Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Forest

  • Fagu forest
  • adjacent forest
  • african forest
  • african rain forest
  • afromontane forest
  • amazon forest
  • amazonian forest
  • amazonian rain forest
  • american boreal forest
  • andean forest
  • aspen forest
  • atlantic forest
  • atlantic rain forest
  • australian forest
  • bamboo forest
  • barmah forest
  • barmah-millewa forest
  • beech forest
  • birch forest
  • boreal forest
  • brazilian atlantic forest
  • broad-leaved forest
  • broadleaf forest
  • brook experimental forest
  • budongo forest
  • canopy forest
  • closed forest
  • closed-canopy forest
  • cloud forest
  • coal forest
  • coastal forest
  • conifer forest
  • coniferous forest
  • continuous forest
  • deciduous forest
  • dense forest
  • dipterocarp forest
  • disturbed forest
  • dry forest
  • dry tropical forest
  • dune forest
  • early successional forest
  • eastern forest
  • eucalypt forest
  • european forest
  • evergreen broad-leaved forest
  • evergreen forest
  • evergreen mediterranean forest
  • experimental forest
  • firme forest
  • flooded forest
  • floodplain forest
  • fragmented forest
  • gallery forest
  • hardwood forest
  • heterogeneous forest
  • hubbard brook experimental forest
  • humid forest
  • kakamega forest
  • kelp forest
  • logged forest
  • lowland dipterocarp forest
  • lowland forest
  • lowland rain forest
  • lowland tropical forest
  • lowland tropical rain forest
  • managed forest
  • mangrove forest
  • mature forest
  • mediterranean forest
  • mediterranean mountain forest
  • mixed conifer forest
  • mixed deciduous forest
  • mixed forest
  • moist forest
  • moist tropical forest
  • monsoon forest
  • montane forest
  • montane rain forest
  • mountain forest
  • national forest
  • native forest
  • natural forest
  • neotropical dry forest
  • neotropical forest
  • new forest
  • north american boreal forest
  • northern hardwood forest
  • nothofagus forest
  • oak forest
  • old forest
  • old-growth beech forest
  • old-growth forest
  • open forest
  • pine forest
  • pinus sylvestri forest
  • plantation forest
  • ponderosa pine forest
  • primary forest
  • primeval forest
  • pumilio forest
  • rain forest
  • random forest
  • regenerating forest
  • riparian forest
  • sclerophyll forest
  • scots pine forest
  • seasonal tropical forest
  • second-growth forest
  • secondary forest
  • semi-deciduou forest
  • spruce forest
  • state forest
  • subalpine forest
  • subtropical forest
  • subtropical montane forest
  • successional forest
  • surrounding forest
  • swamp forest
  • sylvestri forest
  • temperate deciduous forest
  • temperate forest
  • temperate rain forest
  • terra firme forest
  • tropical deciduous forest
  • tropical dry forest
  • tropical forest
  • tropical moist forest
  • tropical montane forest
  • tropical rain forest
  • tropical secondary forest
  • tropical wet forest
  • undisturbed forest
  • unlogged forest
  • upland forest
  • wet forest
  • wet tropical forest
  • wetland forest
  • young forest

  • Terms modified by Forest

  • forest age
  • forest area
  • forest attribute
  • forest belt
  • forest biodiversity
  • forest biomass
  • forest biome
  • forest bird
  • forest bird species
  • forest block
  • forest buffer
  • forest butterfly
  • forest canopy
  • forest catchment
  • forest change
  • forest characteristic
  • forest chronosequence
  • forest clearing
  • forest community
  • forest composition
  • forest condition
  • forest conservation
  • forest conversion
  • forest cover
  • forest damage
  • forest decline
  • forest degradation
  • forest development
  • forest distribution
  • forest disturbance
  • forest dynamics
  • forest ecosystem
  • forest ecotone
  • forest edge
  • forest elephant
  • forest environment
  • forest expansion
  • forest exploitation
  • forest fire
  • forest floor
  • forest fragment
  • forest fragmentation
  • forest gap
  • forest growth
  • forest habitat
  • forest harvesting
  • forest health
  • forest herb
  • forest history
  • forest industry
  • forest interior
  • forest inventory
  • forest island
  • forest landscapes
  • forest line
  • forest loss
  • forest mammal
  • forest management
  • forest management practice
  • forest managers
  • forest matrix
  • forest patch
  • forest pest
  • forest plant
  • forest plant species
  • forest plantation
  • forest plot
  • forest productivity
  • forest products
  • forest recovery
  • forest refugia
  • forest regeneration
  • forest region
  • forest regions
  • forest regrowth
  • forest remnant
  • forest reserve
  • forest resources
  • forest response
  • forest restoration
  • forest road
  • forest site
  • forest soil
  • forest specialist
  • forest species
  • forest stand
  • forest stream
  • forest strip
  • forest structure
  • forest succession
  • forest system
  • forest tree
  • forest tree species
  • forest type
  • forest understorey
  • forest university
  • forest use
  • forest vegetation
  • forest zone

  • Selected Abstracts


    Susy Svatek Ziegler
    ABSTRACT. Landscape diversity has increased with the surprising postfire establishment of aspen at upper elevations (700,945 meters above sea level) in the High Peaks of Adirondack Park in upstate New York. Tree seedlings returned quickly to the charred slopes west of Noonmark Mountain after an accidental fire consumed the forest in 1999. Aspen stands have replaced the spruce-fir-birch forests in the burned area even though mountain paper birch is expected to colonize burned sites at these elevations. Environmental conditions, historical events, and unique circumstances help explain why quaking aspen and bigtooth aspen rather than paper birch blanket the burned mountainside. Climate change over the past century to warmer, wetter conditions may have fostered this marked shift in species composition. In the unburned firebreak that people cleared to contain the flames, pin cherry has regenerated from seeds stored in the soil for nearly a century. The history of pin cherry on the site suggests that large fires or severe windthrow may have been more common in the region than was previously documented. [source]


    STEVE S. W. XU
    ABSTRACT. The Shimentai Nature Reserve in Yingde County, Guangdong Province, China, established recently in a subtropical upland forest area, has served for ages as an essential and customary source of livelihood for local people. Assessment of forest usage indicates heavy reliance by villagers on its diversified biotic resources. This forest dependence, associated with socioeconomic factors such as distance from village, ethnic origin, out-migration of rural youngsters, and a local tradition of conservation, is unlikely to decline in the near future. The reserve management recognizes the need to address the livelihood issues of local people and to win local support. A pragmatic adherence to provincial and higher-level policies that exclude forest-tapping activities could lead to more people-versus-park conflicts, which would dilute fundamental conservation objectives. A more enlightened and localized approach that nurtures a synergy between limited forest use and conservation while helping to develop new income sources could furnish workable alternatives. [source]


