Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Formulation

  • adjoint formulation
  • alternative formulation
  • analytical formulation
  • bayesian formulation
  • bem formulation
  • boundary element formulation
  • boundary integral formulation
  • capsule formulation
  • case formulation
  • classical formulation
  • commercial formulation
  • controlled-release formulation
  • delayed release formulation
  • depot formulation
  • drug formulation
  • element formulation
  • equation formulation
  • eulerian formulation
  • explicit formulation
  • extended-release formulation
  • fe formulation
  • feed formulation
  • final formulation
  • finite element formulation
  • finite volume formulation
  • function formulation
  • galerkin formulation
  • gel formulation
  • general formulation
  • incremental formulation
  • integral equation formulation
  • integral formulation
  • la formulation
  • lagrangian formulation
  • linear programming formulation
  • liposomal formulation
  • liquid formulation
  • mathematical formulation
  • matrix formulation
  • mixed finite element formulation
  • mixed formulation
  • model formulation
  • modified-release formulation
  • nanoparticle formulation
  • new formulation
  • new topical formulation
  • novel formulation
  • optimal formulation
  • optimization formulation
  • oral formulation
  • original formulation
  • pharmaceutical formulation
  • photocurable formulation
  • policy formulation
  • polyherbal formulation
  • present formulation
  • problem formulation
  • programming formulation
  • proposed formulation
  • recursive formulation
  • reference formulation
  • release formulation
  • same formulation
  • simple formulation
  • space formulation
  • stabilized finite element formulation
  • standard formulation
  • strain formulation
  • strategy formulation
  • suitable formulation
  • tablet formulation
  • test formulation
  • theoretical formulation
  • topical formulation
  • total lagrangian formulation
  • unified formulation
  • updated lagrangian formulation
  • vaccine formulation
  • variational formulation
  • volume formulation
  • vorticity formulation
  • weak formulation

  • Terms modified by Formulation

  • formulation approach
  • formulation condition
  • formulation containing
  • formulation development
  • formulation factor
  • formulation process
  • formulation strategy
  • formulation used

  • Selected Abstracts


    Shelf-stable meats are of interest to industry and are important in military ration development. Stability is commonly achieved through control of pH and water activity. However, reduction in moisture as a means to lower aw can significantly affect texture. Other ingredients, such as fat, can also potentially affect texture and possibly mitigate hardening due to lowered moisture. Meatsticks dried to three water activities, 0.88, 0.90, and 0.92, each from batters at three fat levels, 14, 17, and 21%, were produced, yielding products varying in both moisture and fat content. Products were subjected to mechanical and sensory testing and image and color analysis. Meatstick modulus, shear force, L* value, and percent of area of cut surfaces covered by separated fat were correlated with sensory assessments of interior hardness, hardness with skin, color, and visual fat, respectively. These parameters were significantly influenced by composition, particularly fat and protein contents and fat-protein interaction. [source]


    Alex Anas
    ABSTRACT RELU is a dynamic general equilibrium model of a metropolitan economy and its land use, derived by unifying in a theoretically valid way, models developed by one of the authors [Anas (1982), Anas,Arnott (1991, 1997), Anas,Kim (1996), Anas,Xu (1999)]. RELU equilibrates floor space, land and labor markets, and the market for the products of industries, treating development (construction and demolition), spatial interindustry linkages, commuting, and discretionary travel. Mode choices and equilibrium congestion on the highway network are treated by unifying RELU with the TRAN algorithm of stochastic user equilibrium [Anas,Kim (1990)]. The RELU-TRAN algorithm's performance for a stationary state is demonstrated for a prototype consisting of 4-building, 4-industry, 4-labor-type, 15-land-use-zone, 68-link-highway-network version of the Chicago MSA. The algorithm solves 656 equations in a special block-recursive convergent procedure by iterations nested within loops and loops within cycles. Runs show excellent and smooth convergence from different starting points, so that the number of loops within successive cycles continually decreases. The tests also imply a numerically ascertained unique stationary equilibrium solution of the unified model for the calibrated parameters. [source]


    ABSTRACT Coffee consumers (n = 60) tasted and rated samples of a new soy,coffee beverage made from instant coffee, soymilk powder and sugar. Ingredient concentrations (independent variables) varied according to a 23central composite design for overall degree of acceptance. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), least square difference and response surface methodology, followed by internal preference mapping (IPM) with cluster analysis. ANOVA from the consumers' acceptance data revealed that samples differed significantly (P , 0.05). Although soymilk content did not influence significantly the consumers' acceptance in the tested range, IPM with cluster analysis indicated that at least part of the acceptance differences was based on the soy beverage consumption habit. The final beverage formulation was evaluated cold and hot for overall acceptability (9-point structured hedonic scale) by 112 coffee consumers and the cold beverage reached a good acceptability mean score (6.2) among the participants. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The consumption of soy products has been reported to reduce the risk of several diseases and a number of recent studies have found beneficial health properties attributed to coffee. Considering the current consumer trend for healthier alternatives in food products, we decided to combine the health benefits of these two important Brazilian commodities in a functional beverage. In order to optimize the formulation and maximize sensory acceptance, we performed consumers' tests using response surface methodology. Internal preference mapping and cluster analyses were also applied to provide information on the variability of the consumer individual opinions and segment them in groups of similar preference criteria. [source]


