Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Fungi

  • anaerobic fungus
  • arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus
  • ascomycetous fungus
  • basidiomycete fungus
  • be fungus
  • blue-stain fungus
  • colonizing fungus
  • different fungus
  • ectomycorrhizal fungus
  • endophytic fungus
  • entomopathogenic fungus
  • ericoid mycorrhizal fungus
  • filamentous fungus
  • human pathogenic fungus
  • isolated fungus
  • lichen fungus
  • many fungus
  • mildew fungus
  • mycorrhizal fungus
  • necrotrophic fungus
  • opportunistic fungus
  • other fungus
  • pathogenic fungus
  • phytopathogenic fungus
  • plant pathogenic fungus
  • powdery mildew fungus
  • relate fungus
  • rust fungus
  • saprotrophic fungus
  • several fungus
  • soil fungus
  • symbiotic fungus
  • take-all fungus
  • white-rot fungus
  • wood-decaying fungus

  • Terms modified by Fungi

  • fungus Botryti cinerea
  • fungus aspergillus nidulan
  • fungus aspergillus niger
  • fungus ball
  • fungus isolated

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2010
    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the predominant fungal species, including toxigenic strains, patulin levels in apples used for juice production and in produced juices. The possibility of use of apple highly contaminated with patulin to produce juice with lower patulin levels than the limit permitted by Codex Alimentarius was also checked. Sixteen lots of apples and juices were analyzed. The most prevalent fungal population was Penicillium spp. (93%) followed by the Aspergillus spp. (3.5%) and the Rhizopus spp. (3.5%). The mycoflora of apples was composed mainly of species that produce patulin. P. expansum was identified as the most frequently isolated species (66%). Species able to produce patulin were P. expansum and P. griseofulvum. Patulin levels in apples from cold storage ranged from 254.6 to 653.4 µg/kg. Apple juice processing caused average reduction of 95% in patulin levels. Patulin levels ranged from 14.3 to 46.7 µg/L in apple juices. In all samples were found patulin levels lower than the limit of 50 µg/L considered acceptable by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This study was performed to define the mycoflora of apples and patulin levels in apples that were used for juice production. This approach is useful to evaluate the quality of apples and the effect of processing on patulin to determine if the toxin level can be managed through postharvest procedures. Besides, information about patulin levels in juices is important to contribute for establishing national regulation. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    Bas W. Ibelings
    Some chytrids are host-specific parasiticfungithat may have a considerable impact on phytoplankton dynamics. The phylum Chytridiomycota contains one class, the Chytridiomycetes, and is composed of five different orders. Molecular studies now firmly place the Chytridiomycota within the fungal kingdom. Chytrids are characterized by having zoospores, a motile stage in their life cycle. Zoospores are attracted to the host cell by specific signals. No single physical,chemical factor has been found that fully explains the dynamics of chytrid epidemics in the field. Fungal periodicity was primarily related to host cell density. The absence of aggregated distributions of chytrids on their hosts suggested that their hosts did not vary in their susceptibility to infection. A parasite can only become epidemic when it grows faster than the host. Therefore, it has been suggested that epidemics in phytoplankton populations arise when growth conditions for the host are unfavorable. No support for such a generalization was found, however. Growth of the parasitic fungus Rhizophydium planktonicum Canter emend, parasitic on the diatom Asterionella formosa Hassal, was reduced under stringent nutrient limitation,because production and infectivity of zoospores were affected negatively. A moderate phosphorous or light limitation favored epidemic development, however. Chytrid infections have been shown to affect competition between their algal hosts and in this way altered phytoplankton succession. There is potential for coevolution between Asterionella and the chytrid Zygorhizidium planktonicum Canter based on clear reciprocal fitness costs, absence of overall infective parasite strains, and possibly a genetic basis for host susceptibility and parasite infectivity. [source]

    Species,area relationships of red-listed species in old boreal forests: a large-scale data analysis

    Olli-Pekka Tikkanen
    Abstract Aim, Species,area relationships are often applied, but not generally approved, to guide practical conservation planning. The specific species group analysed may affect their applicability. We asked if species,area curves constructed from extensive databases of various sectors of natural resource administration can provide insights into large-scale conservation of boreal forest biodiversity if the analyses are restricted only to red-listed species. Location, Finland, northern Europe. Methods, Our data included 12,645 records of 219 red-listed Coleoptera and Fungi from the whole of Finland. The forest data also covered the entire country, 202,761 km2. The units of species,area analyses were 224 municipalities where the red-listed forest species have been observed. We performed a hierarchical partitioning analysis to reveal the relative importance of different potential explanatory variables. Based on the results, for all red-listed species, species associated with coniferous trees and for Fungi, the area of economically over-aged forests explained the best the variation in data. For species associated with deciduous trees and Coleoptera, the forest area explained better variation in data than the area of old forests. In the subsequent log,log species,area regression analyses, we used the best variables as the explanatory variable for each species group. Results, There was a strong relationship between the number of all red-listed species and the area of old forests remaining, with a z -value of 0.45. The area explained better the number of species associated with conifer trees and Fungi than the number of species associated with deciduous trees and Coleoptera. Main conclusions, The high z -values of species,area curves indicate that the remaining old-growth patches constitute a real archipelago for the conifer-associated red-listed species, since lower values had been expected if the surrounding habitat matrix were a suitable habitat for the species analysed. [source]