    Brian D. Smith
    Abstract Independent observer teams made concurrent counts of Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella brevirostris and Ganges River dolphins Platanista gangetica gangetica in mangrove channels of the Sundarbans Delta in Bangladesh. These counts were corrected for missed groups using mark-recapture models. For Irrawaddy dolphins, a stratified Lincoln-Petersen model, which incorporated group size and sighting conditions as covariates, and a Huggins conditional likelihood model, which averaged models that individually incorporated group size, sighting conditions, and channel width as covariates, generated abundance estimates of 397 individuals (CV = 10.2%) and 451 individuals (CV = 9.6%), respectively. For Ganges River dolphins, a stratified Lincoln-Petersen model, which incorporated group size as a covariate, and a Huggins conditional likelihood model, which averaged the same models described above, generated abundance estimates of 196 individuals (CV = 12.7%) and 225 individuals (CV = 12.6%), respectively. Although the estimates for both models were relatively close, the analytical advantages of the Huggins models probably outweigh those of the Lincoln-Petersen models. However, the latter should be considered appropriate when simplicity is a priority. This study found that waterways of the Sundarbans support significant numbers of Irrawaddy and Ganges River dolphins, especially compared to other areas where the species have been surveyed. [source]


    Abstract This paper develops a bioeconomic forestry model that makes it possible to take ecosystem services that are independent of the age structure of trees into account. We derive the Faustmann,Hartman optimal harvesting strategy as a special case. The bioeconomic model is then extended to account for the fact that forest harvesting decisions impact on other ecological resources, which provide benefits for the wider community. The paper focuses on impacts associated with disturbance caused by logging operations and habitat destruction due to tree removal. This enables us to explore the interactions between forest management and the dynamics of ecological resources. The optimal rotation rule is obtained as a variation on the traditional Faustmann,Hartman equation, where an additional term captures the potential benefits derived from the growth of the ecological resource valued at its shadow price. The steady-state solutions to the problem and sensitivity to model parameter are identified using numerical analysis. [source]


    ABSTRACT. The age dynamics of a natural forest is modeled by the von-Foerster partial differential equation for the age density, while the seedling density is obtained as a solution of an integro-differential equation. This seedling density equation contains a small parameter, the ratio of seedling re-establishment time and the life span of an average tree in the forest. Several models are introduced that take into account various mortality curves and growth functions of trees, the dependence of seedlings carrying capacity on forest size, and different types of seedlings re-establishment. Asymptotic, analytic and numerical methods are used to solve typical example problems. [source]


    A. C. Johnson
    ABSTRACT: More than 300 landslides and debris flows were triggered by an October 1993 storm on Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska. Initiation, runout, and deposition patterns of landslides that occurred within clearcuts, second-growth, and old-growth forests were examined. Blowdown and snags, associated with cedar decline and "normal" rates of mortality, were found adjacent to at least 75 percent of all failures regardless of land use. Nearly 50 percent of the landslides within clearcuts occurred within one year following timber harvest; more than 70 percent of these sites had hydrophytic vegetation directly above failures. In following the runout paths of failures, significantly more erosion per unit area occurred within clearcuts than in old-growth forests on slopes with gradients from 9 to 28* (16 to 54 percent). Runout length, controlled by hillslope position within deglaciated valleys, was typically longer in old-growth forests than in second growth and clearcuts (median values were 334, 201, and 153 m, respectively). Most landslides and debris flows deposited in first-and second-order channels before reaching the main stem channels used by anadromous fish. Slide deposits in old-growth forests were composed of a higher proportion of woody debris than deposits derived from slides in second growth or clearcuts. [source]

    Effects of Conversion of Dry Tropical Forest to Agricultural Mosaic on Herpetofaunal Assemblages

    atributos de vulnerabilidad; bosque tropical seco; ensambles herpetofaunísticos; modificación del hábitat; mosaico agrícola Abstract:,We explored the impact of forest conversion to agricultural mosaic on anuran, lizard, snake, and turtle assemblages of Neotropical dry forests. Over 2 years, we sampled 6 small watersheds on the west coast of Mexico, 3 conserved and 3 disturbed. The disturbed watersheds were characterized by a mosaic of pastures and cultivated fields (corn, beans, squash) intermingled with patches of different successional stages of dry forest. In each watershed, we conducted 11 diurnal and nocturnal time-constrained searches in 10 randomly established plots. We considered vulnerability traits of species in relation to habitat modification. Eighteen anuran, 18 lizard, 23 snake, and 3 turtle species were recorded. Thirty-six species (58%) occurred in both forest conditions, and 14 (22%) and 12 species (19%) occurred only in the conserved and disturbed sites, respectively. Assemblages responded differently to disturbance. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of lizards were higher in disturbed forests. Anuran diversity and species richness were lower in disturbed forest but abundance was similar in both forest conditions. Diversity, richness, and abundance of turtles were lower in disturbed forest. The structure and composition of snake assemblages did not differ between forest conditions. We considered species disturbance sensitive if their abundance was significantly less in disturbed areas. Four anuran (22%), 2 lizard (11%), and 3 turtle (100%) species were sensitive to disturbance. No snake species was sensitive. The decline in abundance of disturbance-sensitive species was associated with the reduction of forest canopy cover, woody stem cover, roots, and litter-layer ground cover. Anuran species with small body size and direct embryonic development were especially sensitive to forest disturbance. An important goal for the conservation of herpetofauna should be the determination of species traits associated with extinction or persistence in agricultural mosaics. Resumen:,Exploramos el impacto de la conversión de bosques a mosaico agrícola sobre ensambles de lagartijas, serpientes y tortugas de bosques Neotropicales secos. Durante 2 años muestreamos 6 cuencas pequeñas, 3 conservadas y 3 perturbadas, en la costa occidental de México. Las cuencas perturbadas se caracterizaron por un mosaico de pastizales y campos cultivados (maíz, frijol, calabaza) entremezclados con parches de bosque seco en diferentes etapas sucesionales. En cada cuenca, realizamos 11 búsquedas diurnas y nocturnas en 10 parcelas establecidas aleatoriamente. Consideramos los atributos de vulnerabilidad de especies en relación con la modificación del hábitat. Registramos 18 especies de lagartijas, 23 de serpientes y 3 de tortugas. Treinta y seis especies (58%) ocurrieron en ambas condiciones de bosque, y 14 (22%) y 12 (19%) especies solo ocurrieron en los sitios conservados y perturbados, respectivamente. Los ensambles respondieron a la perturbación de manera diferente. La riqueza de especies, la diversidad y la abundancia de lagartijas fueron mayores en los bosques perturbados. La diversidad y riqueza de especies de anuros fueron menores en el bosque perturbado pero la abundancia fue similar en ambas condiciones de bosque. La diversidad, riqueza de especies y abundancia de tortugas fueron menores en el bosque perturbado. La estructura y la composición de los ensambles de serpientes no difirieron entre condiciones de bosque. Consideramos que las especies eran sensibles a la perturbación si su abundancia fue significativamente menor en las áreas perturbadas. Cuatro (22%) especies de anuros, 2 (11%) de lagartijas y 3 (100%) de tortugas fueron sensibles a la perturbación. Ninguna especie de serpiente fue sensible. La declinación en la abundancia de especies sensibles a la perturbación se asoció con la reducción en la cobertura del dosel, de tallos leñosos, raíces y hojarasca. Las especies de anuros de cuerpo pequeño y desarrollo embrionario directo fueron especialmente sensibles a la perturbación del bosque. La determinación de atributos de las especies asociadas con su extinción o persistencia en mosaicos agrícolas debería ser una meta importante para la conservación de la herpetofauna. [source]

