Frame

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Frame

  • bp open reading frame
  • common frame
  • conceptual frame
  • concrete frame
  • cultural frame
  • different frame
  • image frame
  • issue frame
  • key frame
  • long time frame
  • media frame
  • moment-resisting frame
  • open reading frame
  • open-reading frame
  • reading frame
  • reasonable time frame
  • reference frame
  • reinforced concrete frame
  • rotating frame
  • sample frame
  • sampling frame
  • short time frame
  • steel frame
  • time frame
  • video frame

  • Terms modified by Frame

  • frame analysis
  • frame building
  • frame count
  • frame encoding
  • frame rate
  • frame shift
  • frame shift mutation
  • frame structure

  • Selected Abstracts


    ASIAN CINEMA IN A GLOBAL FRAME edited by Anne Tereska Ciecko

    ART HISTORY, Issue 1 2009
    Alessandra Lopez y Royo
    First page of article [source]


    NEW FRAMES OF ARCHAEOMETRICAL DESCRIPTION OF SPINDLE WHORLS: A CASE STUDY OF THE LATE ENEOLITHIC SPINDLE WHORLS FROM THE 1C SITE IN GRÓDEK, DISTRICT OF HRUBIESZÓW, POLAND

    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 5 2010
    T. CHMIELEWSKI
    The essential role of yarn spinning in textile production is indisputable. In this context, spindle whorls, the basic spinning accessories that can be found in the archaeological record, are commonly discussed. Even though the importance of the technical specification of spindle whorls has been already recognized by some authors, their functional characteristics are usually limited to the basic parameters affecting their usage range (i.e., weight, diameter and height). And since the mass moment of inertia of spindle whorls is considered to be a salient index when discussing their technical variability, the descriptions are deficient. With this short study, we intend to implement further research with more complete and flexible frames for the description of spindle whorls, based on a simple and fast-paced method of the angular mass measurement as well as relevant typology based on clear morphometrical criteria. On the basis of the examination of a small sample of Eneolithic artefacts (the South-Eastern Group of the Funnel Beaker Culture, c. 3650 to 2800 bc), a case study of the functioning of spindle whorls is also conducted. [source]


    A Comparative Analysis of the Drafting of European Private Law

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
    Bastiaan Van Zelst
    The development of the ,Common Frame of Reference' is a highly prominent topic on the agenda of European integration. However, its underlying procedures have had only limited investigation. This article discusses the European private law project by inquiring into the drafting experiences of four other private law legislative processes, with a focus on sales law. These instruments concern Article 2 (on sales) of the American Uniform Commercial Code, the Vienna Sales Convention, the Dutch Civil Code and the Directive on Consumer Sales and Associated Guarantees. Ultimately, the article asks what can the European project learn from these experiences. [source]


    A European Legal Method?

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009
    On European Private Law, Scientific Method
    This article examines the relationship between European private law and scientific method. It argues that a European legal method is a good idea. Not primarily because it will make European private law scholarship look more scientific, but because a debate on the method of a normative science necessarily has to be a debate on its normative assumptions. In other words, a debate on a European legal method will have much in common with the much desired debate on social justice in European law. Moreover, it submits that, at least after the adoption of the Common Frame of Reference by the European institutions, European contract law can be regarded as a developing multi-level system that can be studied from the inside. Finally, it concludes that the Europeanisation of private law is gradually blurring the dividing line between the internal and external perspectives, with their respective appropriate methods, in two mutually reinforcing ways. First, in the developing multi-level system it is unclear where the external borders of the system lie, in particular the borders between Community law and national law. Second, because of the less formal legal culture the (formerly) external perspectives, such as the economic perspective, have easier access and play an increasing role as policy considerations. [source]


    SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL INSECT PHOSPHOGLYCERATE MUTASE GENE FROM THE CHINESE HONEYBEE, APIS CERANA,

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 4 2003
    Jiang-hong Li
    Abstract A clone inserted with 1 104 bp fragment containing a 765bp Open Reading Frame(ORF), encoding a putative 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate(2,3BPG) dependent Phosphoglycerate mutase(dPGAM) that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from the C3 carbon atom to the C2 carbon atom of phosphoglycerate, was screened by mass sequencing from the cDNA library of the venom glands of Apis cerana. The deduced amino acid sequence shared high similarities (39% - 88%)with the dPGAM of 7 other organisms, but the similarities with the iPGAM of 4 other organisms were low (10% - 12%). Moreover, the alignment of Ac-PGAM with the dPGAMs from 7 other organisms showed that all the active site amino acid residues were conserved. This result shows that Ac-PGAM is a typical dPGAM. Thus, this is the second PGAM gene reported in Insecta. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that the evolutionary tree of PGAMs reflects the systematic relationship of species. [source]