    ABSTRACT In this current study, tomato pulp powder, the main waste of the tomato processing industry, was used as a thickening agent in the formulation of a commercial tomato ketchup at different levels (1, 2, 5, 7 and 10% w/w). Color parameters (L and a/b) and rheologic properties of the formulated ketchups with and without added tomato pulp powder were determined and compared. The addition of the pulp powder caused a significant increase in the L value of the samples, while a/b ratio decreased notably. The rheologic data obtained were fitted using a power law equation. The analysis of the data obtained revealed that low levels of tomato pulp powder can compete with other hydrocolloids in improving the consistency of tomato ketchup. All ketchup samples in this study were non-Newtonian fluids and the apparent viscosity of the ketchups increased significantly with increasing concentration of tomato pulp powder and decreased with temperature increase. Chemical composition (protein, total fat, reducing and total sugars, fiber, ascorbic acid and ash contents) and some physicochemical properties of the tomato pulp powder, including water absorption and solubility, were determined and the data were used for the interpretation of the rheologic and color changes as a result of the inclusion of the pulp powder in the formulation. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The direct use of food industry wastes in food formulations can help in reducing the production costs by decreasing raw material and disposal costs. The classic design of the tomato processing plants results in generating a large amount of tomato pulp. The results of this research confirmed that tomato pulp powder can be used instead of other hydrocolloids in tomato-based products. The reuse of tomato pulp powder in foods can be beneficial to producers and the environment. [source]

    Bi-level Programming Formulation and Heuristic Solution Approach for Dynamic Traffic Signal Optimization

    Dazhi Sun
    Conventional methods of signal timing optimization assume given traffic flow pattern, whereas traffic assignment is performed with the assumption of fixed signal timing. This study develops a bi-level programming formulation and heuristic solution approach (HSA) for dynamic traffic signal optimization in networks with time-dependent demand and stochastic route choice. In the bi-level programming model, the upper level problem represents the decision-making behavior (signal control) of the system manager, while the user travel behavior is represented at the lower level. The HSA consists of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and a Cell Transmission Simulation (CTS) based Incremental Logit Assignment (ILA) procedure. GA is used to seek the upper level signal control variables. ILA is developed to find user optimal flow pattern at the lower level, and CTS is implemented to propagate traffic and collect real-time traffic information. The performance of the HSA is investigated in numerical applications in a sample network. These applications compare the efficiency and quality of the global optima achieved by Elitist GA and Micro GA. Furthermore, the impact of different frequencies of updating information and different population sizes of GA on system performance is analyzed. [source]

    Formulation of Boundary Conditions for the Unmagnetized Multi-Ion-Component Plasma Sheath

    D. Tskhakaya
    Abstract Boundary conditions are derived for the unmagnetized electrostatic multi-ion-component plasma sheath. Analytic results are supported by high-resolution numerical kinetic (particle-in-cell) simulations. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Decision Making with Uncertain Judgments: A Stochastic Formulation of the Analytic Hierarchy Process*

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 3 2003
    Eugene D. Hahn
    ABSTRACT In the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), priorities are derived via a deterministic method, the eigenvalue decomposition. However, judgments may be subject to error. A stochastic characterization of the pairwise comparison judgment task is provided and statistical models are introduced for deriving the underlying priorities. Specifically, a weighted hierarchical multinomial logit model is used to obtain the priorities. Inference is then conducted from the Bayesian viewpoint using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The stochastic methods are found to give results that are congruent with those of the eigenvector method in matrices of different sizes and different levels of inconsistency. Moreover, inferential statements can be made about the priorities when the stochastic approach is adopted, and these statements may be of considerable value to a decision maker. The methods described are fully compatible with judgments from the standard version of AHP and can be used to construct a stochastic formulation of it. [source]

    Christian Zionism and the Formulation of Foreign Policy

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 3 2010
    Lawrence Davidson
    First page of article [source]

    Progressive collapse analysis through strength degradation and fracture in the Mixed Lagrangian Formulation

