Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Front

  • advancing front
  • cold front
  • crack front
  • deformation front
  • flame front
  • flow front
  • growth front
  • home front
  • invasion front
  • invasive front
  • ionization front
  • mountain front
  • pareto front
  • reaction front
  • sea-breeze front
  • sharp front
  • thermal front
  • thrust front
  • warm front
  • wave front
  • wetting front

  • Terms modified by Front

  • front cover
  • front end
  • front line
  • front position
  • front propagation
  • front range
  • front shape
  • front surface
  • front temperature
  • front tooth
  • front tracking
  • front velocity

  • Selected Abstracts

    With the Future Behind Them: Convergent Evidence From Aymara Language and Gesture in the Crosslinguistic Comparison of Spatial Construals of Time

    Rafael E. Núñez
    Abstract Cognitive research on metaphoric concepts of time has focused on differences between moving Ego and moving time models, but even more basic is the contrast between Ego- and temporal-reference-point models. Dynamic models appear to be quasi-universal cross-culturally, as does the generalization that in Ego-reference-point models, FUTURE IS IN FRONT OF EGO and PAST IS IN BACK OF EGO. The Aymara language instead has a major static model of time wherein FUTURE IS BEHIND EGO and PAST IS IN FRONT OF EGO; linguistic and gestural data give strong confirmation of this unusual culture-specific cognitive pattern. Gestural data provide crucial information unavailable to purely linguistic analysis, suggesting that when investigating conceptual systems both forms of expression should be analyzed complementarily. Important issues in embodied cognition are raised: how fully shared are bodily grounded motivations for universal cognitive patterns, what makes a rare pattern emerge, and what are the cultural entailments of such patterns? [source]

    Sheath in Front of a Negatively Biased Collector that Emits Electrons and is Immersed in a Two Electron Temperature Plasma

    T. Gyergyek
    Abstract An extension of a recently published [Gyergyek T., ,er,ek M. Contrib. Plasma Phys., 45, (2005), 89] one dimensional fluid model of the sheath formation in front of a floating electrode (collector) that emits secondary electrons and is immersed in a two-electron temperature nonmagnetized, collisionless plasma is presented. The electron velocity distribution function is assumed to be a two-temperature maxwellian, while the singly charged positive ions and the emitted electrons are assumed to be monoenergetic. It is assumed that the electrons in the pre-sheath potential drop obey the Boltzmann relation, so that a larger fraction of the hot than of the cool electrons can penetrate to the sheath edge. Our model predicts that the collector can in some cases have 3 and in some cases, when the emission of electrons from the collector is critical, even 5 different floating potentials at the same hot to cool electron temperature and density ratios very far away from the collector. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Fluid Model of a Sheath Formed in Front of an Electron Emitting Electrode Immersed in a Plasma with Two Electron Temperatures

    T. Gyergyek
    Abstract The formation of a sheath in front of a negatively biased electrode (collector) that emits electrons is studied by a one-dimensional fluid model. Electron and ion emission coefficients are introduced in the model. It is assumed that the electrode is immersed in a plasma that contains energetic electrons. The electron velocity distribution function is assumed to be a sum of two Maxwellian distributions with two different temperatures, while the ions and the emitted electrons are assumed to be monoenergetic. The condition for zero electric field at the collector is derived. Using this equation the dependence of electron and ion critical emission coefficients on various parameters - like the ratio between the hot and cool electron density, the ratio between hot and cool electron temperature and the initial velocity of secondary electrons - is calculated for a floating collector. A modification of the Bohm criterion due to the presence of hot and emitted electrons is also given. The transition between space charge limited and temperature limited electron emission for a current-carrying collector is also analyzed. The critical potential, where this transition occurs, is calculated as a function of several parameters like the Richardson emission current, the ratio between the hot and cool electron density, the ratio between hot and cool electron temperature and the initial velocity of secondary electrons. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Modeling past and future alpine permafrost distribution in the Colorado Front Range