    Modelling strain localization in granular materials using micropolar theory: mathematical formulations

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS IN GEOMECHANICS, Issue 15 2006
    Mustafa I. Alsaleh
    Abstract It has been known that classical continuum mechanics laws fail to describe strain localization in granular materials due to the mathematical ill-posedness and mesh dependency. Therefore, a non-local theory with internal length scales is needed to overcome such problems. The micropolar and high-order gradient theories can be considered as good examples to characterize the strain localization in granular materials. The fact that internal length scales are needed requires micromechanical models or laws; however, the classical constitutive models can be enhanced through the stress invariants to incorporate the Micropolar effects. In this paper, Lade's single hardening model is enhanced to account for the couple stress and Cosserat rotation and the internal length scales are incorporated accordingly. The enhanced Lade's model and its material properties are discussed in detail; then the finite element formulations in the Updated Lagrangian Frame (UL) are used. The finite element formulations were implemented into a user element subroutine for ABAQUS (UEL) and the solution method is discussed in the companion paper. The model was found to predict the strain localization in granular materials with low dependency on the finite element mesh size. The shear band was found to reflect on a certain angle when it hit a rigid boundary. Applications for the model on plane strain specimens tested in the laboratory are discussed in the companion paper. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Frame of reference rater training issues: recall, time and behavior observation training

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2003
    Sylvia G. Roch
    This study investigated three controversial issues regarding frame of reference training (FOR), a type of rater training: (1) Does it improve behavioral recall, (2) Can it be improved by incorporating behavior observation training (BOT), and (3) Can its effects persist over time? Results suggested that even though FOR training increases the number of behaviors recalled, it does not necessarily improve the quality of the recalled behaviors, but a combined FOR + BOT program does improve recall quality. Lastly, results suggested that FOR training can improve rating accuracy, even after a two-week delay between rater training and the rating task. [source]


    Between Objectivity and Illusion: Architectural Photography in the Colonial Frame

    JOURNAL OF ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION, Issue 1 2001
    Vikramaditya Prakash
    In this paper, I compare the use of photography by Sawai Ram Singh, the maharaja of the Princely State of Jaipur in colonial India, and by James Fergusson, the earliest historiographer of Indian architecture. Contrasting the "objective" use of photography by the colonist, with the maharaja's hybridized and illusionistic images, I argue that photography, on the one hand, helped fix "India" into stereotypical brackets, but on the other enabled the colonized to re-invent himself in more contemporary and potentially threatening ways. Foreshadowing the contadictory nature of postcolonial modernity, photography, in other words, enabled the maharaja to simultaneously resist the hegemonic interests of the colonizer while coveting and appropriating the instruments and signs of the West to his own ends. [source]


    "I Know I'm a Freierit, But,": How a Key Cultural Frame (En)genders a Discourse of Inequality

    JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION, Issue 1 2005
    Linda-Renée Bloch
    This article investigates how a key frame of interaction establishes and reinforces gendered social relations within a given culture. It analyzes how the concept of the freier (roughly glossed as "sucker") is used in Israel, interpersonally and via the mass media, to demonstrate how gender is constructed through communication and inextricably bound to the specific cultural context in which it is located. This work exposes how the frame reinforces the underlying dynamics of gender inequality in society, examines the oppositional ways in which it is employed by women, and argues that its use in any form further entrenches the social bias. The article calls for analyses of discourse focusing on nondominant groups, within their specific cultural context, in order to examine the practical distribution of power in society. [source]


    Comparison of Three Pebble Count Protocols (EMAP, PIBO, and SFT) in Two Mountain Gravel-Bed Streams,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 5 2009
    Kristin Bunte
    Abstract:, Although the term "pebble count" is in widespread use, there is no standardized methodology used for the field application of this procedure. Each pebble count analysis is the product of several methodological choices, any of which are capable of influencing the final result. Because there are virtually countless variations on pebble count protocols, the question of how their results differ when applied to the same study reach is becoming increasingly important. This study compared three pebble count protocols: the reach-averaged Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) protocol named after the EMAP developed by the Environmental Protection Agency, the habitat-unit specific U.S. Forest Service's PACFISH/INFISH Biological Opinion (PIBO) Effectiveness Monitoring Program protocol, and a data-intensive method developed by the authors named Sampling Frame and Template (SFT). When applied to the same study reaches, particle-size distributions varied among the three pebble count protocols because of differences in sample locations within a stream reach and along a transect, in particle selection, and particle-size determination. The EMAP protocol yielded considerably finer, and the PIBO protocol considerably coarser distributions than the SFT protocol in the pool-riffle study streams, suggesting that the data cannot be used interchangeably. Approximately half of the difference was due to sampling at different areas within the study reach (i.e., wetted width, riffles, and bankfull width) and at different locations within a transect. The other half was attributed to using different methods for particle selection from the bed, particle-size determination, and the use of wide, nonstandard size classes. Most of the differences in sampling outcomes could be eliminated by using simple field tools, by collecting a larger sample size, and by systematically sampling the entire bankfull channel and all geomorphic units within the reach. [source]