    Extraordinarily widespread and fantastically complex: comparative biology of endosymbiotic bacterial and fungal mutualists of insects

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 2 2010
    Cara M. Gibson
    Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 223,234 Abstract Endosymbiosis is a pervasive, powerful force in arthropod evolution. In the recent literature, bacterial symbionts of insects have been shown to function as reproductive manipulators, nutritional mutualists and as defenders of their hosts. Fungi, like bacteria, are also frequently associated with insects. Initial estimates suggest that insect,fungal endosymbionts are hyperdiverse, yet there has been comparatively little research investigating the roles that fungi play in their insect hosts. In many systems in which the bacterial symbionts are well-characterized, the possible presence of fungi has been routinely ignored. Why has there been so little research on this important group of symbionts? Here, we explore the differences between fungal and bacterial endosymbiotic insect mutualists. We make predictions about why a bacterium or fungus might be found associated with an insect host given particular ecological, physiological, or evolutionary conditions. We also touch on the various hurdles for studying fungal vs. bacterial endosymbionts and potential future research directions. [source]

    Towards Higher Laccase Activities Produced by Aquatic Ascomycetous Fungi Through Combination of Elicitors and an Alternative Substrate

    C. Junghanns
    Abstract Laccases are versatile biocatalysts with various potential biotechnological applications, e.g. the treatment of industrial waste waters, the detoxification of environmental pollutants, or the functionalization of renewable polymeric materials. Central composition experimental design and response surface methodology was applied to optimize the production of laccase by the aquatic ascomycetous fungi, Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 and Coniothyrium sp.,Kl-S5, in shake flasks. A complex plant-based medium (tomato juice) and two elicitors (Remazol Brilliant Blue R [RBBR] and CuSO4) were tested in combination at three concentrations. The highest laccase activity of 6322,±,403,U/L was achieved on day,9 for Phoma sp. Coniothyrium sp. exerted a maximum laccase activity of 3035,±,111 U/L on day,4. Optimal conditions were 30,% tomato juice and 450,mg/L RBBR for both strains. A concentration of 250,,M CuSO4 led to highest laccase activities in cultures of Coniothyrium sp., and 50,,M CuSO4 was most effective for Phoma sp. A remarkable synergistic effect of tomato juice and RBBR on laccase production was observed for both strains. The upscaling potential of the optimal induction conditions was demonstrated in a lab-scale fermenter which resulted in maximum activities of 11030,±,177,U/L on day,6 for Phoma sp. and 11530,±,161,U/L on day,9 for Coniothyrium sp. This study therefore presents a promising alternative for laccase production in ascomycetes based on a cheap complex substrate in combination with two elicitors. [source]

    Antagonistic interactions among coral-associated bacteria

    Krystal L. Rypien
    Summary Reef-building corals are comprised of close associations between the coral animal, symbiotic zooxanthellae, and a diversity of associated microbes (including Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi). Together, these comprise the coral holobiont , a paradigm that emphasizes the potential contributions of each component to the overall function and health of the coral. Little is known about the ecology of the coral-associated microbial community and its hypothesized role in coral health. We explored bacteria,bacteria antagonism among 67 bacterial isolates from the scleractinian coral Montastrea annularis at two temperatures using Burkholder agar diffusion assays. A majority of isolates exhibited inhibitory activity (69.6% of isolates at 25°C, 52.2% at 31°C), with members of the ,-proteobacteria (Vibrionales and Alteromonadales) being especially antagonistic. Elevated temperatures generally reduced levels of antagonism, although the effects were complex. Several potential pathogens were observed in the microbial community of apparently healthy corals, and 11.6% of isolates were able to inhibit the growth of the coral pathogen Vibrio shiloi at 25°C. Overall, this study demonstrates that antagonism could be a structuring force in coral-associated microbial communities and may contribute to pathogenesis as well as disease resistance. [source]

    Population dynamics of the ectomycorrhizal fungal species Tricholoma populinum and Tricholoma scalpturatum associated with black poplar under differing environmental conditions