    Forest Stand Dynamics and Livestock Grazing in Historical Context

    clima; incendio forestal; pastoreo histórico; pino ponderosa; supresión de fuego Abstract:,Livestock grazing has been implicated as a cause of the unhealthy condition of ponderosa pine forest stands in the western United States. An evaluation of livestock grazing impacts on natural resources requires an understanding of the context in which grazing occurred. Context should include timing of grazing, duration of grazing, intensity of grazing, and species of grazing animal. Historical context, when and under what circumstances grazing occurred, is also an important consideration. Many of the dense ponderosa pine forests and less-than-desirable forest health conditions of today originated in the early 1900s. Contributing to that condition was a convergence of fire, climate, and grazing factors that were unique to that time. During that time period, substantially fewer low-intensity ground fires (those that thinned dense stands of younger trees) were the result of reduced fine fuels (grazing), a substantial reduction in fires initiated by Native Americans, and effective fire-suppression programs. Especially favorable climate years for tree reproduction occurred during the early 1900s. Exceptionally heavy, unregulated, unmanaged grazing by very large numbers of horses, cattle, and sheep during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries occurred in most of the U.S. West and beginning earlier in portions of the Southwest. Today, livestock numbers on public lands are substantially lower than they were during this time and grazing is generally managed. Grazing then and grazing now are not the same. Resumen:,El pastoreo de ganado ha sido implicado como una causa de la mala salud de los bosques de pino ponderosa en el occidente de Estados Unidos. La evaluación de los impactos del pastoreo sobre los recursos naturales requiere de conocimiento del contexto en que ocurrió el pastoreo. El contexto debe incluir al período de ocurrencia, la duración y la intensidad del pastoreo, así como la especie de animal que pastoreó. El contexto histórico, cuando y bajo que circunstancias ocurrió el pastoreo, también es una consideración importante. Muchos de los bosques densos de pino ponderosa y de las condiciones, menos que deseables, de salud de los bosques actuales se originaron al principio del siglo pasado. Contribuyó a esa condición una convergencia de factores, fuego, clima y pastoreo, que fueron únicos en ese tiempo. Durante ese período, hubo sustancialmente menos incendios superficiales de baja intensidad (que afectaron a grupos densos de árboles más jóvenes) como resultado de la reducción de combustibles finos (pastoreo), una reducción sustancial en los incendios iniciados por Americanos Nativos y programas efectivos de supresión de incendios. Al inicio del siglo pasado hubo años con clima especialmente favorable para la reproducción de árboles. Al final del siglo diecinueve y comienzo del veinte hubo pastoreo no regulado ni manejado, excepcionalmente intensivo, por una gran cantidad de caballos, reses y ovejas en la mayor parte del oeste de E.U.A. y aun antes en porciones del suroeste. En la actualidad, el número de semovientes en terrenos públicos es sustancialmente menor al de ese tiempo, y el pastoreo generalmente es manejado. El pastoreo entonces y el pastoreo ahora no son lo mismo. [source]

    Susceptibility of a Northern Hardwood Forest to Exotic Earthworm Invasion

    Acer saccharum; Bosque Nacional Ottawa; lombrices invasoras; Sylvania Wilderness Area; uso del suelo Abstract:,Numerous exotic earthworm species are colonizing northern hardwood forests of North America, where no native earthworms exist. Upon invasion, earthworms have been shown to alter the surface soil environment and plant populations and communities. We sought to identify land-use factors in the Ottawa National Forest (ONF), Michigan (U.S.A.), that contribute to earthworm invasion in forest dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) so that the susceptibility to additional colonization could be evaluated. We sampled earthworm communities in Sylvania Wilderness Area, a unique old-growth hardwood forest, and nonwilderness sites influenced by recreational fishing, recent timber harvesting, or roads. All the nonwilderness sites contained one to five species of exotic earthworms. In contrast, only 50% of wilderness sites contained exotic earthworms, all of a single species. Nonwilderness sites also had thinner litter and duff layers, higher soil C and N content, and higher nitrogen mineralization potentials than Sylvania sites. Two central differences between Sylvania and nonwilderness sites were that all nonwilderness sites were in close contact with roads and had a history of timber harvest, whereas these factors were not present in Sylvania Wilderness Area. Using average rates of colonization, we constructed two geographic information system models to estimate the percentage of sugar maple on the ONF falling within a theoretical 100-year invasion distance of roads and of second-growth sugar maple as relative indices of susceptibility to invasion. Both models indicated high susceptibility to invasion, with 91.7% and 98.9% of sugar maple habitat falling within a theoretical 100-year invasion distance of roads or historical harvests, respectively. Resumen:,Numerosas especies de lombrices exóticas están colonizando los bosques boreales, en los que previamente no existían lombrices terrestres nativas. Por encima de la invasión, se ha demostrado que las lombrices alteran el ambiente superficial del suelo, así como a las comunidades y poblaciones de plantas. Tratamos de identificar factores de uso del suelo en el Bosque Nacional Ottawa (BNO), Michigan, E. U. A., que contribuyen a la invasión de lombrices en bosques dominados por arces (Acer saccharum Marsh.), para poder evaluar la susceptibilidad a futuras invasiones. Muestreamos comunidades de lombrices en Sylvania Wilderness Area, un bosque maduro único, y en sitios no silvestres influenciados por pesca deportiva, cosecha reciente de madera o caminos. Todas las áreas no silvestres contenían 1 - 5 especies de lombrices exóticas. En contraste, solo 50% de los sitios silvestres contenían lombrices exóticas, todas de una sola especie. Los sitios no silvestres también tenían capas de hojarasca y de mantillo más delgadas, mayor contenido de C y N del suelo y mayor potencial de mineralización del nitrógeno que los sitios en Sylvania. Dos diferencias centrales entre Sylvania y los sitios no silvestres fueron que estos estaban en contacto cercano con caminos y tenían una historia de cosecha de madera, mientras que estos factores no estuvieron presentes en Sylvania Wilderness Area. Utilizando tasas promedio de colonización, construimos dos modelos de sistemas de información geográfica para estimar el porcentaje de arces en el BNO que queda a una distancia teórica de invasión en 100 años; con caminos y arce de crecimiento secundario como índices relativos de susceptibilidad a la invasión. Ambos modelos indicaron alta susceptibilidad a la invasión, con 91.7% y 98.9% del hábitat de arce dentro de la distancia teórica de invasión en 100 años o con cosechas históricas, respectivamente. [source]