    Comparative effect of red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus), red beet root (Beta vulgaris) and betanin (E-162) on colour and consumer acceptability of fresh pork sausages packaged in a modified atmosphere

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 4 2006
    Luis Martínez
    Abstract Fresh pork sausages containing natural colorants, red yeast rice powder (Monascus purpureus; Frame®) or a crude red beet root (Beta vulgaris) juice or commercial betanin (E-162), at different concentrations, were packaged in an atmosphere containing 80% O2 and 20% CO2 and stored in the dark for 20 days. The following parameters were measured at 4 day intervals: instrumental colour (CIE L*, a*, b*, a*/b*, C* and h*), reflectance spectra, sensory discoloration (trained panel) and acceptability and willingness to purchase (habitual and non-habitual consumer panels) under two different lighting displays (standard fluorescent and Promolux® lamp). The use of colorants improved the colour properties of fresh pork sausages. Sausages with red yeast rice, red beet root juice and betanin had lower L* and h* and higher a* and a*/b* values than control samples. The colour properties of sausages with red beet root were the closest to control sausages, while sausages with red yeast rice had significantly lower b* values. Both natural colorants and betanin protected sausages from discoloration and extended acceptability and willingness to purchase by about 4 days, according to evaluation by habitual consumers under two different types of lighting display. Therefore, red beet root juice may be envisaged as the most suitable natural colorant for use in fresh pork sausages. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    How Race, Sex, and Age Frame the Use of Authority by Local Government Officials

    LAW & SOCIAL INQUIRY, Issue 3 2010
    Shannon Portillo
    Thanks to the civil rights movement, women and racial and ethnic minorities increasingly hold positions of public authority,but they experience and exercise this authority differently from white men. Based on 162 narratives collected from 49 US local government officials (city administrators and police), I find that women, minorities, and younger officials in positions of authority face a paradox of rules. Because they have lower social status with the public and within their organizations, they must rely on formal and explicit rules as a key basis for their authority, but such reliance causes their very authority to be questioned. Social status based on implicit assumptions about social identities, including race or ethnicity, sex, and age, originates outside of organizations and has effects society wide. This study shows that social status continues to permeate US local government organizations in both subtle and explicit ways, even in bureaucratic settings that are formally committed to merit and professional norms. [source]


    Framing the Lewinsky Affair: Third-Person Judgments by Scandal Frame

    POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Mark R. Joslyn
    Recent studies have documented a "third-person effect" whereby people are found to judge others as more influenced than themselves by the mass media. Meanwhile, contemporary research on issue framing has demonstrated the powerful role of mass media in shaping people's political judgments. But are the perceptual judgments that define third-person effects sensitive to how the media frame an issue? Two studies investigated this question in the context of the Lewinsky-Clinton scandal, one in late August 1998 and the other during spring 1999. Several hundred undergraduates in each study were randomly assigned to one of two media frames. In the 1998 study, the political scandal was depicted as a matter of sexual indiscretion by the president or as legal wrongdoing; in the 1999 study, the recently concluded impeachment process was depicted as the consequence of partisanship or of Clinton's actions. The participants' judgments of media influence on themselves and on the public were then recorded. The results show that third-person effects were sensitive to issue framing, but change occurred primarily in participants' judgments about their own vulnerability to media influence. [source]


    Finding energy in strategic project management: an essay in honour of Dean Fang

    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2001
    Donald CurtisArticle first published online: 16 OCT 200
    A development project is an intervention that is designed to makes things better in a particular context or situation. It is always a problem to know what to do for the best. The Logical Framework, evaluated in this journal last year (Gasper, 2000), is a project-planning and management technique widely applied by multilateral as well as bilateral donor agencies in international development work. It was designed to prevent project managers from simply offering to do what they had always done before and instead to think strategically about cause and effect in context. The present article respects this logical approach but focuses attention upon context. Context is considered in the right-hand column of a Log Frame. The article seeks inspiration in ancient Chinese concepts of energy: Yin,Yang and Wu,Wei. The search is for a form of project management that minimizes energy consumption in its own internal processes and maximizes energy release in the context that the project seeks to transform. Context has to be examined for opportunities rather than constraints. The article advocates management by being a still presence, as against management by rushing about. It borrows the old-fashioned idea about being a catalyst and validates the now fashionable concepts of enabling and empowering. It also rediscovers at least some virtue in the Blueprint Project. The article seeks to be practical. A management development project in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa provides some illustrations and an incomplete example of what might be entailed if energy is brought into the equations of project management. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Rotating Frame for the In-situ Fixation of Large Animals

    ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 1 2009
    F.-V. Salomon
    Summary The frame for the in-situ fixation of large animals can be rotated around its longtitudinal axis. Thereby the fixing procedure is improved and the anatomical preparation is easier. [source]


    Leading Change in Local Government: The Tension between Evolutionary and Frame,breaking Reform in NSW

    AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, Issue 3 2002
    Robert Jones
    As a result of changing legislation the role of general managers in Australian local government is being transformed from administrative compliance to proactive managerial direction. They are expected to possess leadership, visionary and other change management skills not previously exercised in local government. This paper analyses how the general managers of four councils in Sydney have attempted to lead their respective organisations through their reform agendas. The four councils represented two comparison groups at each extreme of a change continuum ranging from evolutionary to frame,breaking change. Data collected from the four councils since 1994 used personal interviews, participant observation and analysis of documentation. The paper tracks the evolutionary and framebreaking reform, paying particular attention to the role, personality and leadership styles of the general managers. Emergent themes are identified and analysed as they relate to the impact of the general manager on the type of reform processes adopted. [source]


    The Motor Core of Speech: A Comparison of Serial Organization Patterns in Infants and Languages

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2000
    Peter F. MacNeilage
    Comparison of serial organization of infant babbling and early speech with that of 10 languages reveals four movement-related design features reflecting a deep evolutionary heritage: (1) the cyclical consonant,vowel alternation underlying the syllable, a "Frame" for speech consisting of mandibular oscillation, possibly evolving from ingestive cyclicities (e.g., chewing) via visuofacial communicative cyclicities (e.g., lipsmacks); (2) three intracyclical consonant,vowel co-occurrence preferences reflecting basic biomechanical constraints , coronal consonants,front vowels, dorsal consonants,back vowels, and labial consonants,central vowels; (3) a developmental progression from above-chance to below-chance levels of intercyclical consonant repetition; (4) an ease-related labial consonant,vowel, coronal consonant sequence preference for word initiation. These design features presumably result from self-organizational responses to selection pressures, primarily determined by motor factors. No explanation for these design features is available from Universal Grammar, and, except for feature 3, perceptual-motor learning seems to have only a limited causal role in acquisition of any design feature. [source]


    How we do it: Jain Tonsil ,A' Frame , a solution to slipping rods

    CLINICAL OTOLARYNGOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    K. Parmod Jain
    Keypoints ,,Tonsillectomy is the commonest ENT procedure performed in UK. ,,A Boyle-Davis mouth gag with tongue blade is used to keep the mouth open during the surgery. ,,Draffin bipod rods are commonly used to keep the gag in place. ,,These rods can slip during the procedure and can cause considerable harm especially when laser is in use. ,,The tonsil ,A' frame is a useful instrument to overcome the disadvantages of other suspension devices. [source]


    Multiobjective Optimization of Concrete Frames by Simulated Annealing

    COMPUTER-AIDED CIVIL AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING, Issue 8 2008
    Ignacio Paya
    The evaluation of solutions follows the Spanish Code for structural concrete. The methodology was applied to a symmetrical building frame with two bays and four floors. This example has 77 design variables. Pareto results of the MOSA algorithm indicate that more practical, more constructable, more sustainable, and safer solutions than the lowest cost solution are available at a cost increment acceptable in practice. Results Ns -SMOSA1 and Ns -SMOSA2 of the cost versus constructability Pareto front are finally recommended because they are especially good in terms of cost, constructability, and environmental impact. Further, the methodology proposed will help structural engineers to enhance their designs of building frames. [source]


    Advanced Analysis of Steel Frames Using Parallel Processing and Vectorization

    COMPUTER-AIDED CIVIL AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING, Issue 5 2001
    C. M. Foley
    Advanced methods of analysis have shown promise in providing economical building structures through accurate evaluation of inelastic structural response. One method of advanced analysis is the plastic zone (distributed plasticity) method. Plastic zone analysis often has been deemed impractical due to computational expense. The purpose of this article is to illustrate applications of plastic zone analysis on large steel frames using advanced computational methods. To this end, a plastic zone analysis algorithm capable of using parallel processing and vector computation is discussed. Applicable measures for evaluating program speedup and efficiency on a Cray Y-MP C90 multiprocessor supercomputer are described. Program performance (speedup and efficiency) for parallel and vector processing is evaluated. Nonlinear response including postcritical branches of three large-scale fully restrained and partially restrained steel frameworks is computed using the proposed method. The results of the study indicate that advanced analysis of practical steel frames can be accomplished using plastic zone analysis methods and alternate computational strategies. [source]