    Hervé Gryta
    Summary Fungi combine sexual reproduction and clonal propagation. The balance between these two reproductive modes affects establishment dynamics, and ultimately the evolutionary potential of populations. The pattern of colonization was studied in two species of ectomycorrhizal fungi: Tricholoma populinum and Tricholoma scalpturatum. The former is considered to be a host specialist whereas T. scalpturatum is a generalist taxon. Fruit bodies of both basidiomycete species were mapped and collected over several years from a black poplar (Populus nigra) stand, at two different sites. Multilocus genotypes (= genets) were identified based on the analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) patterns and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (rDNA IGS). The genetic analyses revealed differences in local population dynamics between the two species. Tricholoma scalpturatum tended to capture new space through sexual spores whereas T. populinum did this by clonal growth, suggesting trade-offs in allocation of resources at the genet level. Genet numbers and sizes strongly differ between the two study sites, perhaps as a result of abiotic disturbance on mycelial establishment and genet behaviour. [source]

    Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi are common root inhabitants of non- Ericaceae plants in a south-eastern Australian sclerophyll forest

    Susan M. Chambers
    Abstract Fungi were isolated from the roots of 17 plant species from the families Apiaceae, Cunoniaceae, Cyperaceae, Droseraceae, Fabaceae-Mimosoideae, Lomandraceae, Myrtaceae, Pittosporaceae, Proteaceae and Stylidiaceae at a sclerophyll forest site in New South Wales, Australia. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence comparisons indicated that the isolated fungi had affinities to a range of ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and zygomycetes. Four RFLP types had closest affinities to previously identified Helotiales ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) or Oidiodendron spp. Isolates representing six RFLP types, which were variously isolated from all 17 plant species, formed ERM coils in hair root epidermal cells of Woollsia pungens (Ericaceae) under gnotobiotic conditions. Three of these isolates formed intercellular hyphae, intracellular hyphae and/or microsclerotia, which are typical of dark septate endophyte infection, in roots of Stylidium productum (Stylidiaceae), indicating an ability to form different types of association with roots of different hosts. Overall the data indicate that a broad range of plant taxa may act as repositories for ERM fungi in sclerophyll forest soil. [source]

    Fungal endophytes in potato roots studied by traditional isolation and cultivation-independent DNA-based methods

    Monika Götz
    Abstract The composition and relative abundance of endophytic fungi in roots of field-grown transgenic T4-lysozyme producing potatoes and the parental line were assessed by classical isolation from root segments and cultivation-independent techniques to test the hypothesis that endophytic fungi are affected by T4-lysozyme. Fungi were isolated from the majority of root segments of both lines and at least 63 morphological groups were obtained with Verticillium dahliae, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Colletotrichum coccodes and Plectosporium tabacinum as the most frequently isolated species. Dominant bands in the fungal fingerprints obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 18S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA corresponded to the electrophoretic mobility of the 18S rRNA gene fragments of the three most abundant fungal isolates, V. dahliae, C. destructans and Col. coccodes, but not to P. tabacinum. The assignment of the bands to these isolates was confirmed for V. dahliae and Col. coccodes by sequencing of clones. Verticillium dahliae was the most abundant endophytic fungus in the roots of healthy potato plants. Differences in the relative abundance of endophytic fungi colonizing the roots of T4-lysozyme producing potatoes and the parental line could be detected by both methods. [source]

    Review of Topics in Current Genetics 15: Comparative Genomics Using Fungi as Models Edited by P. Sunnerhagen and J. Piskur

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 1 2007
    Ed Louis
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    104th Event of the European Federation of Biotechnology "Physiology of Yeasts and Filamentous Fungi"

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 3 2001
    Jack T Pronk
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Fungi isolated from Picea abies infested by the bark beetle Ips typographus in the Bia,owie,a forest in north-eastern Poland

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    T. Kirisits
    Summary The assemblage of fungi occurring in the sapwood of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and in bark beetle galleries following attack by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle Ips typographus was investigated in the Bia,owie,a forest in north-eastern Poland. Fungi were isolated from blue-stained sapwood of beetle-infested spruce trees in June 2002, and a few isolates were also obtained from ascospores and conidia taken from perithecia and asexual structures occurring in the gallery systems of the insects. The mycobiota of I. typographus in the Bia,owie,a forest was dominated by ophiostomatoid fungi, which were represented by seven species. Four species, including Ceratocystis polonica, Grosmannia penicillata, Ophiostoma ainoae and Ophiostoma bicolor were isolated at high frequencies, whereas three other taxa, Ceratocystiopsis minuta, Ceratocystiopsis alba and a Pesotum sp. were rare. The anamorphic fungus Graphium fimbriisporum and yeasts also occurred occasionally. In addition, the basidiomycete Gloeocystidium ipidophilum was relatively common. The pathogenic blue-stain fungus C. polonica was the dominant fungal associate of I. typographus in the Bia,owie,a forest, which is consistent with a previous study at this area in the 1930s. Ceratocystis polonica was the most frequently isolated species at the leading edge of fungal colonization in the sapwood and had on an average penetrated deeper into the wood than other fungal associates. This suggests that it acts as a primary invader into the sapwood after attack by I. typographus in the Bia,owie,a forest, followed by O. bicolor, O. ainoae, G. ipidophilum and G. penicillata. Thus far, the Bia,owie,a forest is one of the few areas in Europe, where C. polonica has been reported as a dominate fungal associate of I. typographus. [source]

