Focus

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Focus

  • aberrant crypt focus
  • additional focus
  • arrhythmogenic focus
  • article i focus
  • atrial focus
  • attentional focus
  • business focus
  • central focus
  • clear focus
  • common focus
  • crypt focus
  • current focus
  • customer focus
  • dominant focus
  • echogenic intracardiac focus
  • ectopic focus
  • empirical focus
  • epileptic focus
  • epileptogenic focus
  • excessive focus
  • exclusive focus
  • fibrotic focus
  • greater focus
  • growing focus
  • i focus
  • important focus
  • in focus
  • increased focus
  • increasing focus
  • inflammatory focus
  • initial focus
  • intense focus
  • intracardiac focus
  • key focus
  • little focus
  • main focus
  • major focus
  • metastatic focus
  • models focus
  • multiple focus
  • narrow focus
  • necrotic focus
  • new focus
  • nuclear focus
  • paper i focus
  • particular focus
  • policy focus
  • prevention focus
  • primary focus
  • principal focus
  • promotion focus
  • recent focus
  • regulatory focus
  • renewed focus
  • research focus
  • seizure focus
  • simultaneous focus
  • small focus
  • special focus
  • specific focus
  • strategic focus
  • strong focus
  • studies focus
  • study focus
  • traditional focus
  • tumor focus
  • tumour focus

  • Terms modified by Focus

  • focus area
  • focus attention
  • focus formation
  • focus group
  • focus group data
  • focus group discussion
  • focus group interview
  • focus group methodology
  • focus group participant
  • focus group research
  • focus group session
  • focus group study
  • focus group transcript
  • focus groups
  • focus point
  • focus question

  • Selected Abstracts


    Organizing and personalizing intelligence gathering from the web

    INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS IN ACCOUNTING, FINANCE & MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2002
    Hwee-Leng Ong
    In this paper, we describe how an integrated web-based application, code-named FOCI (Flexible Organizer for Competitive Intelligence), can help the knowledge worker in the gathering, organizing, tracking and dissemination of competitive intelligence (CI). It combines the use of a novel user-configurable clustering, trend analysis and visualization techniques to manage information gathered from the web. FOCI allows its users to define and personalize the organization of the information clusters according to their needs and preferences into portfolios. These personalized portfolios created are saved and can be subsequently tracked and shared with other users. The paper runs through an example to show how the use of a predefined domain template coupled with personalization can greatly enhance an organization and tracking of CI gathered from the web. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    URBAN CLUSTERS AS GROWTH FOCI,

    JOURNAL OF REGIONAL SCIENCE, Issue 2 2009
    Boris A. Portnov
    ABSTRACT Urban clusters are geographic concentrations of urban places, some of which may include major cities. Unlike agglomerations, whose geographic boundaries are clearly delineated, urban clusters have "variable" boundaries, with each urban settlement being part of its "own" cluster of populated places, located within its commuting range. As our study indicates, the effect of clustering on urban growth is not uniform: it appears to be positive in low density clusters, and negative in densely populated ones. In particular, outside densely populated areas, towns surrounded by other localities tend to evince higher rates of population growth than their "lone" counterparts. [source]


    RECENT AND FUTURE MANAGEMENT CHANGES IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT: CONTINUING FOCUS ON RATIONALITY AND EFFICIENCY?

    FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2008
    Henk J. Ter Bogt
    Dutch municipalities and provinces have recently introduced many changes relating to management control. This paper explores the role of economic and social rationality in the introduction of reforms, and the nature of possible future reforms. Based on interviews with politicians and professional managers and on documents, the paper examines experiences with recent management changes. In addition, it discusses ,change initiating factors'. Budget cuts and trends seem to be such change initiating factors. However, particularly more demanding citizens, increases in voters' volatility and politicians' uncertainty seemed to initiate changes. The paper speculates that in the near future, too, it could be a rational survival strategy for politicians and managers to focus on initiatives that are intended to enhance performance and efficiency. [source]


