Future Conservation Efforts (future + conservation_effort)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Expanding the Global Network of Protected Areas to Save the Imperiled Mediterranean Biome

análisis de disparidad; áreas protegidas; biodiversidad; ecosistemas Mediterráneos; pérdida de hábitat Abstract:,Global goals established by the Convention on Biological Diversity stipulate that 10% of the world's ecological regions must be effectively conserved by 2010. To meet that goal for the mediterranean biome, at least 5% more land must be formally protected over the next few years. Although global assessments identify the mediterranean biome as a priority, without biologically meaningful analysis units, finer-resolution data, and corresponding prioritization analysis, future conservation investments could lead to more area being protected without increasing the representation of unique mediterranean ecosystems. We used standardized analysis units and six potential natural vegetation types stratified by 3 elevation zones in a global gap analysis that systematically explored conservation priorities across the mediterranean biome. The highest levels of protection were in Australia, South Africa, and California-Baja California (from 9,11%), and the lowest levels of protection were in Chile and the mediterranean Basin (<1%). Protection was skewed to montane elevations in three out of five regions. Across the biome only one of the six vegetation types,mediterranean shrubland,exceeded 10% protection. The remaining vegetation types,grassland, scrub, succulent dominated, woodland, and forest,each had <3% protection. To guard against biases in future protection efforts and ensure the protection of species characteristic of the mediterranean biome, we identified biodiversity assemblages with <10% protection and subject to >30% conversion and suggest that these assemblages be elevated to high-priority status in future conservation efforts. Resumen:,Las metas globales establecidas por la Convención sobre Diversidad Biológica estipulan que 10% de las regiones ecológicas del mundo deberán estar conservadas efectivamente en 2010. Para alcanzar esa meta en el bioma mediterráneo, por lo menos 5% más de superficie debe estar protegida formalmente en los próximos años. Aunque las evaluaciones globales identifican al bioma mediterráneo como una prioridad, sin unidades de análisis biológicamente significativas, datos de resolución más fina y los correspondientes análisis de priorización, las inversiones futuras en conservación pudieran conducir a la protección de más superficie sin incrementar la representación de los ecosistemas mediterráneos únicos. Utilizamos unidades de análisis estandarizadas y seis tipos potenciales de vegetación natural estratificados en tres zonas de elevación en un análisis global de disparidad que exploró sistemáticamente las prioridades de conservación en el bioma mediterráneo. Los niveles de protección más altos se localizaron en Australia, África del Sur y California-Baja California (de 9,11%) y los niveles de protección más bajos se localizaron en Chile y la Cuenca del mediterráneo (<1%). La protección estaba sesgada hacia elevaciones altas en tres de las cinco regiones. En todo el bioma, solo uno de los seis tipos de vegetación,matorral mediterráneo,excedió 10% de protección. Los tipos de vegetación restantes,pastizal, matorral, dominio de suculentas, y bosques,tenían <3% de protección cada uno. Para evitar sesgos en futuros esfuerzos de protección y asegurar la protección de especies características del bioma mediterráneo, identificamos ensambles de biodiversidad con <10% de protección y sujetos a >30% de conversión y sugerimos que estos ensambles sean elevados a un estatus de alta prioridad en esfuerzos de conservación en el futuro. [source]

Threats and biodiversity in the mediterranean biome

Emma C. Underwood
ABSTRACT Aim, Global conservation assessments recognize the mediterranean biome as a priority for the conservation of the world's biodiversity. To better direct future conservation efforts in the biome, an improved understanding of the location, magnitude and trend of key threats and their relationship with species of conservation importance is needed. Location, Mediterranean-climate regions in California-Baja California, Chile, South Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean Basin. Methods, We undertook a systematic, pan-regional assessment of threats in the mediterranean biome including human population density, urban area and agriculture. To realize the full implications of these threats on mediterranean biodiversity, we examined their relationship with species of conservation concern: threatened mammals at the global scale and threatened plants at the subecoregional scale in California, USA. Results, Across the biome, population density and urban area increased by 13% and agriculture by 1% between 1990 and 2000. Both population density and urban area were greatest in California-Baja California and least in Australia while, in contrast, agriculture was greatest in Australia and least in California-Baja California. In all regions lowlands were most affected by the threats analysed, with the exception of population density in the Chilean matorral. Threatened species richness had a significant positive correlation with population density at global and subecoregional scales, while threatened species were found to increase with the amount of urban area and decrease as the amount of natural area and unfragmented core area increased. Main conclusions, Threats to mediterranean biodiversity have increased from 1990 to 2000, although patterns vary both across and within the five regions. The need for future conservation efforts is further underlined by the positive correlation between species of conservation concern and the increase in population density over the last decade. Challenges to reducing threats extend beyond those analysed to include human,environmental interactions and their synergistic effects, such as urbanization and invasive species and wildfires. [source]