    Conservation of Brazilian Amphibians

    The Brazilian Official List of Threatened Species and the results of a workshop for the Global Amphibian Assessment indicate that 26 species are threatened. The majority of these occur in the Atlantic Forest, one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. The main threat to amphibians is the destruction of their habitats through deforestation, conversion into agricultural land, mining, wildfires, and infrastructure development and urbanization. In Brazil little is known about other causes of amphibian decline observed worldwide, such as pesticides, infectious diseases, climate change, invasive species, or wildlife trade. Brazilian conservation policies include such important legal instruments as the Official List of Threatened Species and the selection of priority areas for conservation measures in all of Brazil's major biomes. Although there is little information on geographic distributions and the natural history and ecology of the large majority of the currently recognized species, a number of important regional studies for amphibian conservation are under way. New species are discovered each year. Resumen:,Brasil es el líder mundial en diversidad de anfibios, con 765 especies, la mayoría de las cuales han sido descritas en los últimos 40 años. La Lista Brasileña Oficial de Especies Amenazadas y los resultados de un taller para la Evaluación Global de Anfibios indican que 26 especies están amenazadas, la mayoría de ellas ocurre en el Bosque Atlántico, uno de los sitios de importancia para la biodiversidad global. La principal amenaza a los anfibios es la destrucción de sus hábitats por la deforestación, conversión a tierras agrícolas, minería, fuego no controlado, desarrollo de infraestructura y urbanización. En Brasil se conoce poco sobre otras causas de la declinación de anfibios observadas en todo el mundo, como pesticidas, enfermedades infecciosas, cambio climático, especies invasoras o comercio de vida silvestre. Las políticas Brasileñas de conservación incluyen importantes instrumentos legales como la Lista Oficial de Especies Amenazadas y la selección de áreas prioritarias para la conservación en todos lo biomas principales de Brasil. Existe escasa información sobre la distribución geográfica y la historia natural y ecología de la gran mayoría de las especies reconocidas actualmente, aunque se está desarrollando un importante número de estudios regionales para la conservación de anfibios. Cada año se descubren nuevas especies. [source]

    Death Rides the Forest: Perceptions of Fire, Land Use, and Ecological Restoration of Western Forests

    fuego prescrito; incendios catastróficos; incendios en áreas silvestres; incendios no controlados; reducción de riesgo de combustible; restauración de bosques; tala de bosques Abstract:,Large wild fires occurring in forests, grasslands, and chaparral in the last few years have aroused much public concern. Many have described these events as "catastrophes" that must be prevented through aggressive increases in forest thinning. Yet the real catastrophes are not the fires themselves but those land uses, in concert with fire-suppression policies that have resulted in dramatic alterations to ecosystem structure and composition. The first step in the restoration of biological diversity (forest health) of western landscapes must be to implement changes in those factors that have caused degradation or are preventing recovery. This includes changes in policies and practices that have resulted in the current state of wildland ecosystems. Restoration entails much more than simple structural modifications achieved though mechanical means. Restoration should be undertaken at landscape scales and must allow for the occurrence of dominant ecosystem processes, such as the natural fire regimes achieved through natural and/or prescribed fires at appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Resumen:,En años recientes, grandes incendios en bosques, pastizales y chaparrales han causado bastante preocupación en la opinión pública. Muchos han descrito estos eventos como "catástrofes" que deben ser prevenidas mediante incrementos agresivos en la tala de bosques. Pero los incendios mismos no son las verdaderas catástrofes, sino los usos del suelo en conjunto con políticas de supresión de fuego que han resultado en alteraciones dramáticas de la estructura y composición de ecosistemas. El primer paso en la restauración de la diversidad biológica (salud del bosque) en paisajes occidentales debe ser la implementación de cambios en los factores que causaron la degradación o que están impidiendo la recuperación. Esto incluye cambios en políticas y prácticas que han resultado en el estado actual de ecosistemas en áreas silvestres. La restauración implica mucho más que simples modificaciones estructurales obtenidas mediante medios mecánicos. La restauración debe llevarse a cabo a nivel de paisaje y debe permitir que ocurrencia de procesos ecológicos dominantes (por ejemplo, regímenes de incendios naturales logrados mediante incendios naturales y/o prescritos en escalas temporales y espaciales apropiadas). [source]

    Role of Corridors in Plant Dispersal: an Example with the Endangered Ranunculus nodif lorus

    Florian Kirchner
    But the few experimental studies supporting the usefulness of corridors have all concerned animal species. We investigated the role of corridors in seed dispersal, studying population genetic and demographic structure in metapopulations of the rare, pond-dwelling, autogamous plant species Ranunculus nodiflorus L. in the Fontainebleau Forest ( France ). Differentiation on three polymorphic isozyme markers was strong among local populations ( ponds ) within metapopulations ( sites ) and moderate among metapopulations. Partial Mantel tests revealed that the connection of ponds through temporarily flooded natural corridors, facilitating seed migration, had a strong negative effect on genetic differentiation between local populations and that a pond was more likely to be colonized when connected by corridors to other occupied ponds. Thus, corridors are probably a key element of landscape structure for metapopulation dynamics in R. nodiflorus. From a conservation perspective, our results suggest that corridors could increase the chance of persistence of plant species living in fragmented habitats by promoting seed dispersal between habitat patches. Resumen: La propuesta de que la migración de organismos entre parches de hábitat puede ser incrementada por corredores ha sido muy discutida en biología de la conservación. Pero los pocos estudios experimentales que apoyan la utilidad de los corredores han sido enfocados hacia especies de animales. Investigamos el papel de los corredores en la dispersión de semillas, estudiando la genética poblacional y la estructura demográfica en metapoblaciones de la especie de planta rara, autógama, habitante de estanques Ranunculus nodiflorus L. en el bosque Fontainebleau ( Francia ). La diferenciación de tres isozimas polimórficas marcadoras fue fuerte entre las poblaciones locales ( estanques ) dentro de metapoblaciones ( sitios ) y fue moderada entre metapoblaciones. Las pruebas parciales de Mantel revelaron que la conexión de estanques a través de corredores naturales inundados facilitando la migración de semillas, tuvo un efecto negativo fuerte en la diferenciación genética entre poblaciones locales y que un estanque fue más probable de ser colonizado cuando se conectaba por corredores con otros estanques ocupados. Por lo tanto, los corredores probablemente son un factor clave de la estructura del paisaje para dinámicas metapoblacionales en R. nodiflorus. Desde una perspectiva de conservación, nuestros resultados sugieren que los corredores podrían incrementar la probabilidad de persistencia de especies de plantas que viven en hábitats fragmentados al promover la dispersión de semillas entre parches de hábitats. [source]

    An Experimental Investigation of Landscape Resistance of Forest versus Old-Field Habitats to Emigrating Juvenile Amphibians