    IN FOCUS: Partial migration in tropical birds: the frontier of movement ecology

    JOURNAL OF ANIMAL ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Cagan H. Sekercioglu
    A. E. Jahn, D. J. Levey, J. A. Hostetler & A. M. Mamani (2010) Determinants of partial bird migration in the Amazon Basin. Journal of Animal Ecology, 79, 983,992. Partial migration, in which only some individuals of a species migrate, might be central to the evolution of migratory behaviour and is likely to represent an evolutionary transition between sedentariness and complete migration. In one of the few detailed, individual-based migration studies of tropical birds, Jahn et al. study the partial migration system of a South American bird species for the first time. Food limitation forces the large adult males and small, young females to migrate, contrary to the expectations of the body size and dominance hypotheses. This study confirms the importance of food variability as the primary driver of migratory behaviour. There is urgent need for similar studies on the movement ecology of understudied tropical bird species, whose diversity of migratory behaviour can shed light on the evolution of bird migration. [source]


    OUTSIDE UPSIDE: FINDINGS FOCUS THROUGH FINANCE OUTSOURCING

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED CORPORATE FINANCE, Issue 4 2003
    Stewart Clements
    More and more companies are outsourcing aspects of the finance and accounting function to cut costs and increase process efficiency. This article draws on survey results and numerous real-world examples to make the case for outsourcing finance and accounting functions, either outright or through shared service centers. As expected, cost and efficiency gains can be dramatic. But there are also important strategic benefits, including the freedom to focus on core businesses, greater access to specialist knowledge, standardization of processes across business units, and the ability to launch operations quickly without staffing back offices. Maximizing the benefits of outsourcing requires careful planning and execution. Executives who have successfully navigated the process recommend allowing adequate time to ensure buy-in and consensus building, incorporating the appropriate performance-based incentives, taking steps to build morale during the transition, ensuring proper oversight, and building a strong partnership with the provider. When properly implemented, outsourcing is a powerful ally in the corporate struggle to cut costs,and it can be a vital complement to strategy as well. [source]


    The application of structure envelopes in structure determination from powder diffraction data

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2002
    Simon Brenner
    A structure envelope is a special type of periodic nodal surface that separates regions of high electron density from those of low electron density. Once such a surface has been generated, it can be used in combination with direct-space methods to facilitate structure solution from powder data. To generate an informative structure envelope, the phases of the structure factors of a few strong low-order reflections must be determined; an algorithm has been developed for this purpose. The program SayPerm combines (a) the use of error-correcting codes (e.c.c.'s) to sample phase space efficiently, (b) a pseudo-atom approximation of structure fragments to simulate atomic resolution at ca 2.5,, and (c) phase extension and phase set ranking using the Sayre equation. The effect of using a structure envelope in structure solution was first tested in combination with a subroutine for finding zeolite topologies in the program FOCUS. Then extension to molecular structures in combination with a simulated-annealing program was explored. This resulted in the development of the program Safe and the subsequent determination of the structure of a tri-,-peptide (C32N3O6H53) with 17 variable torsion angles. [source]


    IN FOCUS: Activation of platelets by heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibodies in the serotonin release assay is not dependent on the presence of heparin

    JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS, Issue 10 2005
    M. M. PRECHEL
    Summary., The serotonin release assay (SRA) tests for antibodies responsible for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). By definition, SRA-positive antibodies cause platelet serotonin release in vitro, in the presence of low concentrations of heparin, but not with excess heparin. Many SRA-positive sera activate platelets in the presence of saline without drug, either as a result of residual heparin in the specimen, or because of intrinsic features of the HIT antibodies. The present experiments show that neither exhaustive heparinase treatment, nor chromatographic removal of heparin abrogates the spontaneous platelet activation caused by these HIT antibodies. This is the first study to systematically demonstrate that in vitro activity of HIT antibodies can be independent of heparin. In addition, T-gel chromatography demonstrated differences among fractions of enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-positive HIT antibodies within individual specimens. Certain ELISA-positive fractions had SRA activity while others did not, and the SRA activity was not proportional to HIT antibody ELISA titer. These data suggest that antibodies formed as a result of heparin treatment are heterogeneous, and that some can contribute to the pathogenesis of HIT even when heparin is no longer present. [source]