    Influence of Self-Affirmation on Responses to Gain- Versus Loss-Framed Antismoking Messages

    HUMAN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH, Issue 4 2010
    Xiaoquan Zhao
    Self-affirmation has been shown to reduce biased processing of threatening health messages. In this study, the impact of self-affirmation on college smokers' reactions to gain- versus loss-framed antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) was examined. A consistent pattern of interaction was observed wherein self-affirmation produced more favorable responses to loss-framed PSAs and more unfavorable responses to gain-framed PSAs. Self-affirmation also reduced smoking intention in the loss frame condition and increased antismoking self-efficacy across framing conditions. These findings are discussed in light of previous research linking self-affirmation to increased message scrutiny. L'influence de l'affirmation de soi sur les réactions aux messages anti-tabac cadrés autour du gain ou de la perte Xiaoquan Zhao & Xiaoli Nan Il a été démontré que l'affirmation de soi réduit le traitement biaisé des messages menaçants concernant la santé. Dans cette étude, l'impact de l'affirmation de soi sur les réactions des étudiants universitaires fumeurs face à des messages d'intérêt public anti-tabac cadrés autour du gain ou de la perte a été examiné. Une tendance régulière d'interaction a été observée, selon laquelle l'affirmation de soi produisait des réactions plus favorables aux messages cadrés autour de la perte et des réactions plus défavorables aux messages cadrés autour du gain. L'affirmation de soi a également réduit l'intention de fumer dans les conditions de cadrage autour de la perte et a augmenté l'efficacité anti-tabac dans toutes les conditions de cadrage. Ces résultats sont commentés à la lumière de la recherche antérieure observant un lien entre l'affirmation de soi et une augmentation de l'examen attentif des messages. Der Einfluss von Selbstbestätigung auf die Reaktionen zu gewinn- vs. verlustgerahmten Anti-Raucher-Botschaften Xiaoquan Zhao & Xiaoli Nan Bislang konnte gezeigt werden, dass Selbstbestätigung eine voreingenommene Verarbeitung von bedrohlichen Gesundheitsbotschaften vermindert. In dieser Studie untersuchten wir den Einfluss von Selbstbestätigung auf die Reaktionen auf gewinn- vs. verlustgerahmte Anti-Raucher-Public Service Botschaften an einer Population von Universitätsstudierenden. Es zeigte sich ein konsistentes Interaktionsmuster in der Form, dass Selbstbestätigung zu stärker befürwortenden Reaktionen auf verlustgerahmte Botschaften führte und zu stärker ablehnenden Reaktionen auf gewinngerahmte Botschaften. Selbstbestätigung verminderte die Rauchintention in der verlustgerahmten Kondition und erhöhte die Anti-Rauchen-Selbstwirksamkeit für beide Frames. Diese Ergebnisse werden mit Blick auf bestehende Forschung zu Selbstbestätigung und erhöhter Botschaftswahrnehmung diskutiert. La Influencia de la Auto-Afirmación en las Respuestas a los Encuadres de Ganancia Versus de Pérdida de los Mensajes Anti-Tabaco Xiaoquan Zhao & Xiaoli Nan Department of Communication, George Mason University Resumen Se ha demostrado que la auto-afirmación reduce el procesamiento tendencioso de los mensajes de salud amenazantes. En este estudio, el impacto de la auto-afirmación en las reacciones de los estudiantes universitarios fumadores a los encuadres de ganancia- versus de pérdida de los anuncios de servicios públicos (PSA) anti-tabaco AQ1 fueron examinados. Una pauta consistente de interacción fue observada donde la auto-afirmación produjo respuestas más favorables a los PSA de encuadres de pérdida y respuestas más desfavorables a los encuadres de ganancia de los PSA. La auto-afirmación redujo también la intención de fumar en la condición de encuadre de pérdida e incrementó la auto-eficacia anti-tabaco a través de las condiciones de encuadre. Los hallazgos son discutidos a la luz de la investigación previa conectando a la auto-afirmación con el incremento del escrutinio del mensaje. [source]