    Jason R. Janke
    Abstract Rock glaciers, a feature associated with at least discontinuous permafrost, provide important topoclimatic information. Active and inactive rock glaciers can be used to model current permafrost distribution. Relict rock glacier locations provide paleoclimatic information to infer past conditions. Future warmer climates could cause permafrost zones to shrink and initiate slope instability hazards such as debris flows or rockslides, thus modeling change remains imperative. This research examines potential past and future permafrost distribution in the Colorado Front Range by calibrating an existing permafrost model using a standard adiabatic rate for mountains (0·5 °C per 100 m) for a 4 °C range of cooler and warmer temperatures. According to the model, permafrost currently covers about 12 per cent (326·1 km2) of the entire study area (2721·5 km2). In a 4 °C cooler climate 73·7 per cent (2004·4 km2) of the study area could be covered by permafrost, whereas in a 4°C warmer climate almost no permafrost would be found. Permafrost would be reduced severely by 93·9 per cent (a loss of 306·2 km2) in a 2·0 °C warmer climate; however, permafrost will likely respond slowly to change. Relict rock glacier distribution indicates that mean annual air temperature (MAAT) was once at least some 3·0 to 4·0 °C cooler during the Pleistocene, with permafrost extending some 600,700 m lower than today. The model is effective at identifying temperature sensitive areas for future monitoring; however, other feedback mechanisms such as precipitation are neglected. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Initial hydrologic and geomorphic response following a wildfire in the Colorado Front Range

    John A. Moody
    Abstract A wildfire in May 1996 burned 4690 hectares in two watersheds forested by ponderosa pine and Douglas fir in a steep, mountainous landscape with a summer, convective thunderstorm precipitation regime. The wildfire lowered the erosion threshold in the watersheds, and consequently amplified the subsequent erosional response to shorter time interval episodic rainfall and created both erosional and depositional features in a complex pattern throughout the watersheds. The initial response during the first four years was an increase in runoff and erosion rates followed by decreases toward pre-fire rates. The maximum unit-area peak discharge was 24 m3 s,1 km,2 for a rainstorm in 1996 with a rain intensity of 90 mm h,1. Recovery to pre-fire conditions seems to have occurred by 2000 because for a maximum 30-min rainfall intensity of 50 mm h,1, the unit-area peak discharge in 1997 was 6.6 m3 s,1 km,2, while in 2000 a similar intensity produced only 0.11 m3 s,1 km,2. Rill erosion accounted for 6 per cent, interrill erosion for 14 per cent, and drainage erosion for 80 per cent of the initial erosion in 1996. This represents about a 200-fold increase in erosion rates on hillslopes which had a recovery or relaxation time of about three years. About 67 per cent of the initially eroded sediment is still stored in the watersheds after four years with an estimated residence time greater than 300 years. This residence time is much greater than the fire recurrence interval so erosional and depositional features may become legacies from the wildfire and may affect landscape evolution by acting as a new set of initial conditions for subsequent wildfire and flood sequences. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Plasticity in vertical behaviour of migrating juvenile southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) in relation to oceanography of the south Indian Ocean

    Abstract Electronic tagging provides unprecedented information on the habitat use and behaviour of highly migratory marine predators, but few analyses have developed quantitative links between animal behaviour and their oceanographic context. In this paper we use archival tag data from juvenile southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii, SBT) to (i) develop a novel approach characterising the oceanographic habitats used throughout an annual migration cycle on the basis of water column structure (i.e., temperature-at-depth data from tags), and (ii) model how the vertical behaviour of SBT altered in relation to habitat type and other factors. Using this approach, we identified eight habitat types occupied by juvenile SBT between the southern margin of the subtropical gyre and the northern edge of the Subantarctic Front in the south Indian Ocean. Although a high degree of variability was evident both within and between fish, mixed-effect models identified consistent behavioural responses to habitat, lunar phase, migration status and diel period. Our results indicate SBT do not act to maintain preferred depth or temperature ranges, but rather show highly plastic behaviours in response to changes in their environment. This plasticity is discussed in terms of the potential proximate causes (physiological, ecological) and with reference to the challenges posed for habitat-based standardisation of fishery data used in stock assessments. [source]

    Ichthyoplankton-based spawning dynamics of blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus) in south-eastern Australia: links to the East Australian Current