    Associations between Pityogenes bidentatus and fungi in young managed Scots pine stands in Poland

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    R. Jankowiak
    Summary The association between Pityogenes bidentatus and fungi was studied in young, managed Pinus sylvestris stands in Poland. Fungi were isolated from emerged adults and their galleries collected from four populations. In total, 2089 fungal isolates including 42 species, were obtained. Penicillium sp. 1 and Geosmithia sp. 1 were the most commonly isolated fungi from beetles (49% and 41% of beetles respectively). Geosmithia sp. 1 species was the dominant species in P. bidentatus galleries with a frequency of occurrence of 57.9%. Hormonema dematioides was the second most abundant fungus in gallery systems (17.1% of wood samples). Two of the isolated Geosmithia species were previously undescribed. Pityogenes bidentatus also vectored three ophiostomatoid species: Ophiostoma minus, O. piceae and Graphium sp. ,W'. These species were occasionally isolated from beetles and their galleries, suggesting a non-specific relationship. [source]

    Associations between Tomicus destruens and Leptographium spp. in Pinus pinea and P. pinaster stands in Tuscany, central Italy

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    G. Sabbatini Peverieri
    Summary The association between Tomicus destruens and fungi of the genus Leptographium was studied in Pinus pinea and P. pinaster forests in Tuscany, central Italy. Fungi were isolated from adult beetles and from pine tissues from infested trees. On average, Leptographium spp. were associated with 18% of beetles in breeding galleries, 35% of emergent brood beetles and 18% of beetles undergoing maturation feeding in pine twigs. The fungal species most frequently identified were Leptographium wingfieldii and L. lundbergii while L. guttulatum and L. serpens were also found. Résumé L'association entre Tomicus destruens et des champignons du genre Leptographium a étéétudiée dans des forêts de Pinus pinea et P. pinaster de Toscane, en Italie centrale. Les champignons ont été isolés de scolytes adultes et de tissus de pins provenant d'arbres infestés. En moyenne, des Leptographium spp. sont associés à 18% des scolytes dans les galeries de reproduction, 35% des nouveaux scolytes adultes émergents et 18% des scolytes en repas de maturation sur les rameaux de pins. Les espèces fongiques les plus fréquemment identifiées sont Leptographium wingfieldii et L. lundbergii; L. guttulatum et L. serpens ont également été trouvés. Zusammenfassung Die Assoziation zwischen Tomicus destruens und Leptographium -Arten wurde in je einem Pinus pinea - und Pinus pinaster -Wald in der Toscana, Zentralitalien, untersucht. Die Pilze wurden aus adulten Käfern und aus dem Gewebe infizierter Bäume isoliert. Im Durchschnitt wurden bei 18% der Käfer in der Reproduktionsphase in Brutgängen, bei 35% der Käfer kurz vor dem Ausbohren und bei 18% der Käfer während des Reifungsfrasses an Kieferntrieben Leptographium spp. gefunden. Am häufigsten wurden L. wingfieldii und L. lundbergii nachgewiesen, daneben kamen auch L. guttulatum und L. serpens vor. [source]

    Adaptation of soil microbial communities to temperature: comparison of fungi and bacteria in a laboratory experiment

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 12 2009
    Abstract Temperature not only has direct effects on microbial activity, but can also affect activity indirectly by changing the temperature dependency of the community. This would result in communities performing better over time in response to increased temperatures. We have for the first time studied the effect of soil temperature (5,50 °C) on the community adaptation of both bacterial (leucine incorporation) and fungal growth (acetate-in-ergosterol incorporation). Growth at different temperatures was estimated after about a month using a short-term assay to avoid confounding the effects of temperature on substrate availability. Before the experiment started, fungal and bacterial growth was optimal around 30 °C. Increasing soil temperature above this resulted in an increase in the optimum for bacterial growth, correlated to soil temperature, with parallel shifts in the total response curve. Below the optimum, soil temperature had only minor effects, although lower temperatures selected for communities growing better at the lowest temperature. Fungi were affected in the same way as bacteria, with large shifts in temperature tolerance at soil temperatures above that of optimum for growth. A simplified technique, only comparing growth at two contrasting temperatures, gave similar results as using a complete temperature curve, allowing for large scale measurements also in field situations with small differences in temperature. [source]