    Betsie B. Rothermel
    Larval amphibians,spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), small-mouthed salamander (A. texanum), and American toad ( Bufo americanus ),were added to artificial pools in four dispersal arrays on forest edges. Each array consisted of a pool surrounded by a circular drift fence with pitfall traps and two 2.5 × 50 m enclosures (runs) extending into forest and old-field habitat. Juveniles captured at the circular fences were individually marked and released into either field or forest runs. We determined initial distance, initial rate, total distance, and net distance moved by juveniles in the field versus forest from recaptures in the runs. We also conducted 24-hour dehydration trials to compare the rates of evaporative water loss by spotted and small-mouthed salamanders in field and forest. Initial orientation of spotted salamanders and toads was significantly biased toward forest. Orientation of small-mouthed salamanders did not differ significantly from random expectations. The avoidance of open-canopy habitat by juvenile American toads in particular indicates that predictions of dispersal behavior based on adult habitat use may be misleading. Spotted salamanders moved almost four times farther and toads more than three times farther into the forest than into the field, and recapture rates of both species were much lower in the field. We attribute the lower recapture rates and shorter distances moved in the field to higher mortality due to desiccation or an abundance of predators. Juvenile spotted and small-mouthed salamanders experienced greater evaporative water loss in the field. Our data on movement behavior and dehydration rates suggest that old-field habitats offer greater landscape resistance to dispersing juveniles of some species. Thus, forest fragmentation is likely to reduce dispersal rates between local populations of these three species, with potentially negative consequences for population persistence in altered landscapes. Resumen: Utilizamos un enfoque experimental para investigar los efectos de la composición del paisaje sobre el éxito inicial de dispersión de anfibios juveniles. Colcamos larvas de anfibios (salamandras manchadas [Ambystoma maculatum] y A. texanum y sapo americano [Bufo americanus] ) en estanques artificiales en cuatro secuencias de dispersión en bordes de bosque. Cada secuencia consistió de un estanque rodeado por un cerco circular con trampas de fosa y dos encierros (corridas) de 2.5 × 50 m que se extendían hacia el hábitat de bosque y de campo viejo. Los juveniles capturados en los cercos circulares fueron marcados individualmente y liberados en las corridas de bosque o de campo. A partir de recapturas en las corridas, determinamos la distancia inicial, la tasa inicial, las distancia total y la distancia neta recorrida por juveniles en el campo versus el bosque. También realizamos pruebas de deshidratación de 24 horas para comparar las tasas de pérdida de agua por evaporación en salamandras en el campo y el bosque. La orientación inicial de Ambystoma maculatum y Bufo americanus estuvo significativamente sesgada hacia el bosque. La orientación inicial de A. texanum no fue significativamente diferente de las expectativas aleatorias. La evasión del hábitat abierto en particular por juveniles de sapo americano indica que las predicciones del comportamiento de dispersión basadas en el uso del hábitat por adultos pueden llevar a conclusiones erróneas. Las salamandras manchadas se movieron cuatro veces mas lejos y los sapos más de tres veces más lejos dentro del bosque que dentro del campo, y las tasas de recaptura de ambas especies fueron mucho menores en el campo. Atribuimos las bajas tasas de recaptura y las distancias menores a la mayor mortalidad debido a la desecación o a la abundancia de depredadores. Los juveniles de las dos especies de salamandras experimentaron mayor pérdida de agua por evaporación en los campos. Nuestros datos del comportamiento de movimiento y las tasas de deshidratación sugieren que los hábitats de campo viejo ofrecen mayor resistencia de paisaje para los juveniles dispersantes de algunas especies. Por tanto, es probable que la fragmentación de bosques reduce las tasas de dispersión entre poblaciones locales de estas tres especies, con consecuencias potencialmente negativas para la persistencia de la población en paisajes alterados. [source]

    Effects of Fragmentation of Araucarian Vine Forest on Small Mammal Communities

    Jocelyn M. Bentley
    We examined the abundance of small mammal species in forests, corridors, remnants of araucarian vine forest, and Araucaria cunninghamii plantations and pastures. None of the forest mammal species persisted following conversion of forest to pasture. Plantations supported lowered abundances of a subset of forest species that were mainly habitat generalists with respect to their occurrence in different floristic types of undisturbed native forest. Within plantations, an increased subcanopy cover was associated with a more forest-like small mammal assemblage. Species' responses to habitat fragmentation varied. The floristic habitat generalists were largely tolerant of habitat fragmentation, their abundance being similar in forests, corridors, and remnants, and were capable of persisting in remnants a few hectares in area. Floristic habitat specialists were vulnerable to habitat fragmentation and thus were abundant in continuous forest, were less abundant in corridors, and were generally absent from remnants. Species that avoid the corridor matrix and are therefore constrained to the corridor may be disadvantaged by the linearity of the habitat, consistent with the predictions of central-place foraging theory. Although small remnants and corridors provide habitat for some species, those that are more specialized in their use of undisturbed habitat types require the retention or reestablishment of large intact areas. Resumen: La pérdida de hábitat y la fragmentación son amenazas importantes para la sobrevivencia de la fauna que depende del bosque. Examinamos la abundancia de especies de mamíferos pequeños en bosques, corredores, y en remanentes de bosques de vid araucarios y en plantaciones de Araucaria cunninghamii y pastizales. Ninguna de las especies de mamíferos del bosque persistió después de la conversión del bosque a pastizal. Las plantaciones favorecieron abundancias menores de un conjunto de especies del bosque integrado principalmente por generalistas de hábitat con respecto a su presencia en diferentes tipos florísticos de bosque nativo sin perturbar. Dentro de las plantaciones, cuanto mayor era la cobertura por debajo del dosel más se parecía el ensamblaje de mamíferos pequeños al del bosque. Las respuestas de las especies a la fragmentación del hábitat fueron variadas. Los generalistas del hábitat florístico por lo general toleraban la fragmentación del hábitat ( la abundancia en bosques, corredores y remanentes era similar) y fueron capaces de persistir en remanentes de unas pocas hectáreas de extensión. Los especialistas de hábitat florístico fueron vulnerables a la fragmentación del hábitat y por ello fueron más abundantes en bosques continuos, menos abundantes en corredores y generalmente ausentes en los remanentes. Las especies que evitaron la matriz de corredores y por lo tanto se encuentran limitadas al corredor pueden estar en desventaja por la linearidad del hábitat, consistente con las predicciones de la teoría del forrajeo de sitio central. A pesar de que los remanentes pequeños y los corredores proveen hábitat para algunas especies, aquéllas que son más especializadas en el uso de tipos de hábitat sin perturbar requieren de la retención o del restablecimiento de áreas intactas grandes. [source]

    Patch Occupancy and Potential Metapopulation Dynamics of Three Forest Mammals in Fragmented Afromontane Forest in South Africa

    Michael J. Lawes
    We recorded patch occupancy of blue duiker ( Philantomba monticola), tree hyrax ( Dendrohyrax arboreus), and samango monkey (Cercopithecus mitis labiatus) in 199 forest patches. Their rarity is ascribed to the fragmentation and destruction of their forest habitat. Incidence functions, derived from presence and absence data, were formulated as generalized linear models, and environmental effects were included in the fitted logistic models. The small and mostly solitary hyrax and duiker persisted in smaller patches than the large and social monkey. Although this result follows expectations based on relative home-range sizes of each species, the incidence probability of the samango monkey was invariant with increasing isolation, whereas a gradual decrease with increasing isolation was observed for the hyrax and duiker. Group dynamics may inhibit dispersal and increase the isolation effect in social species such as samango monkeys. A mainland-island metapopulation model adequately describes patterns of patch occupancy by the hyrax and duiker, but the monkeys' poor dispersal ability and obvious area-dependent extirpation suggest that they exist in transient, nonequilibrium (declining) metapopulations. Through identification of large forest patches for careful protection and management, the survival of all three species,especially the monkey,could be prolonged. Because no functional metapopulation may exist for the monkey, however, this is an emergency measure. For the duiker and hyrax, larger patches should form part of a network of smaller and closer patches in a natural matrix. Resumen: Investigamos la persistencia de tres mamíferos forestales raros de tamaño mediano (2,9 kg) en los bosques fragmentados de cinturón de niebla Podocarpus en la región central de la provincia KwaZulu-Natal, Sudáfrica. Registramos la ocupación del duiker azul ( Philantomba monticola), el hyrax arborícola ( Dendrohyrax arboreus) y el mono samango (Cercopithecus mitis labiatus) en 199 parches forestales. Su rareza se atribuye a la fragmentación y destrucción de su hábitat forestal. Las funciones de incidencia, derivadas de datos de presencia y ausencia, fueron formuladas como modelos lineales generalizados, y los efectos ambientales fueron incluidos en los modelos logísticos ajustados. Los pequeños y mayormente solitarios hyrax y duiker persistieron en parches más pequeños que los monos, que son más grandes y más sociables. A pesar de que este resultado obedece a expectativas basadas en tamaños de rango de hogar relativos de cada especie, la probabilidad de incidencia del mono samango no cambió con un incremento en el aislamiento, mientras que una disminución gradual al crecer el aislamiento se observó en hyrax y duiker. Las dinámicas de grupos podrían inhibir la dispersión e incrementar el efecto de aislamiento en especies sociables como lo es el mono samango. Un modelo de metapoblación continente-isla describe adecuadamente los patrones de la ocupación de parches por hyrax y duiker; sin embargo, la pobre capacidad de dispersión de los monos y la obvia extirpación área-dependente sugiere que estos existen en metapoblaciones transitorias, desequilibradas (en disminución). Mediante la identificación de parches forestales grandes para la protección y manejo cuidadosos, la supervivencia de las tres especies ( pero especialmente la de los monos) podría ser prolongada. Sin embargo, debido a que no existen metapoblaciones funcionales de monos, esta es una medida de emergencia. Para el duiker y el hyrax, los parches grandes deberán formar parte de una red de parches más pequeños y más cercanos en una matriz natural. [source]