    Abstract We describe findings of three ichthyoplankton surveys undertaken along south-eastern Australia during spring (October 2002, 2003) and winter (July 2004) to examine spawning habitat and dynamics of blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus). Surveys covered ,860 nautical miles between southern Queensland (Qld; 24.6°S) and southern New South Wales (NSW; 41.7°S), and were mainly centred on the outer shelf including the shelf break. Egg identifications were verified applying mtDNA barcoding techniques. Eggs (n = 2971) and larvae (n = 727; 94% preflexion) occurred both in spring and winter, and were confined to 25.0,34.6°S. Greatest abundances (numbers per 10 m2) of eggs (1214,7390) and larvae (437,1172) occurred within 10 nm shoreward from the break in northern NSW. Quotient analyses on egg abundances revealed that spawning is closely linked to a combination of bathymetric and hydrographic factors, with the outer shelf as preferred spawning area, in waters 100,125 m deep with mean temperatures of 19,20°C. Eggs and larvae in spring occurred in waters of the East Australian Current (EAC; 20.6,22.3°C) and mixed (MIX; 18.5,19.8°C) waters, with none occurring further south in the Tasman Sea (TAS; 16.0,17.0°C). Results indicate that at least some of the south-eastern Australian blue mackerel stock spawns during winter-spring between southern Qld and northern NSW, and that no spawning takes place south of 34.6°S due to low temperatures (<17°C). Spawning is linked to the EAC intrusion, which also facilitates the southward transport of eggs and larvae. Since spring peak egg abundances came from where the EAC deflects offshore, eggs and larvae are possibly being advected eastwards along this deflection front. This proposition is discussed based on recent data on blue mackerel larvae found apparently entrained along the Tasman Front. [source]

    Differing body size between the autumn and the winter,spring cohorts of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) related to the oceanographic regime in the North Pacific: a hypothesis

    Taro Ichii
    Abstract The neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii), which is the target of an important North Pacific fishery, is comprised of an autumn and winter,spring cohort. During summer, there is a clear separation of mantle length (ML) between the autumn (ML range: 38,46 cm) and the winter,spring cohorts (ML range: 16,28 cm) despite their apparently contiguous hatching periods. We examined oceanic conditions associated with spawning/nursery and northward migration habitats of the two different-sized cohorts. The seasonal meridional movement of the sea surface temperature (SST) range at which spawning is thought to occur (21,25°C) indicates that the spawning ground occurs farther north during autumn (28,34°N) than winter,spring (20,28°N). The autumn spawning ground coincides with the Subtropical Frontal Zone (STFZ), characterized by enhanced productivity in winter because of its close proximity to the Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front (TZCF), which move south to the STFZ from the Subarctic Boundary. Hence this area is thought to become a food-rich nursery ground in winter. The winter,spring spawning ground, on the other hand, coincides with the Subtropical Domain, which is less productive throughout the year. Furthermore, as the TZCF and SST front migrate northward in spring and summer, the autumn cohort has the advantage of being in the SST front and productive area north of the chlorophyll front, whereas the winter,spring cohort remains to the south in a less productive area. Thus, the autumn cohort can utilize a food-rich habitat from winter through summer, which, we hypothesize, causes its members to grow larger than those in the winter,spring cohort in summer. [source]

    Localized ductile thrusting north of the Variscan Front, Ross Island, southwest Ireland

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2003
    Paul A. M. Nex
    Abstract Two thrusts occur on Ross Island: the Head of Ross Thrust and the more southerly Ross Island Thrust. These lie to the north of the Killarney,Mallow Fault (KMF), the boundary frequently interpreted as the Variscan Front. The Ross Island Thrust, exposed in outcrop and in seven borehole cores, has emplaced dark blue,grey limestones of the Courceyan Ballysteen Formation over pale grey,brown Rockfield Limestone Formation of Chadian,Holkerian age. These lithologies at Ross Island exhibit a continuum of deformation at both the micro- and macro-scale, beginning with the generation of a spaced cleavage, formed during layer parallel shortening, that was subsequently rotated into parallelism with fold axial planes. Extensional microstructures are predominant in thin section and are associated with attenuation of the fold limb. Calcite veins are also attenuated and lie parallel to a mylonitic fabric close to the thrust plane. Lithological boundaries, the prominent pressure solution cleavage and the southerly dipping limb of an asymmetrical antiform are all parallel and form a composite planar anisotropy. This has controlled the location of the ductile Ross Island Thrust, which formed during the attenuation and shearing of a common fold limb. Ductile thrusts within the limestones at Ross Island contrast with the reactivation of basin-margin extensional faults further to the south along the major KMF. The Ross Island Thrust is considered to result from deformation ahead of the major northerly propagating Variscan décollement thrust and does not necessitate a continuous décollement structure north of the KMF. Mineralization at Ross Island exhibits remobilization associated with the formation of a pressure-solution cleavage and probably pre-dates thrusting. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Myth of the Eastern Front: The Nazi,Soviet War in American Popular Culture , By Ronald Smelser and Edward L. Davies II

