Future Cardiovascular Events (future + cardiovascular_event)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease in 5641 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography

H. F. Alber
ABSTRACT Background, Although high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are well-established predictors for future cardiovascular events, little information is available regarding their correlation with the prevalence and severity of angiographically evaluated coronary artery disease (CAD). Material and methods,, Five thousand six hundred forty-one consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of CAD were analysed. Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed by routine blood chemistry and questionnaire. CAD severity was graded by visual estimation of lumen diameter stenosis with significant stenoses defined as lumen diameter reduction of , 70%. Coronary angiograms were graded as one-, two- or three-vessel disease, as nonsignificant CAD (lumen irregularities < 70%) or non-CAD. Results,, HDL-C (603 185 vs. 519 153 mg dL,1; P < 0001) was higher and CRP was lower (065 168 vs. 102 238 mg dL,1; P < 0001) in non-CAD (n = 1517) compared to overall CAD patients (n = 4124). CAD patients were older (652 105 years vs. 599 114 years), more often diabetics (192% vs. 106%) and hypertensives (792% vs. 660%) and included more smokers (188% vs. 165%) (all P < 0005). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1245 383 vs. 1260 363 mg dL,1; P = NS) was similar in overall CAD and non-CAD patients with more statin users (434% vs. 279%; P < 0001) among CAD patients. Comparing non-CAD with different CAD severities using analysis of variance, results did not change substantially. In a multivariate analysis, HDL-C and CRP remained independently associated with the prevalence of CAD. In addition, HDL-C is also a potent predictor for the severity of CAD. Conclusions,, In this large consecutive patient cohort, HDL-C and CRP are independently associated with the prevalence of CAD. In this analysis, HDL-C is an even stronger predictor for CAD than some other major classical risk factors. [source]

Markers of eosinophilic inflammation and risk prediction in patients with coronary artery disease

C. Falcone
Abstract Background, The eotaxin family comprises three distinct peptides (eotaxin, eotaxin-2 and eotaxin-3) which have been implicated in eosinophilic inflammation. In vitro and clinical studies suggest that eotaxins could play a role in vascular inflammation, but no data are available on their prognostic significance in patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods, Baseline plasma samples were obtained from 1014 patients with documented CAD. We tested the predictive effect of markers of eosinophilic inflammation and C-reactive protein (CRP) on death from cardiovascular causes and nonfatal myocardial infarction over a 27,41-year follow-up period. Results, Unexpectedly, lower eotaxin-3 concentrations were observed in patients with adverse cardiovascular events, whereas both eotaxin and eotaxin-2 showed no association with risk. After adjustment for most potential confounders, patients in the upper-quartile of eotaxin-3 levels had a 042 hazard-ratio (95% CI, 029,061, P < 0001) for adverse events compared with subjects in the lower-quartile. The highest risk of future cardiovascular events was observed in subjects with combined elevation of CRP and reduction of eotaxin-3; 44 hazard-ratio (95% CI, 21,95, P < 0001). Importantly, receiver-operating-characteristic curves analysis suggested a superior prognostic value of eotaxin-3 compared with CRP for predicting cardiac events in patients with CAD. Conclusions, Low levels of eotaxin-3 are an independent predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events in patients with CAD and may be useful for risk stratification. [source]

Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-3 level is an independent prognostic factor in stable coronary artery disease

T. C. Wu
Abstract Background, Recent evidence suggests the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the progression of atherosclerosis and development of clinical events. We assessed the prognostic value of different plasma MMPs in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods, A total of 165 consecutive nondiabetic patients with angiographically significant CAD (n = 150) or normal coronary angiograms despite exercise-induced myocardial ischemia (cardiac syndrome X, n = 15) and 17 normal subjects were evaluated. In each subject, plasma inflammatory markers including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and MMP-2, 3 and 9 were measured. In CAD patients, major cardiovascular events including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unscheduled coronary revascularization and hospitalization as a result of unstable angina were prospectively followed up for more than 6 months. Results, Plasma levels of MMPs were significantly higher in CAD patients than in those with cardiac syndrome X and in normal subjects (MMP-2: 91476 1320 vs. 83079 3195 vs. 78308 2840 ng mL,1, P = 0002; MMP-3: 12959 421 vs. 11686 809 vs. 9171 955 ng mL,1, P = 0011; MMP-9: 3142 284 vs. 1140 549 vs. 671 289 ng mL,1, P = 0006). In CAD patients, there were 48 major cardiovascular events during a mean follow-up period of 1774 085 months. The numbers of diseased vessels (HR = 219, 95% CI 120,102, P = 0011), plasma hsCRP (HR = 221, 95% CI 118,411, P = 0013) and MMP-3 level (HR = 246, 95% CI = 115,528, P = 0021) were associated with the development of cardiovascular events. However, only the plasma MMP-3 level was an independent predictor of the adverse events in CAD patients (HR = 247, 95% CI 110,554, P = 0028). Conclusions, Plasma MMP levels were increased in CAD patients. Plasma MMP-3 level, rather than hsCRP, was an independent prognostic marker for future cardiovascular events, suggesting its potential role in risk stratification and clinical management of stable CAD. [source]