    O. Lavan
    Abstract The dynamic analysis of progressive collapse faces a great number of obstacles that often lead to the collapse of the analysis prior to the actual analysis of collapse. Hence, the Mixed Lagrangian Formulation that has been shown to be very robust was adopted as a framework to accommodate such analysis. By modifying the loading function and the numerical scheme, the capabilities of this framework were extended to account for strength degradation and fracture, while some insight to its behavior is introduced as well. The examples presented show a very robust and stable behavior of the numerical scheme in terms of the time step size required, even in cases where a sudden fracture takes place. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Chemiluminescence-Generating Nanoreactor Formulation for Near-Infrared Imaging of Hydrogen Peroxide and Glucose Level in vivo

    Chang-Keun Lim
    Abstract Water-dispersed all-in-one nanoprobes composed of densely integrated peroxyoxalate fuel and a cyanine dye are formulated to optimize the nanoscopic chemiluminescence reaction. It is demonstrated that the chemiluminescent nanoformulation can generate bright near-infrared signal in response to external hydrogen peroxide that is biologically implicated with cell signaling and diseases. Successful imaging of endogenously overproduces hydrogen peroxide and indirect determination of glucose level in vivo with the chemiluminescent nanoprobes offers an opportunity for early diagnosis of diseases. [source]

    Chemiluminescence-Generating Nanoreactor Formulation for Near-Infrared Imaging of Hydrogen Peroxide and Glucose Level in vivo

    Chang-Keun Lim
    Abstract Water-dispersed all-in-one nanoprobes composed of densely integrated peroxyoxalate fuel and a cyanine dye are formulated to optimize the nanoscopic chemiluminescence reaction. It is demonstrated that the chemiluminescent nanoformulation can generate bright near-infrared signal in response to external hydrogen peroxide that is biologically implicated with cell signaling and diseases. Successful imaging of endogenously overproduces hydrogen peroxide and indirect determination of glucose level in vivo with the chemiluminescent nanoprobes offers an opportunity for early diagnosis of diseases. [source]

    Formulation of a three-dimensional rate-dependent constitutive model for chalk and porous rocks

    R. J. Hickman
    Abstract Rate-dependent behaviour of chalk and other porous rocks has undergone widespread study in geomechanics due to its implications on the performance of engineering structures. We present a rate-dependent constitutive model for chalk and other porous rocks with several new features. The model formulation is based on a viscoplastic rate-lines approach in which the axial strain rate depends on the proximity of the stress point to an elliptical reference surface. A non-associated viscoplastic potential surface and an axial scaling algorithm are used to determine the viscoplastic strain components. The model predicts that axial yields stress varies as a power function of applied axial strain rate, as shown by published laboratory data. Comparisons with published experimental data indicate that the model is capable of reproducing observed rate-dependent behaviour of chalk under a variety of loading conditions. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Microplane constitutive model for porous isotropic rocks

    k P. Ba
    Abstract The paper deals with constitutive modelling of contiguous rock located between rock joints. A fully explicit kinematically constrained microplane-type constitutive model for hardening and softening non-linear triaxial behaviour of isotropic porous rock is developed. The microplane framework, in which the constitutive relation is expressed in terms of stress and strain vectors rather than tensors, makes it possible to model various microstructural physical mechanisms associated with oriented internal surfaces, such as cracking, slip, friction and splitting of a particular orientation. Formulation of the constitutive relation is facilitated by the fact that it is decoupled from the tensorial invariance restrictions, which are satisfied automatically. In its basic features, the present model is similar to the recently developed microplane model M4 for concrete, but there are significant improvements and modifications. They include a realistic simulation of (1) the effects of pore collapse on the volume changes during triaxial loading and on the reduction of frictional strength, (2) recovery of frictional strength during shearing, and (3) the shear-enhanced compaction in triaxial tests, manifested by a deviation from the hydrostatic stress,strain curve. The model is calibrated by optimal fitting of extensive triaxial test data for Salem limestone, and good fits are demonstrated. Although these data do not cover the entire range of behaviour, credence in broad capabilities of the model is lend by its similarity to model M4 for concrete,an artificial rock. The model is intended for large explicit finite-element programs. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Formulation and development of a patch containing tamarind fruit extract by using the blended chitosan,starch as a rate-controlling matrix

