274 community-dwelling elderly people who participated in the first survey in July 1998 and who were aged 65 years and over at that time. Unassisted questionnaire sheets were used for the first survey and changes since the first survey. Results:, Thirty men and 60 women died during the 3 year period. Data were also gathered about the daily activity levels of 1709 persons (75.2%) with 1499 (87.7%) ranking J for independence and 210 persons (12.3%) ranking A to C for dependence. Age, gender, basic activities of daily living (BADL), history of falls, self-related happiness, participation in community events and physical-exercise habits were found to be explanatory variables for independence after three years; as were age, gender, and BADL for survival. Conclusion: , The explanatory variables relating to independence and prognosis of life of the elderly obtained in this study will be important in future considerations of the issue of care-taking and measures to enable it. [source]

Guest Editorial: SARS , future considerations for nurses

Amal Hussein MPH
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Distribution of in situ forces in the anterior cruciate ligament in response to rotatory loads

Mary T. Gabriel
Abstract The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can be anatomically divided into anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles. Current ACL reconstruction techniques focus primarily on reproducing the AM bundle, but are insufficient in response to rotatory loads. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of in situ force between the two bundles when the knee is subjected to anterior tibial and rotatory loads. Ten cadaveric knees (50 ± 10 years) were tested using a robotic/universal forcemoment sensor (UFS) testing system. Two external loading conditions were applied: a 134 N anterior tibial load at full knee extension and 15°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion and a combined rotatory load of 10 N m valgus and 5 N m internal tibial torque at 15° and 30° of flexion. The resulting 6 degrees of freedom kinematics of the knee and the in situ forces in the ACL and its two bundles were determined. Under an anterior tibial load, the in situ force in the PL bundle was the highest at full extension (67 ± 30 N) and decreased with increasing flexion. The in situ force in the AM bundle was lower than in the PL bundle at full extension, but increased with increasing flexion, reaching a maximum (90 ± 17 N) at 60° of flexion and then decreasing at 90°. Under a combined rotatory load, the in situ force of the PL bundle was higher at 15° (21 ± 11 N) and lower at 30° of flexion (14 ± 6 N). The in situ force in the AM bundle was similar at 15° and 30° of knee flexion (30 ± 15 vs. 35 ± 16 N, respectively). Comparing these two external loading conditions demonstrated the importance of the PL bundle, especially when the knee is near full extension. These findings provide a better understanding of the function of the two bundles of the ACL and could serve as a basis for future considerations of surgical reconstruction in the replacement of the ACL. © 2003 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

Deprotonation and radicalization of glycine neutral structures

Gang Yang
Abstract Ab initio calculations at MP2/6-311++G(d,p) theoretical level were performed to study the deprotonation and radicalization processes of 13 glycine neutral structures (A. G. Császár, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1992; 114: 9568). The deprotonation processes to glycine neutral structures take place at the carboxylic sites instead of , -C or amido sites. Two carboxylic deprotonated structures were obtained with the deprotonation energies calculated within the range of 1413.27,1460.03,kJ,·,mol,1, which are consistent with the experimental results. However, the radicalization processes will take place at the , -C rather than carboxylic O or amido sites, agreeing with the experimental results. Seven , -C radicals were obtained with the radical stabilization energies calculated within the range of 44.87,111.78,kJ,·,mol,1. The population analyses revealed that the main conformations of the neutral or radical state are constituted by several stable structures, that is, the other structures can be excluded from the future considerations and thus save computational resources. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Stem cell-based cell therapy for Huntington disease: A review

Manho Kim
Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and no proven medical therapy is currently available to mitigate its clinical manifestations. Although fetal neural transplantation has been tried in both preclinical and clinical investigations, the efficacy is not satisfactory. With the recent explosive progress of stem cell biology, application of stem cell-based therapy in HD is an exciting prospect. Three kinds of stem cells, embryonic stem cells, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells, have previously been utilized in cell therapy in animal models of neurological disorders. However, neural stem cells were preferably used by investigators in experimental HD studies, since they have a clear capacity to become neurons or glial cells after intracerebral or intravenous transplantation, and they induce functional recovery. In this review, we summarize the current state of cell therapy utilizing stem cells in experimental HD animal models, and discuss the future considerations for developing new therapeutic strategies using neural stem cells. [source]