    HISTORY, Issue 320 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Empire's War Recalled: Recent Writing on the Western Front Experience of Britain, Ireland, Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa and the West Indies

    John Connor
    The ninetieth anniversary of the end of the First World War in 2008 was marked with the publication of a number of works in many parts of what was once the British Empire. We saw an increased output in publications on the Western Front. In Britain, the recent literature attempts to rehabilitate Douglas Haig and define the ,learning curve' that enabled the British army to defeat Germany in 1918. In Australia, Canada and New Zealand, the performance of their soldiers on the Western Front is seen as central to national identity and this now focuses on military success rather than sacrifice in a futile war. In India, South Africa and Jamaica, there is a renewed interest in linking the First World War to national identities based on the independence or liberation struggle. In Ireland, the Great War is seen as a shared experience that can link the Nationalist and Unionist traditions in Northern Ireland and the Republic. The article concludes that this interest in the Western Front will continue into the next decade in the lead-up to the centenary of the First World War. [source]

    United Front: Blame Management and Scandal Response Tactics of the United Nations

    Tereza Capelos
    In this paper we conduct a systematic study of the United Nations (UN) responses to allegations of transgression. We examine the patterns in the UN reaction to scandals, the types of accounts, the institutional providers of the responses, and the implications of scandals for the UN and its' official(s). We conduct a content analysis of the UN scandal and account coverage in international (print) media in the last 25 years, and find a scandal-responsive UN, particularly in the case of institutional scandals. Concessions issued by the office of the Secretary General is dominant UN account to allegations of misconduct. Individual staff members implicated in the scandals offer a greater variety of accounts and often suffer resignations and severe punishments. [source]

    Front Cover Picture: Laser & Photon.

    Rev. 4(4)/2010
    Illustration of local deformation in an isolated carbon nanotube due to the pressure applied through the apex of a nano-tip. By sensing this local deformation by means of Raman shift in TERS, the sample can be imaged with extremely high spatial resolution.(Picture: P. Verma et al., pp. 548,561, in this issue) [source]

    Front Cover Picture: Laser & Photon.

    Rev. 4(3)/2010
    The ultra-low timing jitter of optical pulse trains from femtosecond mode-locked lasers can be used for the attosecond-precision generation, distribution, measurement, and synchronization of optical and microwave signals. (Picture: Jungwon Kim and Franz X. Kärtner, pp. 432 in this issue) [source]

    Front Cover Picture: Laser & Photon.

    Rev. 4(2)/2010
    Schematic of resonant transmission through nanohole array using electron microscope image of as-fabricated sample. With applications ranging from linear and nonlinear optics to sensing and spectroscopy, nanohole arrays are promising for compact device integration. (Picture: R. Gordon et al., pp. 311,335, in this issue) [source]

    Front Cover Picture: Laser & Photon.

    LASER & PHOTONICS REVIEWS, Issue 1-2 2009
    Rev. 3(1-2)/200
    A train of optical pulses are injected into a quantum dot semiconductor optical waveguide, where the velocity is slowed down and the pulsewidth is reduced. [source]

    Front Cover (Phys. Status Solidi B 6/2010)

    M. Grundmann
    A Special Section in this issue (pp. 1257,1392) is devoted to research conducted in the research group FOR 522 headed by Prof. Marius Grundmann (University of Leipzig, Germany). The group designed and realized various nanostructures with three-dimensionally controlled geometry. Nanowires based on III,V and II,VI semiconductors as well as thermoelectric materials have been investigated. Curved structures , screws, spirals, tubes, and scrolls , have been fabricated using internal strains and specially designed growth processes. Out of the various explored structures promising routes for the study of fundamental effects have been identified which provide ample opportunities for further research. [source]

    Front Cover (Phys. Status Solidi B 2/2010)

    Article first published online: 21 JAN 2010
    First page of article [source]

    Front Cover: Plasma Process.