    Effects of short- and long-term water-level drawdown on the populations and activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland

    Abstract We analysed the response of microbial communities, characterized by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), to changing hydrological conditions at sites with different nutrient levels in a southern boreal peatland. Although PLFAs of Gram-negative bacteria were characteristic of the peatland complex, microbial communities differed among sites (ombrotrophic bog, oligotrophic fen, mesotrophic fen) and sampling depths (0,5, 5,10, 10,20, 20,30 cm). The microbial communities in each site changed significantly following water-level drawdown. The patterns of change varied among sites and sampling depths. The relative proportion of Gram-negative bacteria decreased in the upper 10 cm but increased in deeper layers of the fen sites. Fungi benefited from water-level drawdown in the upper 5 cm of the mesotrophic fen, but suffered in the drier surfaces of the ombrotrophic bog, especially in the 5,10 cm layer. In contrast, actinobacteria suffered from water-level drawdown in the mesotrophic fen, but benefited in the drier surfaces of the ombrotrophic bog. Basal respiration rate correlated positively with pH and fungal PLFA, and negatively with depth. We suggest that the changes in microbial community structure after persistent water-level drawdown follow not only the hydrological conditions but also the patterns of vegetation change. Our results imply that changes in structure and activity of the microbial community in response to climate change will be strongly dependent on the type of peatland. [source]

    Nutrition-Driven Assembly of Colloidal Nanoparticles: Growing Fungi Assemble Gold Nanoparticles as Microwires,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 1 2007
    A. Sugunan
    The use of a living fungus to ,actively' assemble presynthesized gold nanoparticles over its hyphae, resulting in conducting microstructures (see figure), is reported. This physiologically (nutrition) driven process of colloidal self-organization avoids the need for sophisticated DNA/protein chemistry for facilitating interfacing with biological surfaces. The obtained gold-laden microstructures can be modified into flat ribbonlike or tubular morphologies by simple post-formation processing. [source]

    Kerion and dermatophytic granuloma.

    Mycological, histopathological findings in 19 children with inflammatory tinea capitis of the scalp
    Background, Inflammatory tinea capitis or kerion is the result of a hypersensitivity reaction to a dermatophytic infection. Majocchi's granuloma, in contrast, usually begins as a suppurative folliculitis and culminates in a granulomatous reaction. Objectives, To present clinical, mycological and histopathological findings for 19 cases of kerion of the scalp in children. Methods, Nineteen children were investigated (14 boys and five girls) with a mean age of 6.5 years. A potassium hydroxide (KOH) exam and culture in Sabouraud dextrose agar were performed, followed by a biopsy with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-schiff (PAS) and Gomori-Grocott stains. The same investigations were carried out in four control cases of noninflammatory tinea capitis. Results, Clinical history varied from 2 to 16 weeks (mean 6.6 weeks). Diagnosis was confirmed by a positive KOH exam: all cases except one had a positive culture. The following dermatophytes were isolated: Microsporum canis (32%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (27%), Trichophyton tonsurans (21%), Trichophyton rubrum (10%) and Microsporum gypseum (5%). The histopathological findings were: suppurative folliculitis (SF) 11%, SF plus suppurative dermatitis 37%, suppurative and granulomatous dermatitis (SGD) 26% and SGD plus fibrosing dermatitis 26%. Fungi were observed in 63% of the histopathological sections. Perifollicular infiltrates (PF) around the parasitized hair follicles were identified in the four noninflammatory control cases due to M. canis. Conclusions, Kerion Celsi is an inflammatory or suppurative type of tinea capitis caused by zoophylic dermatophytes (M. canis and T. mentagrophytes), but also by antrophophylic (T. tonsurans and T. rubrum) and geophylic (M. gypseum) dermatophytes. Histopathological findings showed a spectrum from mild suppurative folliculitis to dense granulomatous infiltrates without a clear relationship with the clinical features. [source]

    Fungi associated with a natural epizootic in Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) populations

    J. A. P. Marcelino
    Abstract Stands of eastern hemlock [(Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière] in the northeastern United States are in decline, in part from the attack of elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). From 2001 to the present, a natural epizootic has been observed in populations of F. externa. Initially discovered at the Mianus River Gorge Preserve in Bedford, New York, the epizootic has also been detected in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Connecticut. Understanding and assessing the identity of the pathogenic micro-organisms responsible for this natural mortality is crucial for developing biological controls for this pest. We have isolated and taxonomically and genetically identified entomopathogens, phytopathogens and endophytic fungi associated with F. externa. Isolates of the following were obtained: Colletotrichum sp., Lecanicillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhiziopsis microspora, Myriangium sp., Mycosphaerella sp. anamorph, Nectria sp., Botrytis sp., Phialophora sp. and Fusarium sp. [source]