The value of a specialist lipid clinic

S. C. Martin
Summary Aims:, To establish the value of the first 3 years of a cardiovascular risk factor clinic in tackling the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods:, A database review of all 339 patients referred to the clinic. Results:, Blood pressure levels in the hypertensive patients were significantly reduced and 9% of the smokers managed to quit for 12 months, half of them subsequently relapsing. Ninety-eight oral glucose tolerance tests were performed and 40% were abnormal yielding 10 patients with hitherto unsuspected diabetes and 29 with impaired glucose tolerance. Sixty-four of the 97 referrals of patients in the primary prevention group (no evidence of CVD) were found to have calculated Framingham coronary heart disease risk estimates of < 15% per decade, the lowest being 0.3%. Lipid levels were significantly reduced in both the hypercholesterolaemic (n = 290) and hypertriglyceridaemic (n = 49) patient groups through the use of more potent statins, extensive use of combination therapy and appropriate use of fibrates and omega-3 fish oil supplements. The annual drug cost per patient treated only increased from 310.72 to 398.08, yet there was a 3.5-fold increase in the number of patients achieving the General Medical Services 2 target of a total cholesterol < 5 mmol/l and a 4.5-fold increase in patients achieving the Joint British Societies 2 target of a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol < 2 mmol/l. Conclusion:, The need for a specialist clinic was demonstrated by the 66% of primary prevention referrals who did not meet the current NICE treatment threshold. Additionally, the clinic was able to diagnose and treat 39 patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus/impaired glucose tolerance and 12 with hypothyroidism. LDL cholesterol was reduced overall by 36% implying a greater than one-third reduction in future cardiovascular events before the improvements in blood pressure control and smoking cessation are included and this was achieved at marginal extra cost to the mean drug bill at referral. [source]

Hyperglycaemia and cardiovascular disease

M. Bartnik
Abstract. Coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes are chronic diseases of substantial and growing prevalence. Their coincidence is common, markedly enhancing mortality and morbidity. The risk for cardiovascular disease increases along a spectrum of blood glucose concentrations already apparent at levels regarded as normal. Accordingly, strategies for the early detection of glucometabolic disturbances are needed to find ways to prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular complications or to treat them already at an early stage. More specifically, abnormal glucose tolerance is almost twice as common amongst patients with a myocardial infarction as in population-based controls and a normal glucose regulation is indeed less common than abnormal glucose metabolism also amongst patients with stable coronary artery disease. Already an abnormal glucose tolerance is a strong risk factor for future cardiovascular events after an acute myocardial infarction. An oral glucose tolerance test should, therefore, be a part of the evaluation of total risk in all patients with coronary artery disease. As glucose disturbances are common and easy to detect, they may be suitable targets for novel secondary preventive efforts. [source]

Asymmetric dimethylarginine may be a missing link between cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (Review Article)

NEPHROLOGY, Issue 6 2007
SUMMARY: Decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and/or impaired NO bioavailability may occur in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and could contribute to the elevation of blood pressure, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the progression of renal injury in these patients. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for reduced NO action in patients with CKD remains to be elucidated. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a naturally occurring l -arginine analogue found in plasma and various types of tissues, acting as an endogenous NO synthase inhibitor in vivo. Further, plasma level of ADMA is elevated in patients with CKD and found to be a strong biomarker or predictor for future cardiovascular events. In addition, plasma level of ADMA could predict the progression of renal injury in these patients as well. These findings suggest that elevation of ADMA may be a missing link between CVD and CKD. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms for the elevation of ADMA and its pathophysiological role for CVD in high-risk patients, especially focusing on patients with CKD. [source]

Left ventricular hypertrophy in chronic renal failure patients

NEPHROLOGY, Issue 2002
Henry KRUM
SUMMARY: Left ventricular hypertrophy is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which is a major component of premature death among renal failure patients. Early treatment of progressive renal insufficiency has the opportunity to attempt prevention of, or reduction in, the development of LVH. Therapies specifically targeted at regression of LVH (e.g. antihypertensive regimens and epoetin-,) may, therefore, impact favourably on future cardiovascular events. Importantly, these approaches appear complementary and should be used in unison to maximize cardiovascular risk reduction in renal failure patients. [source]

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and recurrent cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease

Dr. Moti Haim M.D.
Abstract Background: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) participates in the recruitment of mononuclear cells to the vessel wall. Hypothesis: The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential association between serum concentration of MCP-1 and risk of future cardiovascular events in patients with chronic coronary heart disease. Methods: A nested case control design was used. Baseline serum samples were taken from patients with coronary heart disease who were enrolled in a secondary prevention study. The MCP-1 levels were measured in those patients who had recurrent cardiovascular events during follow-up (n=23 3) and compared with levels in age- and gender-matched controls. Results: There were no differences in serum MCP-1 levels between cases and controls. The relative odds of a recurrent cardiovascular event for each 1 standard deviation difference in MCP-1 serum concentration (160 pg/ml) was 1.19 (95% confidence interval, 0.95,1.45). No increase in the relative odds for recurrent cardiovascular events was observed per increasing tertiles of MCP-1 concentrations. Conclusion: Elevated MCP-1 levels are not associated with long-term risk of cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary disease. [source]