    Front Cover: Organosilicon plasma polymer thin films undergo modifications as they are exposed to an oxygen plasma. Under well chosen oxygen plasma conditions, they can even be converted into SiO2 -like films as shown by FTIR transmission spectra and X-ray reflectometry measurements. Further details can be found in the Full Paper by A. Granier*, G. Borvon, A. Bousquet, A. Goullet, C. Leteinturier, and A. van der Lee on page 365. [source]

    Front Cover: Plasma Process.

    Front Cover: The regime of plasma polymerization can be described by the evaluation of the mass deposition rates depending on the specific energy delivered to the active plasma zone. Thus, plasma reactors with well defined geometries support this macroscopic approach, which was found to hold also for gas mixtures of polymerizable and non-polymerizable gases. Further details can be found in the Full Paper by D. Hegemann,* and M.-M. Hossain on page 554. [source]

    Looking at Paintings from Left, Front and Right

    Abraham Tamir
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Hitler's Home Front: Württemberg under the Nazis , By Jill Stephenson

    THE HISTORIAN, Issue 1 2009
    David J. Diephouse
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    What's in a Name?: The Development of Strategies of Attrition on the Western Front, 1914,1918

    THE HISTORIAN, Issue 4 2006
    Robert T. Foley
    First page of article [source]

    All-Out For Victory: Magazine Advertising and the World War II Home Front by John Bush Jones

    Scott Beekman
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    When Anthropology Fails: Stories from the Ethnographic Front

    Suzan Erem
    This is the story of he prices people pay for knowledge and what happens when they are too high. It is the story of some of the gratifications and frustrations of a collaborative project that relied equally on inside and outside views and called heavily on each of us. [source]

    Front and Back Covers, Volume 26, Number 5.

    ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, Issue 5 2010
    October 2010
    Front and back cover caption, volume 26 issue 5 Front cover RETHINKING SUICIDE BOMBING The body is a key focus for anthropological research and analysis. The cover photographs highlight the way multiple aspects of life, including political life, are mapped onto the body, and the emergence of a collective, as well as individual, identity through these experiences. The front cover shows a young Palestinian boy staring at an Israeli guard's gun, inches from his face, while waiting at the Abu Dis checkpoint in East Jerusalem. Although the scene is calm, the photograph captures an implicit violence (any step out of line can and will be punished) and reveals the daily reality of political and structural violence in the lives of Palestinians. In this image, the child can be seen as an individual who may experience personal trauma as a result of these daily encounters with violence. But he can also be seen as representing a collective Palestinian body which, under the occupation, is humiliated and forced into a childlike position, with daily decisions, including over movement, entirely in the control of Israeli forces. In her article in this issue, Natalia Linos calls on anthropology to offer a critical analysis of suicide bombing and examine the central role of the body in this act. She posits that in a context of political and structural violence that encroaches on both individual and group identity, suicide attacks may be considered an extreme form of reclaiming the violated body through self-directed violence. Through suicide attacks in public spaces, the body may be used to contest physical barriers imposed by an oppressor, resist power imbalances, and reclaim authority over one's body as well as geographical space. Back cover ASSEMBLING BODIES The back cover shows a South African ,body map', on display at the University of Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (MAA) until 6 November 2010 as part of the exhibition ,Assembling bodies: Art, science and imagination', reviewed in this issue. This self-portrait by Babalwa depicts her life as an activist and epitomizes the ethical and political negotiations that surround definition and treatment of particular bodies in contemporary South Africa. Babalwa was a member of the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), which successfully campaigned for the widespread availability of antiretroviral treatment therapies. Her self-portrait is one of a series of life-sized body maps made by members of the Bambanani Womens Group in 2003, as part of a project documenting the lives of women with HIV/AIDS. The body maps and associated narratives trace the co-existence of multiple ways of understanding and experiencing bodies and disease in these women's lives. The imagery , referring to family and friends, political life, biomedical science, anatomical details, moral pollution and religious beliefs , suggests many bodies existing within a single corporeal form. In addition to revealing individual subjectivities, the body maps also highlight the shifting dynamics of sociality. Behind each self-portrait is the outline of another shadowy form, a reminder of the help received and the potential for future support. [source]

    Front and Back Covers, Volume 26, Number 4.

    ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, Issue 4 2010
    August 2010
    Front cover caption, volume 26 issue 4 Front cover THE GAZA FREEDOM FLOTILLA Mohammed Rassas, a second-generation Palestinian, sports a T-shirt declaring his longing for the homeland he has never known. Mohammed's family was forced to leave Palestine long before he was born, with no opportunity for return. Instead, Mohammed has lived most of his life between Saudi Arabia and Greece, which became his second home. For three weeks Mohammed joined dozens of Greek, Arab and Western volunteers in preparing the Greek ship Eleftheri Mesogeios (,Free Mediterranean'), to carry 2000 tons of humanitarian aid, including prefabricated houses and hospital equipment, to Gaza. The ship formed part of the Gaza Freedom Flotilla, an international effort by volunteers from 36 countries that aimed to send eight ships to Gaza, carrying 700 passengers and 10,000 tonnes of humanitarian aid, in an attempt to prise open the strict embargo Israel has imposed on the Gaza strip since 2007. The Israeli army attacked the flotilla in international waters, killing eight Turkish nationals and one Turkish-American national, and injuring many more. Flotilla participants were placed behind bars. Intending to propagate their own version of events, the Israeli authorities confiscated audio-visual records made by witnesses. As an ethnographer invited to participate in the flotilla, Nikolas Kosmatopoulos was a witness to the events that took place. His notes are published in the form of a narrative in this issue of ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY. Israel has so far rejected the UN's call for an international independent inquiry. The Turkish government has threatened to cut all ties with Israel unless it apologizes or agrees to such an inquiry. Back cover CLIMATE CHANGE ,There is no planet B': an estimated 100,000 people demonstrate at the Copenhagen Climate talks, 12 December 2009. Since the débâcle of the UN Climate talks in Copenhagen last December, a broad new global coalition of resistance has begun to emerge. It includes the Climate Camp protesters who took direct action against the coal-fired Kingsnorth power station and the fourth runway at Heathrow, the tens of thousands of demonstrators who joined the Wave in London in December and the estimated 100,000 who marched at Copenhagen. They join others who have intimate experience of melting sea ice and Andean glaciers, flooding in Bangladesh and New Orleans and droughts in Africa. In April, in Cochabamba, Bolivia, a conference of 35,000 people, many of them indigenous Americans, began to organize to protect themselves and Mother Earth , Pachamama , to avert catastrophic climate change. This new social movement poses a personal and professional challenge to anthropologists to integrate climate issues and global politics into the discipline and into their lives. [source]

    Front and Back Covers, Volume 26, Number 3.

    ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, Issue 3 2010
    June 2010
    Front cover caption, volume 26 issue 3 Front cover A Greenpeace activist dressed as Justice protests in front of the Japanese embassy in Buenos Aires. She draws attention to the trial of Toru Suzuki and Junichi Sato, two Greenpeace activists seeking to expose corruption in the Japanese whale meat industry, who are being prosecuted in the Japanese courts for theft and trespass, in a trial that has continued since 2008. Back in 1993, Arne Kalland analyzed the notable success of the Western environmental movement, Greenpeace in particular, in mobilizing public opinion against continued whaling in the northern hemisphere. The key to this success, Kalland argued, lay in the environmentalists' construction of the ,superwhale', an imaginary, mythic creation which displayed numerous positive qualities with which people could closely identify. Environmentalist thinking has now become intertwined with the discourse of animal rights, including the claim that whales are special to the extent that they are entitled to legal rights on a somewhat similar basis to human beings. In this image, the script on the dress, the Japanese emblem of the rising sun, the blindfold and the scales of justice unbalanced by Japanese-caught whale meat all work to signify that the Japanese are entirely out of step with such progressive ideas. In this issue, Adrian Peace argues that the conflicting attitudes of Japan and Australia to whales and on the practice of whaling stem from diverging cultural and historical factors , the most basic among which is that, whilst Australians construe whales as awesome mammals, the Japanese perceive them as mere fish. Back cover FOOTBALL IN AFRICA On 11 June 2010, all eyes will turn to Johannesburg, South Africa, for the start of the 19th FIFA World Cup. The month-long tournament is one of the world's biggest sporting events, and this year will involve 32 teams from all over the world, attracting a worldwide audience of over 3 billion people and involving commercial agreements worth more than US $21 billion. Significantly, this is also the first time the competition has been held on the African continent. On the eve of the tournament, Richard Vokes reflects on the history and meaning of ,the beautiful game' in Africa, on the basis of a case study from southwestern Uganda. Football was introduced to Uganda by early European missionaries, and later gained in popularity as a result of the patronage it received from first colonial, and later post-colonial, state enterprises. However, the game's current mass appeal is a more recent phenomenon, due in large part to the media reforms introduced in Uganda after 1986, and the advent of satellite broadcasting technology. Vokes examines the nature of this new fandom, and of the media environments which have generated it. He argues that whilst certain features of the current craze , in particular, its peculiar fascination for specifically English football , can be seen as an outcome of spectatorship, this does not mean that the phenomenon is superficial. On the contrary, the new interest in football in Uganda has frequently produced unexpected, and in some ways quite profound, social effects. In his editorial Keith Hart uses the occasion of the World Cup to reflect on South Africa's significance for the world, as both the most developed African nation and the chief victim of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. [source]