Joseph P. Herring
ABSTRACT: An observational study was conducted at the watershed scale using land cover (vegetation) data to assess the absence or presence of riparian buffers in three northeastern Missouri watersheds. Forests and grasslands lying within a 61 m (200 ft) parallel band directly adjacent to streams were considered "buffers" for improving or protecting water quality and were characterized according to their length, width, and vegetation type. Results indicated that riparian buffers were abundant throughout the watersheds but were typically narrow along first-order and second-order streams; in many cases they may not have been wide enough to provide adequate stream protection. At least 90 percent of all streams had buffer vegetation immediately adjacent to the streambanks, but as few as 31 percent of first-order streams had buffers extending to 61 m from the stream on at least one side. On-site evaluations are needed to determine the condition of these forests and grasslands and their ability to process nonpoint source pollutants. The results will be useful for providing natural resource managers with knowledge of current watershed conditions as well as in identifying specific locations for future conservation efforts within each watershed. [source]

Distribution and species richness of woody dryland legumes in Baja California, Mexico

Pedro P. Garcillán
Wiggins (1980); Hickman (1993); Skinner & Pavlik (1994); International Legume Database & Information Service, http://www.ildis.org/legumes.html Abstract. We analysed the biogeographic patterns of woody legumes in the Baja California peninsula, NW Mexico. From the specimen labels of eight herbaria, we digitized 4205 records from 78 species, and projected them onto a grid of 205 cartographic cells (20' longitude × 15' latitude). Most species followed distribution patterns that coincide with floristic subdivisions of the peninsula. Endemism is high, reaching 60,70% in the centre of the peninsula, where the driest deserts are found and where significant floristic changes took place during Pleistocene glacial events. The number of cartographic cells (i.e. their geographic ranges) were log-normally distributed, as has been reported for many other taxa. Floristic richness was found to be clumped around some cells where the observed richness is significantly higher than could be expected from chance variation. We tested the hypothesis that these ,hotspots' could be attributable to great collection efforts or to large land surfaces, but we still found 16 cells where richness is significantly high once these two factors are accounted for. Species richness and micro-endemism increase towards the south, conforming to Rapoport's rule that predicts that species ranges become smaller towards the equator while richness increases. The floristic hotspots for woody legumes in Baja California occur in the Cape Region and along the Sierra de la Giganta in the southern Gulf Coast, where 77% of the total peninsular legume flora can be found. These hotspots are mostly unprotected, and should be considered priority areas for future conservation efforts. [source]

Population genetics of a marine bivalve, Pinctada maxima, throughout the Indo-Australian Archipelago shows differentiation and decreased diversity at range limits

Abstract Intraspecific genetic diversity governs the potential of species to prevail in the face of environmental or ecological challenges; therefore, its protection is critical. The Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) is a significant reservoir of the world's marine biodiversity and a region of high conservation priority. Yet, despite indications that the IAA may harbour greater intraspecific variation, multiple-locus genetic diversity data are limited. We investigated microsatellite DNA variation in Pinctada maxima populations from the IAA to elucidate potential factors influencing levels of genetic diversity in the region. Results indicate that genetic diversity decreases as the geographical distance away from central Indonesia increases, and that populations located towards the centre of P. maxima's range are more genetically diverse than those located peripherally (P < 0.01). Significant partitioning of genetic variation was identified (FST = 0.027; RST = 0.023, P < 0.001) and indicates that historical biogeographical episodes or oceanographic factors have shaped present population genetic structure. We propose that the genetic diversity peak in P. maxima populations may be due to (i) an abundance of suitable habitat within the IAA, meaning larger, more temporally stable populations can be maintained and are less likely to encounter genetic bottlenecks; and/or (ii) the close proximity of biogeographical barriers around central Indonesia results in increased genetic diversity in the region because of admixture of genetically divergent populations. We encourage further genetic diversity studies of IAA marine biota to confirm whether this region has a significant role in maintaining intraspecific diversity, which will greatly assist the planning and efficacy of future conservation efforts. [source]

Isolation and characterization of 102 new microsatellite loci in Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii peelii (Percichthyidae), and assessment of cross-amplification in 13 Australian native and six introduced freshwater species

Abstract We have isolated 102 polymorphic microsatellite loci from an enriched Murray cod DNA library and also assessed their amplification success in 13 native and six introduced freshwater fish species. The loci will serve the dual purpose of assessing wild population genetic structure for future conservation efforts, and for identifying markers for key quantitative trait loci important for aquaculture. [source]