    J. Viyoch
    Synopsis A cosmetic patch containing tamarind fruit extract was formulated and developed by blending two types of natural polymers: chitosan with molecular weight of 100 000 and starch such as corn, potato or tapioca starch. The physicochemical characteristics, i.e. flexibility, colour, transparency, integrity, gloss, water sorption and bioadhesion property and the stability of the patch without tamarind content were investigated. Stability test was performed by keeping the prepared patches at 4 °C, at room temperature or at 45 °C for 2 weeks. The results showed that the formulations composed of chitosan:corn starch ratio of 4.5 : 0.5 (CC4.5 : 0.5) and chitosan:tapioca starch ratios of 4.5 : 0.5 (CT4.5 : 0.5) and 4.0 : 1.0 (CT4 : 1) provide patches with favourable physical characteristics, high water sorption, good bioadhesion ability and good stability. After the lyophilized tamarind extract in an amount corresponding to 5% of tartaric acid was incorporated into the formulations of CC4.5 : 0.5, CT4.5 : 0.5 and CT4 : 1, the ability of the patches to adhere to skin was improved. However, after keeping the test patches at room temperature or at 45 °C for 6 weeks, their colours were intensified while their flexibilities and skin adhesion properties decreased. A 12-h in vitro permeation was investigated by studying the cumulative amount of tartaric acid permeated through the Silastic® membrane (Dow-Coming, Midland, MI, USA). The CC4.5 : 0.5 patch tended to give the highest amount of tartaric acid released. The release pattern of all the blended polymeric matrices was exhibited in two distinct phases: the rapid phase, where the flux averaged 3.61 µg min,1 mm,2; and the slow phase, where the flux averaged 1.89 µg min,1 mm,2. Résumé Un patch cosmétique contenant un extrait de fruit de Tamarin a été formulé et développé en mélangeant deux types de polymères naturels, le chitosan d'un poids moléculaire de 100 000 et d'amidon de maïs, de pomme de terre ou d'amidon de tapioca. Les caractéristiques physico chimiques, i.e. de flexibilité, couleur, transparence, intégrité, brillance, pouvoir de sorption de l'eau, la propriété de bio adhésion et la stabilité des patchs sans tamarin ont été déterminées. Le test de stabilité A été effectué en gardant les patchs préparés à 4 °C, température ambiante ou 45 °C pendant 2 semaines. Les résultats montrent que la formulation composée de chitosan:amidon de maïs au taux relatif de 4.5 : 0.5 (CC4.5 : 0.5), de chitosan:amidon de tapioca aux taux relatifs de 4.5 : 0.5 (CT4.5 : 0.5) et de 4.0 : 1.0 (CT4 : 1) conduit aux propriétés physiques les plus favorables, haute sorption d'eau, bonnes capacité de bio adhésion et stabilité. Après que l'extrait lyophilisé de tamarin ait été incorporé au taux correspondant à 5% d'acide tartrique dans les formulations CC4.5 : 0.5, CT4.5 : 0.5 et CT4 : 1, la capacité des patchs à adhérer à la peau a été améliorée. Cependant, la conservation des patchs à température ambiante et à 45 °C pendant 6 semaines conduisait à une intensification de leurs couleurs tandis que leur propriété d'adhésion diminuait. La perméation in vitro sur 12 heures a étéétudiée en suivant le taux cumulé d'acide tartrique passant à travers la membrane de Silastic®. Le CC4.5 : 0.5 tendait à donner le taux le plus élevé d'acide tartrique re largué. Le profil de relarguage de toutes les matrices de polymères montrait deux phases distinctes, l'une, rapide au flux moyen de 3.61 µg min,1 mm,2 et une, plus lente, de flux moyen 1.89 µg min,1 mm,2. [source]

    A cost-effective cane molasses medium for enhanced cell-bound phytase production by Pichia anomala

    A. Vohra
    Abstract Aim:, Formulation of an inexpensive cane molasses medium for improved cell-bound phytase production by Pichia anomala. Methods and Results:, Cell-bound phytase production by Pichia anomala was compared in synthetic glucose,beef extract and cane molasses media. The yeast was cultivated in 250 ml flasks containing 50 ml of the medium, inoculated with a 12 h-old inoculum (3 × 106 CFU ml,1) and incubated at 25°C for 24 h at 250 rev min,1. Different cultural parameters were optimized in cane molasses medium in batch fermentation. The cell-bound phytase content increased significantly in cane molasses medium (176 U g,1 dry biomass) when compared with the synthetic medium (100 U g,1 dry biomass). In fed-batch fermentation, a marked increase in biomass (20 g l,1) and the phytase yield (3000 U l,1) were recorded in cane molasses medium. The cost of production in cane molasses medium was £0·006 per 1000 U, which is much lower when compared with that in synthetic medium (£0·25 per 1000 U). Conclusions:, An overall 86·6% enhancement in phytase yield was attained in optimized cane molasses medium using fed-batch fermentation when compared with that in synthetic medium. Furthermore, the production in cane molasses medium is cost-effective. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Phytase yield was improved in cane molasses when compared with the synthetic medium, and the cost of production was also significantly reduced. This enzyme can find application in the animal feed industry for improving the nutritional status of feed and combating environmental pollution. [source]

    Induction of olfactory mucosal and liver metabolism of lidocaine by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin

    Mary Beth Genter
    Abstract Formulation of drugs for administration via the nasal cavity is becoming increasingly common. It is of potential clinical relevance to determine whether intranasal drug administration itself, or exposure to other xenobiotics, can modulate the levels and/or activity of nasal mucosal metabolic enzymes, thereby affecting the metabolism and disposition of the drug. In these studies, we examined changes in several of the major metabolic enzymes in nasal epithelial tissues upon exposure to the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD), as well as the impact of these changes on the metabolism of a model intranasally administered drug, lidocaine. Results of these studies show that TCDD can induce multiple metabolic enzymes in the olfactory mucosa and that the pattern of induction in the olfactory mucosa does not necessarily parallel that which occurs in the liver. Further, increases in enzyme levels noted by Western blot analysis were associated with increased activities of several nasal mucosal enzymes as well as with enhanced conversion of lidocaine to its major metabolite, monoethyl glycine xylidide (MEGX). These results demonstrate that environmental exposures can influence the levels and activity of nasal mucosal enzymes and impact the pharmacology of drugs administered via the nasal route. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 16:128,134, 2002. DOI 10.1002/jbt.10032 [source]

    Formulation and characterization of radio-opaque conjugated in situ gelling materials,

    Brandon Blakely
    Abstract X-ray visibility is an integral design component of in situ gelling embolization systems for neurovascular treatment. The goals of this project included the synthesis and characterization of a unique intrinsically radio-opaque in situ gelling material for neurovascular embolization. The gels formed using Michael-Type Addition between pentaerythritol tetrakis 3-mercaptopropionate (QT) thiols and poly(propylene glycol) diacrylate (PPODA) with the addition of the new material Iodobenzoyl poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate (IPEGA), a radio-opaque agent, synthesized successfully as confirmed with 1H NMR. The PPODA and IPEGA were mixed using a syringe coupler with QT and buffer at pH 11 for 90 seconds. Gel mixes were weighed to provide equal molar thiols and acrylate groups, changing the present acrylate-bearing compounds wt % ratios from 100 PPODA: 0 IPEGA, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 0:100. Formulations with 10% and above of IPEGA were X-ray visible. Rheology showed that increasing the amount of IPEGA decreased the storage. Kinetic FT-IR studies indicate that the amphiphilic nature of the PEG backbone increased the reaction rate of the phase segregated reactants. Second order reaction constant modeling showed a change in initial reaction rate from 0.0029 to 0.0187 (M sec),1 from the 10% to 50% IPEGA formulations respectively. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2010 [source]

    Bioavailability and Biological Efficacy of a New Oral Formulation of Salmon Calcitonin in Healthy Volunteers,

    Thierry Buclin
    Abstract Salmon calcitonin (SCT) is a well-tolerated peptide drug with a wide therapeutic margin and is administered parenterally for long-term treatments of bone diseases. Its clinical usefulness would be enhanced by the development of an orally active formulation. In this randomized crossover double-blinded phase I trial, controlled by both a placebo and a parenteral verum, we have tested a new oral formulation of SCT associated with a caprylic acid derivative as carrier. Eight healthy volunteers received single doses of 400, 800, and 1200 ,g of SCT orally, a placebo, and a 10-,g (50 IU) SCT intravenous infusion. SCT was reliably absorbed from the oral formulation, with an absolute bioavailability of 0.5,1.4%, depending on the dose. It induced a marked, dose-dependent drop in blood and urine C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), a sensitive and specific bone resorption marker, with the effects of 1200 ,g exceeding those of 10 ,g intravenously. It also decreased blood calcium and phosphate, and increased the circulating levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and, transiently, the urinary excretion of calcium. It was well-tolerated, with some subjects presenting mild and transient nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrheic stools, and headaches. This study shows that oral delivery of SCT is feasible with reproducible absorption and systemic biological efficacy. Such an oral formulation could facilitate the use of SCT in the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone diseases. [source]

    Formulation of the DETECT Population Parameter and Evaluation of DETECT Estimator Bias

    Louis A. Roussos
    The development of the DETECT procedure marked an important advancement in nonparametric dimensionality analysis. DETECT is the first nonparametric technique to estimate the number of dimensions in a data set, estimate an effect size for multidimensionality, and identify which dimension is predominantly measured by each item. The efficacy of DETECT critically depends on accurate, minimally biased estimation of the expected conditional covariances of all the item pairs. However, the amount of bias in the DETECT estimator has been studied only in a few simulated unidimensional data sets. This is because the value of the DETECT population parameter is known to be zero for this case and has been unknown for cases when multidimensionality is present. In this article, integral formulas for the DETECT population parameter are derived for the most commonly used parametric multidimensional item response theory model, the Reckase and McKinley model. These formulas are then used to evaluate the bias in DETECT by positing a multidimensional model, simulating data from the model using a very large sample size (to eliminate random error), calculating the large-sample DETECT statistic, and finally calculating the DETECT population parameter to compare with the large-sample statistic. A wide variety of two- and three-dimensional models, including both simple structure and approximate simple structure, were investigated. The results indicated that DETECT does exhibit statistical bias in the large-sample estimation of the item-pair conditional covariances; but, for the simulated tests that had 20 or more items, the bias was small enough to result in the large-sample DETECT almost always correctly partitioning the items and the DETECT effect size estimator exhibiting negligible bias. [source]

