Future Clinical Application (future + clinical_application)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells for vascular diseases

Zongjin Li
Abstract Using endothelial cells for therapeutic angiogenesis/vasculogenesis of ischemia diseases has led to exploring human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a potentially unlimited source for endothelial progenitor cells. With their capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency, hESCs and their derived endothelial cells (hESC-ECs) may be more advantageous than other endothelial cells obtained from diseased populations. However, hESC-ECs' poor differentiation efficiency and poorly characterized in vivo function after transplantation present significant challenges for their future clinical application. This review will focus on the differentiation pathways of hESCs and their therapeutic potential for vascular diseases, as well as the monitoring of transplanted cells' fate via molecular imaging. Finally, cell enhancement strategies to improve the engraftment efficiency of hESC-ECs will be discussed. J. Cell. Biochem. 106: 194,199, 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Human embryonic stem cells and liver diseases: From basic research to future clinical application

Zheng WANG
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) provide access to the earliest stages of human development and because of their high proliferation capability, pluripotency and low immunogenicity may serve as a potential source of specialized cells for regenerative medicine. hESC-derived hepatocyte-like cells exhibit characteristic hepatocyte morphology, express hepatocyte markers and are capable of executing a range of hepatocyte functions. However, there are many challenges and obstacles to be overcome before the use of hESC and hESC-derived hepatocyte-like cells in clinical practice can be realized. Here, we highlight some of the recent efforts in this area, in hope of providing insights toward this complex yet important area of therapeutical modality for treating patients with liver disease. [source]

Magnetosonoporation: Instant magnetic labeling of stem cells

Bensheng Qiu
Abstract The purpose of this study was to develop an instant MR cell labeling technique, called magnetosonoporation. First, a magnetosonoporation apparatus was successfully established for MR labeling of stem cells. Then, the safety of this new cell labeling approach was confirmed by evaluation of cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation of magnetosonoporation-labeled and unlabeled C17.2 neural stem cells. Subsequently, the feasibility of using in vivo MRI to detect magnetosonoporation/Feridex-labeled stem cells was validated in living animals and confirmed by histologic correlation. The magnetosonoporation technique is expected to be convenient, efficient, and safe for future clinical application of MRI-guided cell therapies. Magn Reson Med 63:1437,1441, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Hepatic proliferation in Gunn rats transplanted with hepatocytes: effect of retrorsine and tri-iodothyronine

F. J. Cubero
However, a major problem in most transplantation studies to date has been the limited growth of transplanted cells in the recipient organ. We performed a strategy for selective proliferation of transplanted cells by interfering with the proliferative capacity of resident hepatocytes, using the pyrrolizidine alkaloid retrorsine and then transplanting liver cells in conjunction with repeated administration of triiodothyronine, an inducer of hepatocyte proliferation in rats. In the present study, foetal and adult syngeneic hepatocyte transplantation into spleen was performed in retrorsine-treated hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats. In parallel, repeated injections of triiodothyronine were given to recipients. Rats were sacrificed at 1, 7, 30 and 90 days after transplantation and blood and bile samples were taken to assess the functionality of transplanted cells. The proliferative activity of transplanted hepatocytes was evaluated using proliferating cell nuclear antigen labelling index. In summary, both adult and foetal hepatocyte transplantation were effective in correcting a metabolic abnormality in Gunn rats for as long as 3 months. The RS/T3 model, as a measure to increase graft function, could represent an important advance to future clinical application of hepatocyte transplantation. [source]

Retroviral vector silencing during iPS cell induction: An epigenetic beacon that signals distinct pluripotent states

Akitsu Hotta
Abstract Retroviral vectors are transcriptionally silent in pluripotent stem cells. This feature has been potently applied in studies that reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. By delivering the four Yamanaka factors in retroviral vectors, high expression is obtained in fibroblasts to induce the pluripotent state. Partial reprogramming generates Class I iPS cells that express the viral transgenes and endogenous pluripotency genes. Full-reprogramming in Class II iPS cells silences the vectors as the endogenous genes maintain the pluripotent state. Thus, retroviral vector silencing serves as a beacon marking the fully reprogrammed pluripotent state. Here we review known silencer elements, and the histone modifying and DNA methylation pathways, that silence retroviral and lentiviral vectors in pluripotent stem cells. Both retroviral and lentiviral vectors are influenced by position effects and often exhibit variegated expression. The best vector designs facilitate full-reprogramming and subsequent retroviral silencing, which is required for directed-differentiation. Current retroviral reprogramming methods can be immediately applied to create patient-specific iPS cell models of human disease, however, future clinical applications will require novel chemical or other reprogramming methods that reduce or eliminate the integrated vector copy number load. Nevertheless, retroviral vectors will continue to play an important role in genetically correcting patient iPS cell models. We anticipate that novel pluripotent-specific reporter vectors will select for isolation of high quality human iPS cell lines, and select against undifferentiated pluripotent cells during regenerative medicine to prevent teratoma formation after transplantation. J. Cell. Biochem. 105: 940,948, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cell-based Therapy to Regenerate Myocardium: from Bench to Bedside

Shinji Tomita
Abstract:, The field of cell-based therapy to regenerate myocardium has been expanding rapidly, with significant advances being made in both the laboratory and the clinical area. In this article we review this field, including our experiences and discuss remaining issues and possibilities for future clinical applications. [source]