    Front and Back Covers, Volume 26, Number 2.

    ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, Issue 2 2010
    April 2010
    Front cover caption, volume 26 issue 2 A positive, albeit anthropomorphized, view of badgers appears in this illustration for the original edition of the children's classic Wind in the willows. Badgers are shortly to be culled in north Pembrokeshire as part of a Welsh Assembly Government campaign against bovine TB. Pat Caplan's article in this issue discusses the arguments around the cull and the reasons behind the varying positions held by local people on this issue. Back cover caption Witchcraft and Child Sacrifice Above: a poster (supported by NGOs including Save the Children Uganda) against ,child sacrifice' in Uganda, a current topic of concern both to Ugandans and to anthropologists who have criticized media representations of this issue. Below: a Save the Children poster publicizing the main principles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, signed by 191 countries. These rights include, among others, the rights to: be protected from being hurt or badly treated in any way; not be kidnapped or sold; be protected from being taken advantage of or exploited in any way; not be punished in a cruel or hurtful way. The article by Pat Caplan in this issue discusses a number of recent BBC broadcasts focused on allegations of witchcraft and child sacrifice, and asks what anthropologists have to offer in terms of understanding such topics. Caplan notes that they can not only contribute their knowledge of the occult in many societies, but also contextualize this realm in terms of historical processes and more material concerns. In addition, anthropologists can suggest links between apparently disparate issues and thereby go beyond surface manifestations. While anthropologists have no monopoly on truth claims, they can sometimes offer alternative explanations and show that things are not always the way they first seem. In order to play an effective role as public intellectuals in this regard, anthropologists need to be willing to grapple pro-actively with such matters of public concern, not least by engaging constructively with the media. [source]

    Covers, volume 26, Number 1, 2010

    ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, Issue 1 2010
    Article first published online: 2 FEB 2010
    Front and back cover caption, volume 26 issue 1 POST-SOVIET RUSSIAN ORTHODOXY The last 20 years have seen a striking revitalization of Orthodoxy in Russia. This is remarkable considering that for more than 70 years following the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 the Soviet regime imposed ,scientific atheism' on its citizens. Russian Orthodoxy, institutionally dominated by the Russian Orthodox Church, has emerged as a crucial source of morality and identity. The personal dimension is intertwined with politics and the co-operation between the Church and the Russian state has strong symbolic implications. The close association between religion and the army is evident in this religious procession. For millions of Russians of different social backgrounds and ages, the fall of the Soviet state still leaves a bitter taste, stemming from the feeling of loss of territory and of superpower status. The Russian Orthodox Church offers an avenue for retrieving a sense of power and moral righteousness. However, the prominence of the Church and its symbols does not necessarily mean that young soldiers acquire religious knowledge and observe the rules of the Church in their everyday behaviour. Soldiers are no different from teachers, businessmen, or impoverished urban residents in general who, in the face of post-socialist uncertainties, turn to Orthodoxy for healing, protection and as an insurance against an unclear future. Orthodoxy also contributes to the construction of a harmonious and idealized narrative about the recent past, obscuring the memory of violence of the state against Orthodox believers under the Soviet regime. An anthropology of the Russian case , and religion in the postsocialist world generally , can shed new light on debates about religion in the public realm, secularization, individual morality and identity in the contemporary world. [source]