    Abuse, Torture, Frames, and the Washington Post

    JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION, Issue 2 2010
    Douglas V. Porpora
    W. Bennett, R. Lawrence, and S. Livingston (2006, 2007) argue that the press,and the Washington Post in particular,acquiesced to Bush administration framing of the mistreatment of prisoners at Abu Ghraib. The administration, they say, framed the events as the isolated abuse of prisoners by "a few bad apples" unreflective of higher responsibility or administration policy. Absent,or near absent, Bennett et al. maintain, was a Post counterframe of the mistreatment as a systematic effect of high level policy, better captured by the word torture. Such pattern of framing, Bennett et al. conclude, supports the Indexing model of U.S. press behavior. This article shows that Bennett et al. understate the strength and consistency of Post counterframing. When articles in the Post are searched not for individual words but for more extended frames, it becomes clear that the Post did in fact engage in considerable counterframing even in the absence of elite political opposition. This case, it is therefore concluded, does not in fact support the Indexing model as Bennett et al. maintain but is rather the kind of case described by R. M. Entman (2004) in which the press exercises greater independence of elite political opinion than the Indexing model admits. W. Bennett, R. Lawrence et S. Livingston (2006, 2007) soutiennent que la presse , et en particulier le Washington Post, ont accepté le cadrage qu'a offert l'administration Bush des mauvais traitements infligés aux prisonniers d'Abou Ghraib. L'administration, disent-ils, a cadré les événements comme étant des actes isolés d'abus de prisonniers par quelques « pommes pourries », sans engager la responsabilité d'instances plus élevées ou de politiques administratives. Ce qui était absent (ou presque absent) des reportages, soutiennent Bennett et al., était un contre-cadrage par le Post des mauvais traitements comme étant plutôt un effet systématique des politiques de haut niveau, ce qui se reflète mieux dans le terme « torture ». Un tel cadrage, concluent Bennett et al., soutient le modèle d'indexation du comportement de la presse américaine. Cet article montre que Bennett et al. sous-estiment la force et la cohérence du contre-cadrage du Post. Lorsque l'on cherche, dans les articles du Post, des cadres plus étendus que des mots individuels, il devient clair que le Post a en fait réalisé un contre-cadrage considérable, même en l'absence d'opposition de la part de l'élite politique. Nous concluons donc que ce cas ne soutient pas le modèle d'indexation, comme Bennett et al. l'affirment, mais qu'il est plutôt du type de cas décrit par R. M. Entman (2004), un cas où la presse exerce une plus grande indépendance par rapport à l'opinion de l'élite politique que ne l'admet le modèle d'indexation. W. Bennett, R. Lawrence und S. Livingston (2006, 2007) argumentieren, dass die Presse , und insbesondere die Washington Post , das Framing der Bush-Regierung bezüglich der Misshandlung von Gefangenen in Abu Ghraib duldete. Die Regierung, so die Autoren, framte die Ereignisse als den isolierten Missbrauch von Gefangenen durch einige wenige und reflektierte dabei eben nicht die übergeordneten Verantwortlichkeiten oder die Verwaltungspolitik. Gänzlich oder fast gefehlt hat laut Bennett et al. ein Gegenframe der Post zum Missbrauch als ein systematischer Effekt übergeordneter Politik, welcher besser mit dem Wort Folter gefasst wäre. Derartige Framing-Muster, so Bennett et al., stützen das Indexing-Modell des Verhaltens der amerikanischen Presse. Vorliegender Artikel zeigt, dass Bennett et al. das Ausmaß und die Kontinuität des Gegenframings durch die Post unterbewerten. Durchsucht man die Artikel der Post nicht nur nach Einzelwörtern sondern nach erweiterten Frames, zeigt sich deutlich, dass die Post sehr wohl Counterframing betrieben hat, und das obwohl eine politische Elite-Opposition gefehlt hat. Dieser Fall stützt also das Indexing-Modell wie Bennett et al. es darstellen gerade nicht, sondern ist eher ein Fall wie R.M. Entman (2004) ihn beschreibt, in dem die Presse größere Unabhängigkeit von der politischen Elitemeinung äußert als das Indexing-Modell zulässt. Resumen W. Bennett, R. Lawrence, y S. Livingston (2006, 2007) sostienen que la prensa,y el Washington Post en particular,acordaron con la administración de Bush en el encuadre sobre el maltrato de los prisioneros de Abu Ghraib. La administración, dicen, encuadró los eventos como abusos aislados de los prisioneros por parte de ,,un par de manzanas podridas" acríticos de la responsabilidad superior o de las políticas de la administración. La ausencia,o casi ausencia, Bennett et al. sostienen, fue el contra-encuadre del Post sobre el maltrato como un efecto sistemático de las políticas de alto nivel, mejor capturado por la palabra tortura. Esa pauta de encuadre, Bennett et al. concluyen, apoya al modelo de Indexación del comportamiento de la prensa de los EE.UU. Este artículo muestra que Bennett et al. subestimaron la fuerza y la consistencia del contra-encuadre del Post. Cuando los artículos en el Post son buscados no por las palabras individuales sino por los encuadres más extendidos, resulta claro que el Post en realidad participa en contra-encuadres considerables aún en la ausencia de la oposición política de elite. Este caso, por lo tanto se concluye, que en realidad no apoya al modelo de Indexación que Bennett et al. sostienen pero es el tipo de caso descrito por R.M. Entman (2004) en el cual la prensa ejercita una gran independencia de la opinión política de elite que lo que admite el modelo de la Indexación. [source]