    Formulation of dynamics, actuation, and inversion of a three-dimensional two-link rigid body system

    Hooshang Hemami
    In this paper, three issues related to three-dimensional multilink rigid body systems are considered: dynamics, actuation, and inversion. Based on the Newton-Euler equations, a state space formulation of the dynamics is discussed that renders itself to inclusion of actuators, and allows systematic ways of stabilization and construction of inverse systems. The development here is relevant to robotic systems, biological modeling, humanoid studies, and collaborating man-machine systems. The recursive dynamic formulation involves a method for sequential measurement and estimation of joint forces and couples for an open chain system. The sequence can start from top downwards or from the ground upwards. Three-dimensional actuators that produce couples at the joints are included in the dynamics. Inverse methods that allow estimation of these couples from the kinematic trajectories and physical parameters of the system are developed. The formulation and derivations are carried out for a two-link system. Digital computer simulations of a two-rigid body system are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the methods. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    A Unified Dynamic Model Formulation for Robotic Manipulator Systems

    Anjan Kumar Swain
    This paper addresses the problem of the formulation of a unified dynamic model for sundry robotic manipulator systems derived from the first principle of mechanics instead of the existing formulation based on linear separability principle. It provides a systematic derivation, evaluation, and subsequent conceptual interpretation of manipulator dynamics model. Further, it analyzes the generality of the unified model over a wide range of manipulator configurations. In addition, it describes the implementation aspects of the unified model. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    ABSTRACT This research was designed to develop low-fat sugar-free frozen sherbet products containing an acceptable level of soy protein (SP) recommended by the Food and Drug Administration and to determine consumer sensory profile driving consumer acceptance and purchase intent. Four orange-flavored sherbets were manufactured using four levels of SP isolate (6.0, 6.5, 7.5 and 7.9 g/serving) and evaluated by 140 consumers. Consumers evaluated each sample for acceptability of appearance/color, flavor, sweetness, sourness, texture/mouthfeel and overall liking. Consumers also evaluated overall acceptance and purchase intent of these products. All four formulations were overall different (multivariate analysis of variance, Pr > F = 0.0003). Appearance and sweetness were not used by the consumers to differentiate among the four sherbet formulations. Formulations with 7.9 g and 6.0 g SP were equally liked with the mean overall liking score of 5.60,5.66. Formulation with 6.0 g SP had the highest acceptance (65.0%) and purchase intent (55.7%) after consumers had been informed of soy health benefits. Specifically, overall liking and texture were identified as the two most critical attributes affecting overall acceptance and purchase intent of these products. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Consumer interest in healthy eating is increasing. Soy-based products have moved into the marketplace and are becoming increasingly popular. Consumers tend to associate consuming soy with healthy eating habits. In this study, consumer acceptability of low-fat sugar-free sherbets containing soy protein (SP) was evaluated. Development of a frozen dessert with SP would give consumers another venue to satisfy consumer's eating desire and provide them with the health benefits of soy. [source]

    Formulation of Caking-Resistant Powdered Soups Based on NMR Analysis

    M.-S. Chung
    ABSTRACT: This study demonstrates that the caking tendencies of powdered soups could be altered by adjusting the proportions of existing ingredients in the recipes without using anticaking chemicals. The composition adjustment was guided by the knowledge of the caking tendencies of individual ingredients, which was acquired with a low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) instrument. This study showed that increasing the proportions of caking-resistant ingredients in soup recipes lowered the caking tendency. Multiple regression models based on the data from NMR experiments and storage tests were used for prediction of days-until-caking (DUC) values of soup products stored at different temperatures (37 to 65°C). [source]

    Formulation of sodium iodide (Na 123I) oral capsule,

    A. Sattari
    Abstract Sodium iodide-123 (Na123I) is well known as a radioisotope that is used for studies of the thyroid and its metastases. 123I was produced from the reaction of 28 Mev protons with 99.99% enriched 124Xe by cyclotron. A home made target was installed and used for this purpose. The main part of the target contained target vessel, target windows and cooling system. In addition, some other part such as a cold finger, decay vessel, vacuum pump and four fingers were also designed and installed on the system. After bombardment, the production of 123I from 123Cs, the target was left for 6 hours and then rinsed with distilled water. A clear and colourless solution containing 123I was pumped to the hot cell. For adjusting the pH, sodium citrate buffer was used. The solution was added directly to the capsules which were already filled with inert powder. Each capsule contained 210 µCi Na123I. Quality control has shown 98% radiochemical and 99.96% radionuclide purity, with the yield of 2 mCi/µA. Quality control results had good accordance with the United States Pharmacopoeia. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Immunisation practices in infants born prematurely: Neonatologists' survey and clinical audit