    Fungal flora associated with Tomicus piniperda L. in an area close to a timber yard in southern Poland

    R. Jankowiak
    Abstract:, The association between Tomicus piniperda L. (Col., Scolytinae) and fungi was studied in a Pinus sylvestris L. forest in Mielec-Mo,ciska. Fungi were isolated from overwintered adult beetles taken from two stands situated in different distance from timber yard. Two media were used for isolation. The results showed great diversity of fungi associated with T. piniperda: 1895 cultures, representing 64 species, were isolated. Penicillia and Hormonema dematioides were the dominant species, found in 20.2% and 17.8% of all beetles, respectively. A frequently isolated ophiostomatoid fungi was Ophiostoma minus. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the mycobiota composition of this insect between two stands were detected. The highest richness and diversity of fungal species appeared in the samples taken from the location where the trees were heavily damaged by shoot-feeding of T. piniperda. Differences were most clear for the pathogenic O. minus, which was a common fungal associate of the insects in this stand. [source]

    Internal amplification controls have not been employed in fungal PCR hence potential false negative results

    R.R.M. Paterson
    Abstract Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is subject to false negative results. Samples of fungi with the genes of interest (e.g. a disease or mycotoxin) may be categorized as negative and safe as a consequence. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms that are involved in many fields of human activity such as antibiotic, toxin and food production. Certain taxa are implicated in human, animal and plant diseases. However, fungi are difficult to identify and PCR techniques have been proposed increasingly for this purpose. Internal amplification controls (IACs) will ameliorate the situation and need to become mandatory. These are nucleic acids that posses a sequence which will provide a PCR product (i) using the same primers employed for the target gene, and (ii) that will not coincide on the gel with the product of the target gene. Only one group of workers employed an IAC, to respond to potential inhibition, which was reported in 1995 from this present assessment of numerous reports. Inhibitors in cultures need to be minimized, and secondary metabolites are an obvious source. The fields reviewed herein include medical mycology, mycotoxicology, environmental mycology and plant mycology. The conclusion is that previous reports are compromised because IACs have not been employed in fungal PCR; future research must include this control at an early stage. [source]

    Fungi are the predominant micro-organisms responsible for degradation of soil-buried polyester polyurethane over a range of soil water holding capacities

    S.R. Barratt
    Abstract Aims: To investigate the relationship between soil water holding capacity (WHC) and biodegradation of polyester polyurethane (PU) and to quantify and identify the predominant degrading micro-organisms in the biofilms on plastic buried in soil. Methods and Results: High numbers of both fungi and bacteria were recovered from biofilms on soil-buried dumb-bell-shaped pieces of polyester PU after 44 days at 15,100% WHC. The tensile strength of the polyester PU was reduced by up to 60% over 20,80% soil WHC, but no reduction occurred at 15, 90 or 100% soil WHC. A PU agar clearance assay indicated that fungi, but not bacteria were, the major degrading organisms in the biofilms on polyester PU and 10,30% of all the isolated fungi were able to degrade polyester PU in this assay. A 5·8S rDNA sequencing identified 13 strains of fungi representing the three major colony morphology types responsible for PU degradation. Sequence homology matches identified these strains as Nectria gliocladioides (five strains), Penicillium ochrochloron (one strain) and Geomyces pannorum (seven strains). Geomyces pannorum was the predominant organism in the biofilms comprising 22,100% of the viable polyester PU degrading fungi. Conclusions: Polyester PU degradation was optimum under a wide range of soil WHC and the predominant degrading organisms were fungi. Significance and Impact of the Study: By identifying the predominant degrading fungi in soil and studying the optimum WHC conditions for degradation of PU it allows us to better understand how plastics are broken down in the environment such as in landfill sites. [source]


