Future Breeding Programmes (future + breeding_programme)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Yield Responses of Barley to Leaf Stripe (Pyrenophora graminea) under Experimental Conditions in Southern Syria

M. I. E. Arabi
Abstract The seed-borne pathogen, Pyrenophora graminea is the causal agent of barley leaf stripe disease. Field trials were undertaken to investigate the impact of leaf stripe on barley yield in two growing seasons in Southern Syria, by comparing plots with and without artificial inoculation. Ten barley cultivars originating from widely dispersed areas were used. The overall response to leaf stripe differed with the differences in susceptibility levels of the cultivars. Grain yield, the number of tillers, kernel weight and plant biomass decreased as disease severity increased. Diseased plants had fewer tillers, and as a consequence a reduced grain yield per plant. High yield losses resulted from leaf stripe in susceptible cultivars in Arrivate, Furat 1, WI2291 and Arabi Abiad with 44%, 50%, 73% and 92%, respectively. The cultivar Banteng had the best level of resistance to the disease, and is a candidate donor for resistance in future breeding programmes. As leaf stripe can dramatically reduce barley yields under favourable conditions, the disease should be considered by crop improvement programmes in Mediterranean and similar environments. [source]

Genetic relationships of sesame germplasm collection as revealed by inter-simple sequence repeats

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 3 2002
D. H. Kim
Abstract Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) polymorphism was used to determine genetic relationships among 75 Sesamum indicum L. accessions of Korean and exotic sesame. Fourteen reliable ISSR primers were selected for the assessment of genetic diversity, yielding 79 amplification products. Of these polymerase chain reaction products, 33% revealed polymorphism among the 75 accessions. Genetic distances ranged from 0 to 0.255, with a mean genetic distance of 0.0687. The 75 accessions were divided into seven groups on the basis of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis. The largest group consisted of 25 Korean cultivars, eight Korean breeding lines and 17 world-wide accessions. The other groups included 25 accessions, several of which contained useful traits. The dendrogram did not indicate any clear division among sesame accessions based on their geographical origin. However, all Korean sesame cultivars except ,Namsankkae' were clustered in the same group, indicating a narrow gene pool. Some of the Korean breeding lines were spread along the dendrogram, showing enlargement of genetic diversity. The genetic diversity data uncovered in this study can be used in future breeding programmes. [source]

Next generation of elevated [CO2] experiments with crops: a critical investment for feeding the future world

ABSTRACT A rising global population and demand for protein-rich diets are increasing pressure to maximize agricultural productivity. Rising atmospheric [CO2] is altering global temperature and precipitation patterns, which challenges agricultural productivity. While rising [CO2] provides a unique opportunity to increase the productivity of C3 crops, average yield stimulation observed to date is well below potential gains. Thus, there is room for improving productivity. However, only a fraction of available germplasm of crops has been tested for CO2 responsiveness. Yield is a complex phenotypic trait determined by the interactions of a genotype with the environment. Selection of promising genotypes and characterization of response mechanisms will only be effective if crop improvement and systems biology approaches are closely linked to production environments, that is, on the farm within major growing regions. Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments can provide the platform upon which to conduct genetic screening and elucidate the inheritance and mechanisms that underlie genotypic differences in productivity under elevated [CO2]. We propose a new generation of large-scale, low-cost per unit area FACE experiments to identify the most CO2 -responsive genotypes and provide starting lines for future breeding programmes. This is necessary if we are to realize the potential for yield gains in the future. [source]

Strategies of plant breeding for improved rumen function

Summary In general, breeding programmes directed at the improvement of forage have concentrated on easily measurable phenotypes such as yield, digestibility, resistance to lodging, etc. Selection programmes have improved forage production but historically have addressed relatively few quality considerations. In addition, selection for quality has been limited by availability of suitable analytical techniques. With the current emphasis on quality rather than quantity and the desire by the public for greater understanding about where their food comes from, quality considerations should be a greater target in future breeding programmes. This review briefly covers previous improvements in quality of grazed and silage forages and considers how new technologies might be employed to realise targets for future improvements. In particular we address the concept that interactions between rumen micro-organisms and ingested plant material in the rumen are not static but are in fact dynamic. This has implications for post-ingestion biology and feed utilisation. [source]