Future Availability (future + availability)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Twelve immunotherapy drugs that could cure cancers

Mac' Cheever, Martin A.
Summary: Immune T cells can kill cancer cells. Cancer vaccines function by increasing the number of immune T cells. There are exceedingly strict biologic limits imposed on the immune system to prevent excessive T-cell activation and expansion. The same biological restrictions limit cancer vaccines. Immunotherapeutic agents that circumvent the biological restrictions have been invented and formulated, including (i) dendritic cell activators and growth factors, (ii) vaccine adjuvants, (iii) T-cell stimulators and growth factors, (iv) immune checkpoint inhibitors, and (v) agents to neutralize or inhibit suppressive cells, cytokines, and enzymes. Few of these agents are broadly available for the development of effective multiple component regimens. The major problem facing immunotherapy today is a lack of broad availability of agents already in existence. The National Cancer Institute has developed a well-vetted ranked list of agents with high potential to serve as immunotherapeutic drugs. This review focuses on 12 of the agents, all with proven ability to augment T-cell responses. Alone, each has little chance of making substantial inroads into cancer therapy. In combinations dictated by biology, the agents are overwhelmingly likely to have an impact. Future availability of these agents for development of innovative combination cancer therapy regimens will provide a benchmark for the resolve of the national cancer therapy translational research enterprise. [source]

A two-stage stochastic integer programming model for a thermal power system expansion

VÝctor M. Albornoz
Abstract In this paper the obtaining of an optimum policy in the capacity expansion planning of a particular thermal-electric power system is proposed. Therefore, a two-stage stochastic integer programming is formulated. The model includes, through a finite group of scenarios, the existent uncertainty related to the future availability of the thermal plants currently under operation. The resultant model is solved numerically by the application of the L-shaped method, whose implementation and development were executed using the software AMPL, with CPLEX as a solver. The results reached are shown, which validate the use of the methodology adopted in this work. [source]

Movement patterns and study area boundaries: influences on survival estimation in capture,mark,recapture studies

OIKOS, Issue 8 2008
Gregg E. Horton
The inability to account for the availability of individuals in the study area during capture,mark,recapture (CMR) studies and the resultant confounding of parameter estimates can make correct interpretation of CMR model parameter estimates difficult. Although important advances based on the Cormack,Jolly,Seber (CJS) model have resulted in estimators of true survival that work by unconfounding either death or recapture probability from availability for capture in the study area, these methods rely on the researcher's ability to select a method that is correctly matched to emigration patterns in the population. If incorrect assumptions regarding site fidelity (non-movement) are made, it may be difficult or impossible as well as costly to change the study design once the incorrect assumption is discovered. Subtleties in characteristics of movement (e.g. life history-dependent emigration, nomads vs territory holders) can lead to mixtures in the probability of being available for capture among members of the same population. The result of these mixtures may be only a partial unconfounding of emigration from other CMR model parameters. Biologically-based differences in individual movement can combine with constraints on study design to further complicate the problem. Because of the intricacies of movement and its interaction with other parameters in CMR models, quantification of and solutions to these problems are needed. Based on our work with stream-dwelling populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, we used a simulation approach to evaluate existing CMR models under various mixtures of movement probabilities. The Barker joint data model provided unbiased estimates of true survival under all conditions tested. The CJS and robust design models provided similarly unbiased estimates of true survival but only when emigration information could be incorporated directly into individual encounter histories. For the robust design model, Markovian emigration (future availability for capture depends on an individual's current location) was a difficult emigration pattern to detect unless survival and especially recapture probability were high. Additionally, when local movement was high relative to study area boundaries and movement became more diffuse (e.g. a random walk), local movement and permanent emigration were difficult to distinguish and had consequences for correctly interpreting the survival parameter being estimated (apparent survival vs true survival). [source]

Beautiful and not So Beautiful Minds: An Introductory Essay on Economic Theory and the Supply of Oil

Ferdinand E. Banks
Both the teaching and the studying of energy economics have been severely disadvantaged by the emphasis placed on the Hotelling theory of resource exhaustion. For example, in the study of oil and gas economics, this unrealistic construction is fundamentally irrelevant, because it does not consider fixed investment, nor the (real) options associated with such things as starting or interrupting production. In addition, both economics students and teachers have failed to recognize the crucial importance of the reserves-to production ratio, as well as the research of M. King Hubbert. Among other things, this oversight has led to an irrational optimism, where expectations of the future availability of oil are concerned. To be more specific, the probability that the oil pessimists are correct is large enough to justify the attachment of a sizable discount factor to any claim of future oil abundance. [source]