    Use of Premontane Moist Forest and Shade Coffee Agroecosystems by Army Ants in Western Panama

    Dina L. Roberts
    Behavioral and distributional studies of these two species have been confined largely to humid lowland forest. We conducted intensive systematic area searches at elevations between 1200 and 1800 m in western Panama to assess the distribution of both species in intact premontane moist forest, shade coffee plantations, and sun coffee plantations. Both species were repeatedly observed in forest, shade coffee plantations close to forest, and shade coffee plantations distant from forest. Neither species was observed in sun coffee plantations. We believe that retention of certain forest-like characteristics in the traditional shade coffee farm contributes to the persistence of these forest organisms in modified landscapes. Large canopy trees not only provide shade that buffers temperature extremes but also supply the ground layer with regular inputs of leaf litter and coarse woody debris from fallen trunks. Both E. burchelli and L. praedator hunt in leaf litter, and E. burchelli uses coarse woody debris as nesting sites ( bivouacs). There were significantly fewer potential bivouacs available in sun coffee plantations than in forest and shade coffee habitats. Also, litter depth was less in sun coffee than in forest and shade coffee. Our results provide the first evidence that shade coffee plantations can provide additional habitat for E. burchelli and L. praedator, top predators of the leaf litter arthropod community. E. burchelli and L. praedator act as critical links between swarm-attendant bird species and leaf-litter arthropods, providing an easily exploited food resource that would otherwise be unavailable for many birds. Continued conversion of shade coffee plantations to sun coffee plantations could have negative effects on army ants and associated biodiversity. Resumen: Las hormigas arrierras Neotropicales, Eciton burchelli y Labidus praedator ( Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ecitoninae) son especies que requieren de extensas áreas de hábitat para cazar. Los estudios conductuales y de la distribución de estas especies se han realizado principalmente en bosques húmedos en tierras bajas. Desarrollamos búsquedas sistemáticas intensivas en elevaciones entre 1200 y 1800 msnm en Panama occidental para determinar la distribución de ambas especies en bosque húmedo premontano intacto, en plantaciones de café con y sin sombra. Las dos especies fueron observadas recurrentemente en bosque y en plantaciones de café de sombra cercanos y lejanos al bosque. Consideramos que la retención de ciertas características del bosque en las plantaciones de café de sombra contribuye a la persistencia de estos organismos de bosque en ambientes modificados. Los árboles no solo proporcionan sombra que amortigua la temperatura, sino que proporcionan hojarasca y restos leñosos de troncos caídos. Tanto E. burchelli como L. praedator cazan en la hojarasca, E. burchelli utiliza restos leñosos para anidar (vivaques). Encontramos significativamente menos vivaques en plantaciones de café sin sombra al compararlos con bosque y plantaciones de café con sombra. Asimismo, la profundidad de la capa de hojarasca fue menor en plantaciones de café sin sombra en comparación con bosque y plantaciones de café con sombra. Nuestros resultados proporcionan la primera evidencia de que las plantaciones con sombra proporcionan hábitat adicional para E. burchelli y L. praedator, depredadores de la comunidad de artrópodos en la hojarasca. E. burchelli y L. praedator actúan como eslabones críticos entre especies de aves que se alimentan de hormigas y los artrópodos de la hojarasca, proporcionando un recurso alimenticio fácilmente explotado que de otra manera no estaría disponible para muchas aves. La continua transformación de plantaciones de café con sombra a plantaciones sin sombra pudiera tener efectos negativos sobre las hormigas arrieras y la biodiversidad asociada. [source]

    Counting and Measuring the Trees in a Forest

    Professor Ben J. Wallace
    First page of article [source]

    Slope development reconstruction at two sites in the Bohemian Forest Mountains

    Filip Hartvich
    Abstract Although the Bohemian Forest is generally considered to be geomorphologically a rather stable region, there are localities which bear proof of a surprisingly high intensity of recent and even present day processes. A multidisciplinary methodology based on the analysis of slope systems was used for researching the present and past dynamics of two hillslopes. Using the results of direct dilatometric monitoring (the slow creep of rock blocks reached a maximum of 1,mm year,1), GPS field mapping, sedimentology, geodetic measurements and DEM analyses, several common rules have been observed for the behaviour of two model localities and a likely polycyclic development established, with recurrence of mass-wasting cycles related to material supply thresholds. Radiometric dating of debris flow activity showed that the cycles span approximately 4000 years. In this area of rather stable bedrock conditions, at least two factors that decrease slope stability need to act together to activate slope processes: i.e. a favourable structural predisposition (dip of major joint or bedding planes) and an increase in relief through either glaciation or river incision. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Forest age, wood and nutrient dynamics in headwater streams of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH

    Dana R. Warren
    Abstract Instream processing may substantially alter nutrient export from forested watersheds. This study tested how instream uptake of N and P were affected by successional differences in the accumulation of large wood and debris dams in a 66-year chronosequence formed by five watersheds within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), NH. Nutrient enrichment releases in summer 1998 were used to measure the uptake velocities of phosphate, nitrate and ammonium for five streams within HBEF, and results indicated that uptake of PO43, was closely associated with forest age. In 2004, we quantified volume and abundance of large wood in each stream to test whether large wood abundance could be linked to nitrate uptake as well as phosphate. The volume of instream wood increased with forest age, at an apparent rate of 0·03 m3 (100 m),1 per year for these early to mid-successional forests (r2 = 0.95); however, debris dam frequency did not. Instead, debris dam frequency, when controlled for stream size, followed a U-shaped distribution, with high dam frequency in very young forests, low frequency in forests around 20,30 years of age and increasing dam frequency again as forests matured. Phosphate uptake velocity increased strongly with both forest age and large wood volume (r2 = 0·99; p < 0·001 in both cases); however, nitrate and ammonium uptake were not related to either factor. We attribute the positive relationship between phosphate uptake velocity and forest age/large wood volume to increased abiotic adsorption of phosphate by the inorganic sediments retained by wood. Nitrogen uptake in these streams is primarily biologically driven and did not vary predictably with these structural features of channels. We expect wood abundance to increase in HBEF streams as the forest matures, with a subsequent increase in stream phosphate uptake capacity. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Coarse sediment transport in mountain streams in Colorado and Wyoming, USA