    Nigel W Crawford
    Aim: To determine Australian neonatologists' recommendations for the immunisation of ex-preterm infants and compare their actual immunisation status with recommended Australian guidelines. Methods: A self-administered nine-part questionnaire of current immunisation practices was sent to all Neonatologists in Australia (2006). A complementary retrospective immunisation audit was conducted in two tertiary neonatal units in Melbourne. Hospital records and the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) were reviewed; consenting parents were interviewed and primary care physicians' vaccination records were requested. A random sample of preterm infants born between July 2003 and June 2005 at <32 weeks' gestation were selected. Results: (i) Neonatologists Survey: The response rate was 68% and the majority of neonatologists (89%) were aware of the current guidelines, but adherence to them varied from 43% to 79%. One-fifth of neonatologists personally do not receive annual influenza vaccination; and (ii) Immunisation Audit: Conducted between October 2006-May 2007 it included: 100 hospital records; 97 ACIR records; 47 parent interviews and 43 primary care vaccination records. Overall vaccination coverage was 90% at 12 months of age. Only 20% (10/50) of infants with chronic lung disease received an influenza vaccination. Vaccines were delayed by greater than one month in 15% of participants for the 2 month DTPa vaccine and 43% at 6 months. Conclusions: The neonatologists survey highlighted variable adherence with immunisation guidelines. The audit confirmed preterm infants are frequently experiencing delayed vaccination and recommended additional vaccinations are often not being received. Formulation of strategies to ensure complete and timely immunisation are required, including better utilisation of the ACIR. [source]

    Development of clinical dosage forms for a poorly water-soluble drug II: Formulation and characterization of a novel solid microemulsion preconcentrate system for oral delivery of a poorly water-soluble drug

    Ping Li
    Abstract The solution of a poorly water-soluble drug in a liquid lipid,surfactant mixture, which served as a microemulsion preconcentrate, was converted into a solid form by incorporating it in a solid polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrix. The solid microemulsion preconcentrates thus formed consisted of Capmul PG8 (propylene glycol monocaprylate) as oil, Cremophor EL (polyoxyl 35 castor oil) as surfactant, and hydrophilic polymer PEG 3350 as solid matrix. The drug (aqueous solubility: 0.17 µg/mL at pH 1,8 and 25°C) was dissolved in a melt of the mixture at 65,70°C and then the hot solution was filled into hard gelatin capsules; the liquid gradually solidified upon cooling below 55°C. The solid system was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), and the dispersion testing in water. It was confirmed that a solid microemulsion preconcentrate is a two-phase system, where clusters of crystalline PEG 3350 formed the solid structure (m.p. 55,60°C) and the liquid microemulsion preconcentrate dispersed in between PEG 3350 crystals as a separate phase. The drug remained dissolved in the liquid phase. In vitro release testing showed that the preconcentrate dispersed readily in water forming a microemulsion with the drug dissolved in the oil particles (<150 nm) and the presence of PEG 3350 did not interfere with the process of self-microemulsification. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 98:1750,1764, 2009 [source]

    Formulation and food effects on the oral absorption of a poorly water soluble, highly permeable antiretroviral agent

    Bruce J. Aungst
    Abstract DPC 961 is a low-solubility, high-permeability, second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of drug substance and formulation variables on DPC 961 oral absorption, and to compare fed and fasted state oral absorption. To accomplish this, groups of four to six dogs were dosed with various formulations of DPC 961 under fasted or fed conditions, and DPC 961 pharmacokinetics were examined. Absolute oral bioavailability, based on i.v. AUC in the same dogs, was 24% after a suspension dose in fasted dogs and was 51% in fed dogs. Bioavailability with an unoptimized tablet formulation was 30% in fasted dogs and 86% in fed dogs. DPC 961 oral absorption was shown to be dependent on drug substance particle size in fasted dogs, after dosing with a tablet formulation where only the drug substance particle size was varied, but there was no difference in fed dogs. AUC and Cmax increased in proportion with increases in tablet strength from 100 to 400 mg, using tablets manufactured from a common granulation. Tablets made with 50 and 66% drug loadings showed similar relative oral bioavailabilities. Tablets prepared with two different polymorphic forms of DPC 961 were also compared, and these were found to be equivalent. These studies provided a useful component of the formulation development process, to help identify and control the variables affecting oral absorption of this potential new therapeutic agent. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 91:1390,1395, 2002 [source]