    Wanted, Dead or Alive: Media Frames, Frame Adoption, and Support for the War in Afghanistan

    JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION, Issue 1 2007
    Jill A. Edy
    This paper attempts to measure the impact of naturally occurring media frames on public support for a policy. Content analysis of network nightly news during late October of 2001 reveals that U.S. media framed the events of September 11 in terms of both war and crime. A concurrent survey of 328 Tennesseans reveals that rather than adopting either a war frame or a crime frame, audiences combined elements of these media frames in various ways and that their subsequent understanding of the events of September 11 had an impact on their support for the war in Afghanistan. The results reveal the complexity of the framing phenomenon in natural environments and suggest the need for better measures of how audiences perceive media frames as well as further investigation into framing as a means of coalition building. Résumé Recherché mort ou vif:Cadrage médiatique, adoption de cadres et soutien à la guerre en Afghanistan Cet article tente de mesurer l'effet des cadres médiatiques qui opèrent naturellement sur le soutien public à l'égard d'une politique. L'analyse de contenu des bulletins d'actualité du soir diffusés en réseau au cours de la fin du mois d'octobre 2001 révèle que les médias aux États-Unis ont cadré les événements du 11 septembre en des termes associés à la guerre et au crime. Un sondage mené simultanément auprès de 328 répondants du Tennessee révèle quant à lui que, plutôt que d'adopter un cadre de guerre ou de crime, les publics ont conjugué les composantes de ce cadrage médiatique de diverses manières et que leur compréhension subséquente des événements du 11 septembre a influencé leur soutien à la guerre en Afghanistan. Les résultats révèlent la complexité du phénomène du cadrage dans les environnements naturels. Ils suggèrent le besoin de mieux mesurer la perception par le public des cadres médiatiques et d'approfondir l'étude du cadrage comme moyen de construction de la coalition. Abstract Gesucht, tot oder lebendig:Medien-Frames, Frame-Aneignung und die Befürwortung des Afghanistan-Krieges Vorliegende Studie misst, welchen Einfluss natürlich auftretende Medien-Frames auf die öffentliche Unterstützung einer politischen Maßnahme (Krieg) haben. Eine Inhaltsanalyse der Abendnachrichten (Network-News) im Oktober 2001 zeigte, dass die Ereignisse des 11. September in US-amerikanische Medien sowohl als Krieg als auch Verbrechen geframt wurden. Eine zeitgleiche Umfrage von 328 Einwohnern des Staates Tennessee verdeutlichte, dass Zuschauer nicht den einen oder anderen Frame adaptierten, sondern Elemente des Kriegs- und des Verbrechens-Frames auf verschiedenste Art kombinierten. Die Art und Weise der Adaption beider Frames und das daraus resultierendes Verständnis der Ereignisse des 11. September zeigten wiederum einen Einfluss auf die Befürwortung des Kriegs in Afghanistan. Die Ergebnisse untermauern die postulierte Komplexität des Framing-Phänomens in natürlichen Umgebungen. Konsequenterweise müssen bessere Messinstrumente eingesetzt werden, die erfassen können, wie Zuschauer Medien-Frames wahrnehmen. Darüber hinaus sollten Forschungsbemühungen hinsichtlich der Rolle von Frames als Mittel zur Koalitionsbildung unternommen werden. Resumen Buscado, Muerto ó Vivo: Los Encuadres de los Medios Masivos, la Adopción de Encuadres, y el Apoyo a la Guerra en Afganistán Este artículo intenta medir el impacto de los encuadres de los medios masivos que ocurren naturalmente en el apoyo público a una política. Un análisis de contenido de redes de noticias nocturnas a finales del mes de Octubre del 2001 revela que los medios masivos de los Estados Unidos encuadraron los eventos del 11 de Septiembre en términos de guerra y crimen. Una encuesta simultánea de 328 individuos del estado de Tennessee reveló que en vez de adoptar la guerra ó el crimen como encuadres, las audiencias combinaron elementos de los encuadres de los medios masivos en varias maneras y que su entendimiento posterior de los eventos del 11 de Septiembre tuvo un impacto en el apoyo a la guerra en Afganistán. Los resultados muestran la complejidad del fenómeno del framing en contextos naturales y sugiere la necesidad de obtener mejores formas de medir cómo las audiencias perciben los encuadres de los medios masivos, así como también, la necesidad de realizar más investigaciones sobre el framing como una forma de construir coaliciones. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]


