Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (fourier + transform_infrared_analysis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Polyamide 6/maleated ethylene,propylene,diene rubber/organoclay composites with or without glycidyl methacrylate as a compatibilizer

Lingyan Zhang
Abstract Polyamide 6 (PA6)/maleated ethylene,propylene,diene rubber (EPDM- g -MA)/organoclay (OMMT) composites were melt-compounded through two blending sequences. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was used as a compatibilizer for the ternary composites. The composite prepared through via the premixing of PA6 with OMMT and then further melt blending with EPDM- g -MA exhibited higher impact strength than the composite prepared through the simultaneous blending of all the components. However, satisfactorily balanced mechanical properties could be achieved by the addition of GMA through a one-step blending sequence. The addition of GMA improved the compatibility between PA6 and EPDM- g -MA, and this was due to the reactions between PA6, EPDM- g -MA, and GMA, as proved by Fourier transform infrared analysis and solubility (Molau) testing. In addition, OMMT acted as a compatibilizer for PA6/EPDM- g -MA blends at low contents, but it weakened the interfacial interactions between PA6 and EPDM- g -MA at high contents. Both OMMT and GMA retarded the crystallization of PA6. The complex viscosity, storage modulus, and loss modulus of the composites were obviously affected by the addition of OMMT and GMA. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

Moisture absorption behavior of epoxies and their S2 glass composites

Amit Chatterjee
Abstract The influence of moisture exposure on the behavior of three toughened epoxy,amine systems (scrimp resins SC11, SC15, and SC79, Applied Poleramic, Inc., Benicia, CA) was investigated. Neat resin samples were conditioned by immersion in distilled water at 71C and in an environmental chamber at 85% relative humidity and 87.8C until saturation. The equilibrium weight gain ranged from 1.8 to 3.8% for the resins. The long-chain, low-crosslink-density epoxy system (SC11) absorbed the highest amount of water and was saturated first, and it was followed by the medium-crosslink-density (SC15) and high-crosslink-density materials (SC79). The moisture diffusivity decreased with the increasing crosslink density of the resins. The percentage reduction of the glass-transition temperature (Tg) at equilibrium moisture absorption was highest for the low-crosslink molecule. The percentage reductions for the medium-crosslink and higher crosslink systems were comparable. A net weight loss after drying was observed for the SC11 and SC79 resin systems. Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed the segment breakage and leaching of molecules from the epoxy,amine network. The effects of moisture cycling on Tg were dependent on the epoxy,amine morphology. During the drying stage, Tg increased to a value higher than that of the unaged dry systems. The S2 glass composite samples were conditioned under identical conditions for the resin system. Composite systems absorbed less moisture than the neat resins as expected. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 2008 [source]

Mechanical and morphological properties of organic,inorganic, hybrid, clay-filled, and cyanate ester/siloxane toughened epoxy nanocomposites

S. Nagendiran
Abstract Organic,inorganic hybrids involving cyanate ester and hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (HTPDMS) modified diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA; epoxy resin) filled with organomodified clay [montmorillonite (MMT)] nanocomposites were prepared via in situ polymerization and compared with unfilled-clay macrocomposites. The epoxy-organomodified MMT clay nanocomposites were prepared by the homogeneous dispersion of various percentages (1,5%), and the resulting homogeneous epoxy/clay hybrids were modified with 10% HTPDMS and ,-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as a coupling agent in the presence of a tin catalyst. The siliconized epoxy/clay prepolymer was further modified separately with 10% of three different types of cyanate esters, namely, 4,4,-dicyanato-2,2,-diphenylpropane, 1,1,-bis(3-methyl-4-cyanatophenyl) cyclohexane, and 1,3-dicyanato benzene, and cured with diaminodiphenylmethane as a curing agent. The reactions during the curing process between the epoxy, siloxane, and cyanate were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. The results of dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the glass-transition temperatures of the clay-filled hybrid epoxy systems were lower than that of neat epoxy. The data obtained from mechanical studies implied that there was a significant improvement in the strength and modulus by the nanoscale reinforcement of organomodified MMT clay with the matrix resin. The morphologies of the siloxane-containing, hybrid epoxy/clay systems showed heterogeneous character due to the partial incompatibility of HTPDMS. The exfoliation of the organoclay was ascertained from X-ray diffraction patterns. The increase in the percentage of organomodified MMT clay up to 5 wt % led to a significant improvement in the mechanical properties and an insignificant decrease in the glass-transition temperature versus the unfilled-clay systems. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 2007 [source]