    Sandra E. Ryan
    Abstract Since the early 1990s, US Forest Service researchers have made thousands of bedload measurements in steep, coarse-grained channels in Colorado and Wyoming, USA. In this paper we use data from 19 of those sites to characterize patterns and rates of coarse sediment transport for a range of channel types and sizes, including step,pool, plane-bed, pool,riffle, and near-braided channels. This effort builds upon previous work where we applied a piecewise regression model to (1) relate flow to rates of bedload transport and (2) define phases of transport in coarse-grained channels. Earlier, the model was tested using bedload data from eight sites on the Fraser Experimental Forest near Fraser, Colorado. The analysis showed good application to those data and to data from four supplementary channels to which the procedure was applied. The earlier results were, however, derived from data collected at sites that, for the most part, have quite similar geology and runoff regimes. In this paper we evaluate further the application of piecewise regression to data from channels with a wider range of geomorphic conditions. The results corroborate with those from the earlier work in that there is a relatively narrow range of discharges at which a substantial change in the nature of bedload transport occurs. The transition from primarily low rates of sand transport (phase I) to higher rates of sand and coarse gravel transport (phase II) occurs, on average, at about 80 per cent of the bankfull (1·5-year return interval) discharge. A comparison of grain sizes moved during the two phases showed that coarse gravel is rarely trapped in the samplers during phase I transport. Moreover, the movement and capture of the D16 to D25 grain size of the bed surface seems to correspond with the onset of phase II transport, particularly in systems with largely static channel surfaces. However, while there were many similarities in observed patterns of bedload transport at the 19 studied sites, each had its own ,bedload signal' in that the rate and size of materials transported largely reflected the nature of flow and sediment particular to that system. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Long-term succession in a Danish temperate deciduous forest

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2005
    Richard H. W. Bradshaw
    Forest successional trajectories covering the last 2000 yr from a mixed deciduous forest in Denmark show a gradual shift in dominance from Tilia cordata to Fagus sylvatica and a recent increase in total forest basal area since direct management ceased in 1948. The successions are reconstructed by combining a fifty-year record of direct tree observations with local pollen diagrams from Draved Forest, Denmark. Five of the seven successions record a heathland phase of Viking Age dating from 830 AD. The anthropogenic influence is considerable throughout the period of study even though Draved contains some of the most pristine forest stands in Denmark. Anthropogenic influence including felling masks the underlying natural dynamics, with the least disturbed sites showing the smallest compositional change. Some effects of former management, such as loss of Tilia cordata dominance, are irreversible. Artificial disturbance, particularly drainage, has accelerated and amplified the shift towards Fagus dominance that would have occurred on a smaller scale and at a slower rate in the absence of human intervention. [source]

    An investigation of the hydrological requirements of River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) Forest, using Classification and Regression Tree modelling

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Li Wen
    Abstract River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is widely distributed throughout many water courses and floodplains within inland Australia. In recent years, accelerated decline of River Red Gum condition has been observed in many locations, and field observations of the degradation are consistent with the reduction of flooding. However, there are few publications that quantitatively investigate the relationships between River Red Gum condition and flooding history. We applied Classification and Regression Tree (CART) to model the minimum flooding requirement of River Red Gum forest/woodland in Yanga National Park, located on the Lower Murrumbidgee Floodplain, southeast Australia, using crown conditions derived from historical aerial photographs spanning more than 40 years. The model produced has a moderate reliability with an overall accuracy of 64·1% and a Kappa index of 0·543. The model brings in important insights about the relationship between River Red Gum community type, flood frequency and flood duration. Our results demonstrated that (1) CART analysis is a simple yet powerful technique with significant potential for application in river and environmental flow management; (2) River Red Gum communities on the Lower Murrumbidgee Floodplain require periodic inundation (3,5 years) for a duration of up to 64 days to be in moderate to good conditions; (3) Although the crown conditions of different community types displayed similar degradation trends, they have distinct flooding requirements; and (4) The River Red Gum community in Yanga National Park may be managed as hydrological units given limited environmental water allocations. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Records of Feckenham Forest, Worcestershire, c.1236,1377 , Edited by Jean Birrell

    James A. Galloway
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Effects of fires on butterfly assemblages in lowland dipterocarp forest in East Kalimantan

    Toshiya HIROWATARI
    Abstract The post-fire butterfly fauna in lowland dipterocarp forest of the Bukit Soeharto Education Forest (BSEF), East Kalimantan, Indonesia, was assessed during the period November 1998,April 2000 by means of consecutive Malaise trap samples, with supplementary field observations for March,April 1999. A total of 514 butterflies belonging to 61 species and representing six families were caught in the traps. Melanitis leda (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae), Charaxes bernardus (Nymphalidae: Charaxinae), and Danaus genutia (Nymphalidae: Danainae) were the species most frequently caught (60, 52 and 47 individuals, respectively), representing 31% of the total. These three species are generalists and "disturbance indicators" for tropical rainforest, being characteristic of disturbed or secondary forests, being distributed widely, and having larvae that feed on a wide range of host plants. In contrast, other species, such as Trogonoptera brookiana and Troides amphrysus, were recorded before the fires but were not recorded again afterwards. The pre- and post-fire butterfly fauna of East Kalimantan were compared on the basis of butterfly specimens deposited in the Tropical Rain Forest Research Center that were collected in and around the Bukit Soeharto Education Forest before the fires (1988,1995). On the basis of the post-fire survey, based on Malaise trap samples and field observations, only 43% of the butterfly species (not including Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae) were confirmed to have persisted. The data suggest that refugia that are not affected by fire are necessary for the conservation of specialist butterflies, as well as many other forms of wildlife. [source]

    Genetic diversity of Clethrionomys glareolus populations from highly contaminated sites in the Chornobyl region, Ukraine

    Cole W. Matson
    Abstract At radioactive sites, at least two mechanisms may affect the genetic diversity of populations of a given species. Increased mutation rates due to radiation exposure may increase the amount of genetic diversity in a population. Alternatively, population bottlenecks exacerbated by environmental degradation may lead to a reduction of diversity. The relationship between these two contradictory forces is complex. To explore this relationship, long-term monitoring of a genetic marker within a population is needed. To provide baseline data on the population genetics of the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) living in the most contaminated regions at Chornobyl, Ukraine, we have sequenced 291 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Bank voles were chosen as a model system because they have the highest levels of internal dose of cesium-134, cesium-137, and strontium-90 within the Chornobyl exclusion zone. We sampled three geographic sites, which were Oranoe, a reference site with virtually no radioactive contamination (<2 Ci/km2), and two highly contaminated sites, Glyboke Lake and the Red Forest (both 1,000 Ci/km2). Genetic diversity in the population from Red Forest (0.722 ± 0.024) was significantly greater than at the Oranoe reference site (0.615 ± 0.039), while genetic diversity at Glyboke Lake (0.677 ± 0.068) was intermediate. It is concluded that long-term studies of historical and demographic characteristics for experimental and reference populations are required in order to employ population genetics to understand the biological impact of environmental contaminants on the genetics of natural populations. [source]