    Play Frames and Social Identities: Contact Encounters in a Greek Primary School (Pragmatics & Beyond New Series) by Vally Lytra

    JOURNAL OF SOCIOLINGUISTICS, Issue 2 2009
    Eleni Petraki
    [source]


    Injustice Frames, Legality, and the Everyday Construction of Sexual Harassment

    LAW & SOCIAL INQUIRY, Issue 3 2003
    Anna-Maria Marshall
    This paper examines the frames that women use to understand their experience with sexual harassment. While legal frames do provide crucial guidance to women evaluating the behavior of their colleagues and supervisors, working women deployed a number of other interpretive frames when deciding whether they had been harmed by such behavior. Some of those frames emerge from feminist messages about discrimination and male abuse of power in the workplace; some emerge from management ideology that emphasizes efficiency and productivity; and some emerge from the criticism of sexual harassment policies as an unnecessary limitation on women's sexual freedom. But feeling a sense of harm does not automatically translate into the use of the label sexual harassment. Rather, women also employed an objective standard that compared their experience to some threshold of harassing behaviors. Only when the behaviors met this standard of offensiveness and were perceived as harmful did women consider their experiences sexual harassment. [source]


    Instability of Statical Solutions of Steel 2D Frames in High Temperature

    PROCEEDINGS IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS & MECHANICS, Issue 1 2008
    Jerzy Pil, niakArticle first published online: 25 FEB 200
    This work is intended as an attempt to stability analysis of static equations of flat steel frames in fire. High temperature during fire adversely affects on structural steel elements by activating irreversible processes (plasticity, creep). Rheological property can be described in simplified form by power term. Steel properties is represented by physical equations which contains three terms: linear (elasticity), nonlinear and rheological (related to creep). (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Scopic Frames: Devices for Seeing China c. 1640

    ART HISTORY, Issue 1 2010
    Jennifer Purtle
    First page of article [source]


    Integrating Web-Based Documents, Shared Knowledge Bases, and Information Retrieval for User Help

    COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, Issue 1 2000
    Doug Skuce
    We describe a prototype system, IKARUS, with which we investigated the potential of integrating web-based documents, shared knowledge bases, and information retrieval for improving knowledge storage and retrieval. As an example, we discuss how to implement both a user manual and an online help system as one system. The following technologies are combined: a web-based design, a frame-based knowledge engine, use of an advanced full-text search engine, and simple techniques to control terminology. We have combined graphical browsing with several unusual forms of text retrieval,for example, to the sentence and paragraph level. [source]


    Interactive animation of virtual humans based on motion capture data

    COMPUTER ANIMATION AND VIRTUAL WORLDS (PREV: JNL OF VISUALISATION & COMPUTER ANIMATION), Issue 5-6 2009
    Franck Multon
    Abstract This paper presents a novel, parameteric framework for synthesizing new character motions from existing motion capture data. Our framework can conduct morphological adaptation as well as kinematic and physically-based corrections. All these solvers are organized in layers in order to be easily combined together. Given locomotion as an example, the system automatically adapts the motion data to the size of the synthetic figure and to its environment; the character will correctly step over complex ground shapes and counteract with external forces applied to the body. Our framework is based on a frame-based solver. This ensures animating hundreds of humanoids with different morphologies in real-time. It is particularly suitable for interactive applications such as video games and virtual reality where a user interacts in an unpredictable way. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Combined compression and simplification of dynamic 3D meshes

    COMPUTER ANIMATION AND VIRTUAL WORLDS (PREV: JNL OF VISUALISATION & COMPUTER ANIMATION), Issue 4 2009
    Libor Vá
    Abstract We present a new approach to dynamic mesh compression, which combines compression with simplification to achieve improved compression results, a natural support for incremental transmission and level of detail. The algorithm allows fast progressive transmission of dynamic 3D content. Our scheme exploits both temporal and spatial coherency of the input data, and is especially efficient for the case of highly detailed dynamic meshes. The algorithm can be seen as an ultimate extension of the clustering and local coordinate frame (LCF)-based approaches, where each vertex is expressed within its own specific coordinate system. The presented results show that we have achieved better compression efficiency compared to the state of the art methods. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]