    Formulation, preparation and evaluation of flunarizine-loaded lipid microspheres

    Yan Jiao Wang
    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of preparing flunarizine-loaded lipid microspheres. Lipid microspheres (LMs) are excellent drug carriers for drug delivery systems (DDS) and are relatively stable and easily mass-produced. They have no particular adverse effects. LMs have been widely studied as drug carriers for water-soluble drugs, lipid-soluble drugs and inadequately soluble (in water or in lipid) drugs, in that they have a lipid layer, a water layer and an emulsifier layer. Flunarizine (FZ), a poorly water-soluble drug, was incorporated in lipid microspheres to reduce side effects by avoiding the use of supplementary agents, compared with solution injection. After investigation, the final formulation was as follows: 10% oil phase (long-chain triglyceride (LCT); medium-chain fatty acid (MCT) = 50:50); 1.2% egg lecithin; 0.2% Tween-80; 2.5% glycerin; 0.3% dl-,-tocopherol; 0.02% EDTA; 0.03% sodium oleate; 0.1% FZ and double-distilled water to give a total volume of 100 mL. Homogenization was the main method of preparation and the best conditions were a temperature of 40°C, a pressure of 700,800 bar and a suitable cycle frequency of about 10. The particle size distribution, zeta-potential and entrapment efficacy were found to be 198.7 ± 54.0 nm, ,26.4mV and 96.2%, respectively. Its concentration in the preparation was 1.0mg mL,1. The lipid microspheres were stable during storage at 4°C, 25°C and 37°C for 3 months. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in rats using a dose of 1.0 mg kg,1. The pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: AUC0-t 6.13 ,g h mL,1, t½ 5.32 h and Ke 0.16 Lh,1. The preparation data fitted a two-compartment model estimated by using 3p87 analysis software. From the observed data, FZ encapsulated in LMs did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic characteristic compared with the FZ solution injection and did not produce a delayed release effect, when it was released in-vivo in rats. However, the availability of the drug was increased. These results suggested that this LM system is a promising option for the preparation of the liquid form of FZ for intravenous administration. [source]

    Formulation and evaluation of nimodipine-loaded lipid microspheres

    Jia Yu
    The purpose of this study was to develop an alternative, improved and better tolerated formulation and investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of the new formulation of nimodipine (NM) compared with nimodipine ethanol solutions. Lipid microspheres (LMs) prepared using lecithin and vegetable oils have attracted a lot of interest owing to their versatile properties, such as non-immunogenicity, being easily biodegradable and exhibiting high entrapment efficiency. NM incorporated in LMs could reduce irritation by avoiding the use of ethanol as a solubilizer. The solubility of NM was also increased by dissolving it in the oil phase. The particle size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficacy and assay of the NM-loaded LMs were found to be 188.2 ± 5.4 nm, ,31.6 mV, 94.2% and 1.04 mg mL,1, respectively. The preparation was stable for 1 year at 4,10°C. The formulation and some physicochemical properties of NM-loaded LMs were investigated. The pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were performed in rats at a dose of 1.2 mg kg,1. From the observed data, there is no obvious retention of NM-loaded LMs in plasma. Moreover, incorporation of NM in LMs did not alter the tissue distribution significantly except for the relatively greater drug accumulation in the liver and spleen. The stimulation studies demonstrate that LMs of NM reduce irritation markedly compared with NM solutions. These results suggest that the LM system is a promising option to replace NM ethanol solutions as an intravenous treatment. [source]

    Development of a Lyophilization Formulation that Preserves the Biological Activity of the Platelet-inducing Cytokine Interleukin-11 at Low Concentrations

    Recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) is a licensed biological therapeutic product in at least one country and is used to combat thrombocytopenia during chemotherapeutic regimens, as well as undergoing clinical trials for a range of other disorders. Following attempts to lyophilize IL-11 at low concentrations, it was clear that a significant loss of recoverable biological activity occurred. Investigation of a variety of factors, including the type of container in which the rhIL-11 was lyophilized, revealed that surface adsorption to glass was a major factor resulting in loss of activity of rhIL-11 in solution (> 40% reduction after 3 h at room temperature), in addition to losses of activity post-lyophilization. To overcome this problem, different formulations containing combinations of human serum albumin (HSA), trehalose and Tween-20 have been investigated. Two formulations were successful in entirely preserving the biological activity of rhIL-11 through lyophilization and subsequent reconstitution (potency estimates of formulated relative to original material being ,0.97). Accelerated degradation studies, performed at intervals over a six-month period, demonstrated the stability of freeze-dried rhIL-11 using these formulations (predicted annual reduction in potency after storage at ,20°C ,1.4%). In conclusion, we have developed a working combination of excipients (0.5% HSA, 0.1% trehalose and 0.02% Tween-20 in potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)) to formulate a stable rhIL-11 freeze-dried product in glass containers, with no loss in potency. These findings should facilitate development of low dose rhIL-11 products and be an indicator of caution to those using this and other material with similar physical properties, without taking appropriate precautions to avoid losses through adsorption. [source]