    ABSTRACT Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (Lycoperdaceae, Agaricales, Agaricomycetidae, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota, Fungi) was evaluated for its esterolytic potential. Native electrophoresis of the crude extracts showed four bands having Rf values of 0.34, 0.39, 0.52 and 0.59. The esterase showed the highest activity toward a short-chain substrate, p -nitrophenyl acetate. Optimum reaction conditions for L. perlatum crude extract were attained at pH 8.0 and 40C. Esterolytic activity of enzyme extract was stimulated in the presence of Mn2+, Fe2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+ in the reaction mixture. The enzyme activity was stimulated by incubation at pH 6.0 but retained 77% of its original activity at its optimum pH after 24 h. Thermal inactivation was displayed after incubation for 20 min at various temperatures above 30C. At 1 mM final concentration, 2-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and p -methylphenyl sulfonylfluoride inhibited the esterolytic reaction. These results support that the crude L. perlatum extract possesses an esterolytic activity having properties similar to other esterases. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Esterases catalyzing the cleavage and formation of ester bonds are known ,/,-hydrolases (EC 3.1.1.X). Esterases are used for the synthesis of flavor esters for the food industry, modification of triglycerides for fat and oil industry and resolution of racemic mixtures used for the synthesis of fine chemicals for the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, the search for new enzyme sources is important for the development of new enzymes and applications. [source]

    Differentiation of Closely Related Fungi by Electronic Nose Analysis

    K. Karlshøj
    ABSTRACT:, In this work the potential of electronic nose analysis for differentiation of closely related fungi has been described. A total of 20 isolates of the cheese-associated species Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti, P. nordicum, and P. roqueforti and its closely related species P. paneum, P. carneum as well as the noncheese-associated P. expansum have been investigated by electronic nose, GC-MS, and LC-MS analysis. The isolates were inoculated on yeast extract sucrose agar in 20-mL headspace flasks and electronic nose analysis was performed daily for a 7-d period. To assess which volatile metabolites the electronic nose potentially responded to, volatile metabolites were collected by diffusive sampling overnight onto tubes containing Tenax TA, between the 7th and 8th day of incubation. Volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and the results indicated that mainly alcohols (ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol) and ketones (acetone, 2-butanone, and 2-pentanone) were produced at this stage. The volatile metabolite profile proved to be species specific. Nonvolatile metabolites were collected on the 8th day of incubation and mycotoxin analysis was performed by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector and a time of flight mass spectrometer. Several mycotoxins were detected in samples from the species P. nordicum, P. roqueforti, P. paneum, P. carneum, and P. expansum. Differentiation of closely related mycotoxin producing fungi incubated on yeast extract sucrose agar has been achieved, indicating that there is a potential for predicting production of mycotoxins on food and feedstuffs by electronic nose analysis. [source]

    Reconstructing the Sequence of Events Surrounding Body Disposition Based on Color Staining of Bone,

    Meaghan A. Huculak H.B.Sc.
    Abstract:, Literature regarding bone color is limited to determining location of primary and secondary dispositions. This research is the first to use bone color to interpret the sequence of events surrounding body disposition. Two scenarios were compared,bones buried and then exposed on the ground surface and bones exposed then buried. Forty juvenile pig humeri with minimal tissue were used in each scenario with an additional 20 controls to determine if decomposing tissue affects bone color. Munsell Color Charts were used to record bone color of surface and 2.5 cm cross-sections. Results reveal five main surface colors attributed to soil, sun, hemolysis, decomposition, and fungi. Fungi on buried bones suggests prior surface exposure. Cross-sections of strictly buried bones are identical to buried then exposed bone, stressing the importance of bone surface analysis. Cross-sectioning may help verify remains have been exposed then buried. Decomposition of excess tissue creates minimal color staining. [source]

    Patterns of Multiple Virus Infections in the Conifer Pathogenic Fungi, Diplodia pinea and Diplodia scrobiculata

    Juanita De Wet
    Abstract Diplodia pinea and Diplodia scrobiculata are opportunistic pathogens associated with various disease symptoms on conifers that most importantly include die-back and stem cankers. Two viruses with dsRNA genomes, Sphaeropsis sapinea RNA virus 1 and 2 (SsRV1 and SsRV2) are found in D. pinea and an undescribed dsRNA element is known to occur in D. scrobiculata. We have partially characterized the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of the undescribed dsRNA element and designed virus-specific primers from the RdRp regions of all three virus genomes. This made it possible to screen for the presence of the three viruses in a collection of D. pinea and D. scrobiculata isolates using real-time PCR. Triple infections with all three viruses occurred in D. pinea and D. scrobiculata. Co-infections with SsRV1 and SsRV2 were common but found only in D. pinea. Co-infection with SsRV1 and the undescribed dsRNA element was rare and observed only in D. pinea. Single infections with either SsRV1 or SsRV2 were equally common, while the undescribed dsRNA element never occurred alone. SsRV1 occurred alone in both D. pinea and D. scrobiculata while SsRV2 occurred alone only in D. pinea. There were only two instances where the undescribed dsRNA element was observed in D. pinea and it was otherwise found only in D. scrobiculata. This study highlights the complex interactions between the viruses found in the closely related plant pathogenic fungi, D. pinea and D. scrobiculata. It illustrates the importance of not only characterizing viruses infecting fungi but also of determining the interactions between mycoviruses and their fungal hosts. [source]