Effect of coconut oil-blended fuels on diesel engine wear and lubrication

M. A. Kalam
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation into the wear and lubrication characteristics of a diesel engine using ordinary coconut oil (COIL)-blended fuels. The blended fuels consisted of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% COIL with diesel fuel (DF2). Pure DF2 was used for comparison purposes. The engine was operated with 50% throttle setting at a constant speed of 2000 rpm for a period of 100 h with each fuel. The same lubricating oil, equivalent to SAE 40, was used for all fuel systems. A multi-element oil analyser was used to measure wear metals (Fe, Cr, Cu, Al, and Pb), contaminant elements (Si, B, and V), and additive elements (Zn, Ca, P, and Mg) in the used lubricating oil. Fourier transform infrared analysis was performed to measure the degradation products (soot, oxidation, nitration, and sulphation products) in the used lubricant. Karl Fischer (ASTM D 1744) and potentiometric titrations (ASTM D 2896) were used to measure water concentration and total base number (TBN), respectively. An automatic viscometer (ASTM D 445) was used to measure lubricant viscosity. The results show that wear metals and contaminant elements increase with an increasing amount of COIL in DF2. An increasing amount of COIL in the blends reduces additive elements, with the reduction for blends of up to 30% COIL being quite similar to that for DF2. Soot and sulphation decrease with increasing COIL in the blended fuels due to reduced aromatics and sulphur in comparison to DF2. The water concentration increases for blended fuels with more than 30% COIL. The TBN and viscosity changes are found to be almost normal. The engine did not appear to have any starting and combustion problems when operating with the COIL-blended fuels. The lubricating oil analysis data from this study will help in the selection of tribological components and compatible lubricating oils for coconut oil- or biofuel-operated diesel engines. [source]

Dependence on substrate temperature of the conformation and structure of a poly[3-(4-octyloxyphenyl)thiophene] (POOPT) thin film obtained by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

Valeria Califano
Abstract In this paper, the substrate temperature influence on the structural and main opto-electronic properties of poly[3-(4-octyloxyphenyl)thiophene] (POOPT) films, deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), was analyzed. Fourier transform infrared analysis of films was performed to verify that laser irradiation has not induced polymer modifications or decomposition, confirming the reliability and high control of the MAPLE deposition technique. UV,Visible spectroscopy allowed gaining insights about films conformation and packing, while conductivity values have been measured by basic current,voltage measurements. In agreement with the experimental observations reported for other growth techniques, our results highlight the substrate temperature effect in promoting the film structural organization and improving their charge transport capability. At substrate temperature of 453,K, films deposited by MAPLE show a higher conjugation length in comparison with spin-coated films. The substrate temperature increase also favors side-chains commutation to different steric configurations. [source]

Coconut water as a potential resource for cellulose acetate membrane preparation

Cynthia Radiman
Abstract BACKGROUND: Cellulose acetate membranes are frequently used for pressure-driven membrane processes. The aim of this work was to prepare cellulose acetate membranes from nata-de-coco using coconut water as starting material. The use of this lignin-free material will certainly minimize the use of chemicals usually needed in the traditional pulps and substitute for the use of wood, which helps prevent global warming and preserves nature as well. RESULTS: Coconut water was fermented by Acetobacter xylinum for 6 days to produce nata-de-coco, which was then acetylated to produce cellulose diacetate with an acetyl content of 39.6%. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed characteristic peaks for the acetyl group at 1748 and 1236 cm,1. The resulting membranes made from the hydrolysis product showed a water flux of 210.5 L m,2 h,1 under an applied pressure of 2 kg cm,2 while the rejection coefficients of dextran T-500 and T-2000 solutions were 78 and 93.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Coconut water has a potential to be used in the fabrication of membranes by converting it to nata-de-coco and then to cellulose diacetate which gives an added value to its original nature. It is also highly competitive compared to the traditional pulps, by which acetylation decreases the degree of crystallinity of nata-de-coco resulting in higher membrane permeability. Copyright 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]