Martin Stutzmann: Editor, Teacher, Scientist and Friend

Manuel Cardona
On 2 January 1995 Martin Stutzmann became Editor-in-Chief of physica status solidi, replacing Professor E. Gutsche, who had led the journal through the stormy period involving the fall of the Iron Curtain, the unification of Germany and the change in its Eastern part, where physica status solidi was based, from "socialism as found in the real world" (a German concept) to real world capitalism. In 1995 it was thought that the process had been completed (we should have known better!) and after the retirement of Prof. Gutsche the new owners of physica status solidi (Wiley-VCH) decided that a change in scientific management was desirable to adapt to the new socio-political facts and to insure the scientific continuity of the journal. Martin had moved in 1993 from my department at the Max-Planck-Institute to Munich where he soon displayed a tremendous amount of science man- agement ability during the build-up of the Walter Schottky Institute. The search for a successor as Edi- tor-in-Chief was not easy: the job was not very glamorous after the upheavals which had taken place in the editorial world following the political changes. Somebody in the Editorial Boards must have suggested Martin Stutzmann. I am sure that there was opposition: one usually looks for a well-established person ready to leave his direct involvement in science and take up a new endeavor of a more administrative nature. Nevertheless, the powers that be soon realized that Martin was an excellent, if somewhat unconventional candidate who had enough energy to remain a topnotch scientist and to lead the journal in the difficult times ahead: he was offered the job. In the negotiations that followed, he insisted in getting the administrative structures that would allow him to improve the battered quality of the journal and to continue his scientific productivity. Today we are happy to see that he succeeded in both endeavors. The journal has since grown in size and considerably improved its quality. Martin Stutzmann's scientific output has continued and today he can be found listed among the 400 most cited physicists worldwide. According to the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) he has published nearly 400 articles in source journals; they have been cited over 4600 times. His scientific visibility has been partly responsible for the success of the journal under his leadership. When he took over in 1995 the Impact Factors of physica status solidi (a) and (b) were about 0.5. Now they oscillate around 1.0. The journals occupy places 30 (a) and 29 (b) among the 57 condensed matter publications listed in the ISI. Six years ago these places were 34 (a) and 30 (b). The journal is even better placed with respect to the so-called cited half-life which is 8.2 years for pss (a) (place 16 among 57) and 6.7 years for pss (b) (place 20 among 57). Martin, of course, has contributed with his original publications to the success of the journal, having published 36 articles in pss(a) and 32 in pss(b). I would like to some of the editorial decisions implemented under Martin's leadership. They have been largely responsible for the quantitative improvements just described. Martin introduced international standards of peer review, usually involving two anonymous referees: The increase of the rejection rate from ca. 20% to 60% followed. He discontinued the Short Notes, which had become nearly irrelevant, and replaced them, in 1997 by Rapid Research Notes (today Rapid Research Letters) with especially strict reviewing rules and a rather attractive layout. Martin's participation in many international conferences and their organization gave him a handle to acquire the publication of conference proceedings. Organizing committees usually prefer publication in international journals rather than special books because of their guaranteed future availability in libraries and the partaking in the reviewing procedure. The journal became increasingly popular along these lines, a fact which moved Martin to launch in 2002 part (c) of the journal, devoted mainly, but not exclusively, to conference articles. Martin also introduced the publication of Feature Articles, topical issues, and the instrument of the Editor's Choice to highlight articles deemed to be especially interesting. He appointed Regional Editors (6 at this point) which represent the journal in important geographic regions. He also brought the journal online, a must these days. The upheavals that followed the collapse of most of the communist world, the rapid development of science in many emerging nations and the enhanced competitiveness, even in the developed countries, have not ebbed out. Some of them are particular damaging to the reputation of science in a world increasingly skeptical of its values. I am thinking of scientific misconduct and outright fraud, in the form of plagiarism and data fabrication. physica status solidi was also afflicted by this plague: after all, it happened in the best of families. Two of the most notorious offenders of the past decade, J. H. Sch÷n and Y. Park, also visited physica status solidi. In two courageous editorials Martin Stutzmann and Stefan Hildebrandt (Managing Editor of the journal) rapidly exposed these cases of misconduct together with other cases in which there was also good reason to suspect misconduct. Some of the articles involved were rapidly retracted by the authors, others were not. It is reassuring to say that none of them had any impact worth mentioning (1,3 citations, mostly by the authors themselves or in the editorials just mentioned). Only few journal editors dared to convey to the readers a warning that some work of those authors may be faulty even if no air-tight proof was available. However, Martin and Stefan did. We wish that Martin will remain at the helm at least another decade, before he switches to research on the liquid state as practiced in Southern France. [source]