    Suppression of Root Rotting Fungi and Root Knot Nematode of Chili by Seaweed and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    V. Sultana
    Abstract Solvent fractions (i.e. n -hexane, chloroform and methanol) of the ethanol extracts of the seaweeds Codium iyengarii, Jania capillacea, Stokeyia indica and Solieria robusta caused more than 50% mortality of Meloidogyne javanica juveniles within 24 h at 10 mg/ml. Nematode mortality increased with an increase in fraction concentration or exposure time. The n -hexane fractions from S. indica, J. capillacea and C. iyengarii and the chloroform fraction from S. robusta also resulted in more than 50% mortality within 48 h at 1.0 mg/ml. In a screen-house experiment application of S. indica and S. robusta as soil amendments alone or with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR), significantly suppressed infection of chili roots by root-infecting fungi Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani and the root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. Seaweed alone or with PGPR also increased plant growth. Suppressive effect on root pathogens and growth enhancement potential of seaweeds and P. aeruginosa were also effective in field plots. [source]

    Editorial: The Oomycetes,Fungi with Teeth and Flippers?

    Steven A. Holloway BVSc
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Interspecific hybridization in plant-associated fungi and oomycetes: a review

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 11 2003
    C. L. Schardl
    Abstract Fungi (kingdom Mycota) and oomycetes (kingdom Stramenopila, phylum Oomycota) are crucially important in the nutrient cycles of the world. Their interactions with plants sometimes benefit and sometimes act to the detriment of humans. Many fungi establish ecologically vital mutualisms, such as in mycorrhizal fungi that enhance nutrient acquisition, and endophytes that combat insects and other herbivores. Other fungi and many oomycetes are plant pathogens that devastate natural and agricultural populations of plant species. Studies of fungal and oomycete evolution were extraordinarily difficult until the advent of molecular phylogenetics. Over the past decade, researchers applying these new tools to fungi and oomycetes have made astounding new discoveries, among which is the potential for interspecific hybridization. Consequences of hybridization among pathogens include adaptation to new niches such as new host species, and increased or decreased virulence. Hybrid mutualists may also be better adapted to new hosts and can provide greater or more diverse benefits to host plants. [source]

    Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao: what's new from this old foe?

    SUMMARY Moniliophthora perniciosa (=Crinipellis perniciosa) causes one of the three main fungal diseases of Theobroma cacao (cacao), the source of chocolate. This pathogen causes Witches' broom disease (WBD) and has brought about severe economic losses in all of the cacao-growing regions to which it has spread with yield reductions that range from 50 to 90%. Cacao production in South America reflects the severity of this pathogen, as the yields in most of the infected regions have not returned to pre-outbreak levels, even with the introduction of resistant varieties. In this review we give a brief historical account and summarize the current state of knowledge focusing on developments in the areas of systematics, fungal physiology, biochemistry, genomics and gene expression in an attempt to highlight this disease. Moniliophthora perniciosa is a hemibiotrophic fungus with two distinct growth phases. The ability to culture a biotrophic-like phase in vitro along with new findings derived from the nearly complete genome and expression studies clearly show that these different fungal growth phases function under distinct metabolic parameters. These new findings have greatly improved our understanding of this fungal/host interaction and we may be at the crossroads of understanding how hemibiotrophic fungal plant pathogens cause disease in other crops. Historical summary of WBD:, The first WDB symptoms appear to have been described in the diaries of Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira (described as lagartão; meaning big lizard) from his observations of cacao trees in 1785 and 1787 in Amazonia, which is consistent with the generally accepted idea that M. perniciosa, like its main host T. cacao, evolved in this region. The disease subsequently arrived in Surinam in 1895. WBD moved rapidly, spreading to Guyana in 1906, Ecuador in 1918, Trinidad in 1928, Colombia in 1929 and Grenada in 1948. In each case, cacao production was catastrophically affected with yield reductions of 50,90%. After the arrival of M. perniciosa in Bahia in 1989, Brazil went from being the world's 3rd largest producer of cacao (347 000 tonnes in 1988,1990; c. 15% of the total world production at that time) to a net importer (141 000 tonnes in 1998,2000). Fortunately for chocolate lovers, other regions of the world such as West Africa and South East Asia have not yet been affected by this disease and have expanded production to meet growing world demand (predicted to reach 3 700 000 tonnes by 2010). Classification:,Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime & Phillips-Mora: super-kingdom Eukaryota; kingdom Fungi; phylum Basidiomycota; subphylum Agaricomycotina; class Agaricomycetes; subclass Agaricomycetidae; order Agaricales; family Marasmiaceae; genus Moniliophthora. Useful websites:,,,, [source]