    Monokotylen in der mitteleozänen Braunkohle des Geiseltales bei Merseburg (Sachsen-Anhalt) und ihre ökologische Bedeutung,

    FEDDES REPERTORIUM, Issue 3-4 2008
    Eberhard Kahlert Dipl.-Geol.
    Aus dem Mitteleozän des Geiseltales werden Epidermen von Dioscoreaceae, Pandanaceae, Liliaceae und zwei fossile Blätter von Alismataceae, Liliaceae und Smilacoideae beschrieben. Ökologische Hinweise auf Trockenheit durch Smilacoideae (Dry Tropic Forest) werden angezeigt. Feuchtes Klima ist nicht nachweisbar. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Epidermis of Monocotyles of Middle Eocene brown coal in the Geiseltal near Merseburg (Saxonia-Anhalt) and their ecological significance Descriptions are given of middle Eocene Epidermen of Dioscoreaceae, Pandanaceae, Liliaceae and two fossil leaves of Alismataceae, Liliaceae and Smilacoideae from Geiseltal. Smilacoideae (Dry Tropic Forest) indicate on aridity. Damp climates are not demonstrable. [source]

    Clonal diversity and subpopulation structure in central European relict populations of Saxifraga paniculataMill. (Saxifragaceae)

    FEDDES REPERTORIUM, Issue 3-4 2004
    C. Reisch
    Saxifraga paniculata is a rare and endangered glacial relict in central Europe. It shows high clonal reproduction. In this study, we analysed the clonal diversity and the subpopulation structure of three populations from the species main distribution area in Germany outside of the Alps (Swabian Alb, Black Forest, Nahe Mountains). We used RAPD analysis to detect the genetic variation in S. paniculata and found high levels of clonal diversity. The percentage of distinguishable genotypes (PD) within populations of S. paniculata was 1.0 and even spatially well defined mats of rosettes consisted of several genotypes. In a cluster analysis, the investigated populations were clearly separated from each other. However, we detected no genetic differentiation among subpopulations. We ascribe the high level of genotypic variability to the species' mixed mating system, which creates and maintains high levels of genetic diversity within the populations of S. paniculata. Clonal reproduction seems, meanwhile, to be of secondary importance for the propagation of the species. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Klonale Diversität und Subpopulationsstruktur in mitteleuropäischen Reliktpopulationen von Saxifraga paniculataMill. (Saxifragaceae) Saxifraga paniculata ist in Mitteleuropa ein seltenes und gefährdetes Glazialrelikt, das sich durch die Fähigkeit zu starker klonaler Reproduktion auszeichnet. Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der klonalen Diversität und der Subpopulationsstruktur von drei Populationen aus dem Hauptverbreitungsgebiet der Art außerhalb der Alpen (Schwäbische Alb, Schwarzwald, Nahe-Bergland). Die genetische Variabilität wurde mittels RAPD-Analyse untersucht. Dabei konnte ein hohes Maß an klonaler Diversität festgestellt werden. Der Prozentsatz unterscheidbarer Genotypen innerhalb einer Population (PD) betrug 1.0 und selbst größere Matten, deren Entstehung nach rein morphologischer Einschätzung auf klonalem Wachstum beruhen müsste, bestanden aus mehreren Genotypen. In einer Clusteranalyse unterschieden sich die analysierten Populationen klar voneinander. Unterschiede zwischen Subpopulationen konnten jedoch nicht nachgewiesen werden. Das hohe Ausmaß an genetischer Diversität kann dem "mixed mating system" der Art zugeschrieben werden, das genetische Variabilität schafft und erhält. Klonales Wachstum scheint währenddessen eher von zweitrangiger Bedeutung für die Vermehrung der Art zu sein. [source]

    Spathaspora arborariae sp. nov., a d -xylose-fermenting yeast species isolated from rotting wood in Brazil

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 8 2009
    Raquel M. Cadete
    Abstract Four strains of a new yeast species were isolated from rotting wood from two sites in an Atlantic Rain Forest and a Cerrado ecosystem in Brazil. The analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene showed that this species belongs to the Spathaspora clade. The new species ferments d -xylose efficiently and is related to Candida jeffriesii and Spathaspora passalidarum, both of which also ferment d -xylose. Similar to S. passalidarum, the new species produces unconjugated asci with a single greatly elongated ascospore with curved ends. The type strain of Spathaspora arborariae sp. nov. is UFMG-HM19.1AT (=CBS11463T=NRRL Y-48658T). [source]

    Involvement of Phytophthora species in white oak (Quercus alba) decline in southern Ohio

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Y. Balci
    Summary This study was initiated to investigate the possible role of Phytophthora species in white oak decline (Quercus alba) in southern Ohio at Scioto Trail State Forest. Surveys demonstrated the presence of four species of Phytophthora including one novel species. By far, the most common species was P. cinnamomi; P. citricola and P. cambivora were isolated infrequently. In few instances, P. cinnamomi was isolated from fine roots and necroses on larger roots. No special pattern of incidence was found, but P. cinnamomi was more commonly isolated from greater Integrated Moisture Index values suggesting moist lower bottomlands favour this Phytophthora species. When tree crown condition was examined relative to the presence of Phytophthora, no significant association was found. However, roots of declining P. cinnamomi -infested trees had 2.5 times less fine roots than non-infested and healthy trees, which was significantly different. The population densities of P. cinnamomi from declining trees were significantly greater than from healthy trees, suggesting increased pathogen activity that has the potential to cause dieback and decline and possibly the cause of a reduced fine root amount found on declining trees. [source]

    Relationship between stump treatment coverage using the biological control product PG Suspension, and control of Heterobasidion annosum on Corsican pine, Pinus nigra ssp. laricio

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    K. V. Tubby
    Summary The relationship between the proportion of the stump surface covered by the biological stump treatment agent PG Suspension, containing Phlebiopsis gigantea and its efficacy against the pathogen Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto was studied during a first thinning of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) in Thetford Forest, UK. PG Suspension was manually applied to 100%, 75%, 50% or 0% of the surface of 150 stumps. Spores of H. annosum were inoculated onto 75 of the stumps, and the remaining stumps exposed to natural airborne spore deposition. The relationship between coverage and efficacy was found to be quantitative. Covering all the stump surface with PG Suspension completely excluded the pathogen, whereas stumps not treated with PG Suspension (the 0% treatment) became infected with H. annosum. Partial (75%) PG Suspension coverage resulted in the pathogen colonizing 40% of stumps following artificial inoculation with H. annosum, and just 7% of stumps exposed to ambient H. annosum spore infection. Decreasing levels of coverage allowed increasing areas of the stump surface to be colonized by H. annosum. Some small gaps in coverage were closed by lateral growth of P. gigantea, but it is recommended that operators aim for full stump coverage to give complete protection against H. annosum. [source]