Future Cases (future + case)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Hypercalcemia and Overexpression of CYP27B1 in a Patient With Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis: Clinical Vignette and Literature Review,,

Vivian Y Pao
Abstract Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a disease of thickened, hard, hyperpigmented skin lesions with or without systemic fibrosis occurring in patients with renal insufficiency and associated with the administration of gadolinium-containing contrast. The pathogenesis of this disease is unclear, and there is no definitive treatment. We describe a 71-yr-old patient with stable chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and NSF who presented with hypercalcemia in 2006. Before onset of renal insufficiency in 2002, serum calcium, phosphorus, and PTH levels were normal. In 2004, the patient began hemodialysis, and he was diagnosed with NSF in 2005, shortly after undergoing an MRI with gadolinium contrast administration. Over the next 6 mo, albumin-corrected serum total calcium levels rose from 9.9 to 13.1 mg/dl (normal range, 8.5,10.5 mg/dl) with normal serum phosphorus levels. On admission in September 2006, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels were elevated at 130.7 pg/ml (normal range, 25.1,66.1 pg/ml). Biopsy of an NSF lesion showed increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D3,1-, hydroxylase (CYP27B1) immunostaining compared with the biopsy from a normal control. This is the first reported association of NSF with hypercalcemia caused by elevated 1,25(OH)2D levels. This metabolic disturbance should be sought in future cases to determine a connection between NSF, 1,25(OH)2D metabolism, and CYP27B1 activation in the skin, which may shed light on the pathogenesis of this unusual local and systemic fibrosing disorder. [source]

Variant Creutzfeldt,Jakob disease and its transmission by blood

J. W. Ironside
Summary., Variant Creutzfeldt,Jakob disease (vCJD) is a novel acquired human prion disease resulting from human exposure to the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). vCJD differs from all other human prion diseases in that the disease-associated form of the prion protein and infectivity are present in lymphoid tissues throughout the body. Lymphoid tissues and lymphocytes are implicated in the peripheral pathogenesis of prion diseases (where infectivity may be detected during the preclinical phase of the illness), giving rise to concerns that blood and blood products may also contain infectivity, thus representing a possible source of iatrogenic spread of vCJD. These concerns have been reinforced by the recent transmission of BSE in an experimental sheep model by blood transfusion from an infected animal in the preclinical phase of the illness. Studies in other animal models suggest that most infectivity in blood may be cell-associated, with lower levels in the plasma, and there is evidence to indicate that any infectivity present may be reduced during the process of plasma fractionation. At present, the attempts to detect disease-associated prion protein and infectivity in buffy coat from vCJD patients have been negative, but these studies have been limited in size and in the sensitivity of the detection systems employed. Further studies are required to develop more sensitive means of detection of disease-associated prion protein in blood; such techniques could also be employed for screening purposes, both individually and to help ascertain more precisely the likely numbers of future cases of vCJD. [source]

Sanctity of life , are some lives more sacred than others?

LEGAL STUDIES, Issue 3 2002
Sabine Michalowski
Court decisions concerning the life and death of patients become more and more frequent in the context of medical practice. One of the most controversial decisions in this area in recent years has been the decision of the Court of Appeal in Re A (Conjoined Twins: Medical Treatment),, authorising the separation of conjoined twins. This paper will argue that the decision was flawed both on legal and moral grounds and that its potential implications for future cases are more far-reaching than the judgment itself suggests. [source]

The role of collegial interaction in continuing professional development

Anna R. Gagliardi MLS
Abstract Introduction: Many physicians seek information from colleagues over other sources, highlighting the important role of interaction in continuing professional development (CPD). To guide the development of CPD opportunities, this study explored the nature of cancer-related questions faced by general surgeons, and how interaction with colleagues addressed those questions. Methods: This study involved thematic analysis of field notes collected through observation and transcripts of telephone interviews with 20 surgeons, two pathologists, one medical oncologist, and one radiation oncologist affiliated with six community hospitals participating in multidisciplinary cancer conferences by videoconference in one region of Ontario, Canada. Results: Six multidisciplinary cancer conferences (MCCs) were observed between April and September 2006, and 11 interviews were conducted between December 2006 and January 2007. Sharing of clinical experience made possible collective decision making for complex cancer cases. Physicians thought that collegial interaction improved awareness of current evidence, patient satisfaction with treatment plans, appropriate care delivery, and continuity. By comparing proposed treatment with that of the group and gaining exposure to decision making for more cases than they would see in their own practices, physicians developed clinical expertise that could be applied to future cases. Little collegial interaction occurred outside these organized sessions. Discussion: These findings highlight the role of formally coordinated collegial interaction as an important means of CPD for general surgeons. Investment may be required for infrastructure to support such efforts and for release of health professional time for participation. Further research is required to examine direct and indirect outcomes of collegial interaction. [source]