    THE CHRISTOLOGICAL FOCUS OF VLADIMIR SOLOV'EV'S SOPHIOLOGY*

    MODERN THEOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    BRANDON GALLAHER
    Vladimir Solov'ev (1853,1900) is one of the major influences on Sergii Bulgakov's "sophiology" and has been praised by both Hans Urs von Balthasar and John Milbank. However, his theology has often been read as a mere "religious philosophy" unduly influenced by Gnosticism and German Idealism. The article argues that Solov'ev's theology is more accurately understood as a unique form of Christology which integrates Gnostic and Idealist thought into Chalcedonian orthodoxy. Solov'ev's most important contribution is a sophiological reading of Christology which attempts to found the created on the uncreated without collapsing one into the other or ontologically juxtaposing them. [source]


    RISK, PERSISTENCE and FOCUS: A LIFE CYCLE OF THE ENTREPRENEUR

    AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW, Issue 3 2005
    Ian Hunter
    Business lifecycle; business failure; entrepreneurship; New Zealand; colonisation Adapting a life cycle model from managerial literature, conclusions are drawn about the nature of colonial entrepreneurship from a case analysis of 133 New Zealand entrepreneurs, active between 1880 and 1910. Five stages in the life cycle of the entrepreneur are investigated: preparation, embarkation, exploration, expansion and transformation. Characteristic behaviours observed include the prevalence of entrepreneurial partnerships; a propensity for commencing multiple business ventures; and persistence in the face of business failure. Strategically, the colonial entrepreneur leveraged personal skills and abilities as a modus operandi for business expansion, often relying on family ownership and family management structures. [source]


    UNRAVELLING THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME: FOCUS ON SYMPATHETICALLY MAINTAINED PAIN

    CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 7 2008
    Gael F Gibbs
    SUMMARY 1In diseases such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), where neuropathic pain is the primary concern, traditional pain classifications and lesion descriptors are of limited value. To obtain better treatment outcomes for patients, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of neuropathic pain need to be elucidated and analysed so that therapeutic targets can be identified and specific treatments developed. 2In the present review, we examine the current literature on sympathetically maintained pain (SMP), a subset of neuropathic pain, within the context of CRPS. Evidence from both human and animal studies is presented and discussed in terms of its support for the existence of SMP and the mechanistic information it provides. 3We discuss three current hypotheses that propose both a site and method for sympathetic,sensory coupling: (i) direct coupling between sympathetic and sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion; (ii) chemical coupling between sympathetic and nociceptive neuron terminals in skin; and (iii) the development of a-adrenoceptor-mediated supersensitivity in nociceptive fibres in skin in association with the release of inflammatory mediators. 4Finally, we propose a new hypothesis that integrates the mechanisms of chemical coupling and a-adrenoceptor-mediated supersensitivity. This hypothesis is based on previously unpublished data from our laboratory showing that a histological substrate suitable for sympathetic,sensory coupling exists in normal subjects. In the diseased state, the nociceptive fibres implicated in this substrate may be activated by both endogenous and exogenous noradrenaline. The mediating a-adrenoceptors may be expressed on the nociceptive fibres or on closely associated support cells. [source]


    5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE IN THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: FOCUS ON THE SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER (SERT)

    CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 7 2006
    Wei Ni
    SUMMARY 1The function of the serotonin transporter (SERT) is to take up and release serotonin (5-hydroxytyptamine (5-HT)) from cells and this function of SERT in the central nervous system (CNS) is well-documented; SERT is the target of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors used in the treatment of CNS disorders, such as depression. 2The aim of the present review is to discuss our current knowledge of 5-HT and SERT in the cardiovascular (CV) system, as well as their function in physiological and pathophysiological states. 3The SERT protein has been located in multiple CV tissues, including the heart, blood vessels, brain, platelets, adrenal gland and kidney. Modification of SERT function occurs at both transcriptional and translational levels. The functions of SERT in these tissues is largely unexplored, but includes modulation of cardiac and smooth muscle contractility, platelet aggregation, cellular mitogenesis, modulating neuronal activity and urinary excretion. 4Recent studies have uncovered potential relationships between the expression of SERT gene promoter variants (long (l) or short (s)) with CV diseases. Specifically, the risk of myocardial infarction and pulmonary hypertension is increased with expression of the ll promoter, a variant associated with increased expression and function of SERT. The relationship between promoter variants and other CV diseases has not been investigated. 5Newly available experimental tools, such as pharmacological compounds and genetically altered mice, should prove useful in the investigation of the function of SERT in the CV system. 6In summary, the function of SERT in the CV system is just beginning to be revealed. [source]


    Electrical Stimulation of the Hippocampal Epileptic Foci for Seizure Control: A Double-Blind, Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 10 2007
    Ana Luisa Velasco
    Summary:,Purpose: Our aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of electrical stimulation of the hippocampus in a long-term follow-up study, as well as its impact on memory performance in the treatment of patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods: Nine patients were included. All had refractory partial complex seizures, some with secondary generalizations. All patients had a 3-month-baseline-seizure count, after which they underwent bilateral hippocampal diagnostic electrode implantation to establish focus laterality and location. Three patients had bilateral, and six, unilateral foci. Diagnostic electrodes were explanted and definitive Medtronic electrodes were implanted directed into the hippocampal foci. Position was confirmed with MRI and afterwards, the deep brain stimulation system internalized. Patients signed the informed consent approved by the Hospital's Ethics Committee and began a double-blind stimulation protocol. Patients attended a medical appointment every 3 months for seizure diary collection, deep brain stimulation system checkup, and neuropsychological testing. Results: Follow-up ranged from 18 months to 7 years. Patients were divided in two groups: five had normal MRIs and seizure reduction of >95%, while four had hippocampal sclerosis and seizure reduction of 50,70%. No patient had neuropsychological deterioration, nor did any patient show side effects. Three patients were explanted after 2 years due to skin erosion in the trajectory of the system. Conclusions: Electrical stimulation of the hippocampus provides a nonlesional method that improves seizure outcome without memory deterioration in patients with hippocampal epileptic foci. [source]


    SEEG-guided RF Thermocoagulation of Epileptic Foci: Feasibility, Safety, and Preliminary Results

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 11 2004
    Marc Gunot
    Summary:,Purpose:,Depth electrodes recordings may be required in some cases of epilepsy surgery to delineate the best region for cortical resection. We usually implant depth electrodes according to Talairach's stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) method. By using these permanently implanted depth electrodes, we are able to perform radiofrequency (RF)-thermolesions of the epileptic foci. We report the technical data required to perform such multiple cortical thermolesions, as well as preliminary results in terms of seizure outcome in a group of 20 patients. Methods:,Lesions were performed by using 100- to 110-mA bipolar current (50 V), applied for 10 to 50 s. Each thermocoagulation produced a 5- to 7-mm diameter cortical lesion. In total, two to 16 lesions were performed in each of the 20 patients. Lesions were placed without anesthesia. No general or neurologic complication occurred during the procedures. Two transient postprocedure side effects, consisting of paresthetic sensations in the mouth and mild apraxia of the hand, were observed. Results:,At a follow-up time of 8 to 31 months (mean, 19 months), 15% of the patients became seizure free, 40% experienced a ,80% reduction of their seizure frequency, and 45% were not significantly improved. Conclusions:,SEEG-guided RF thermolesions is a safe technique. Our preliminary results indicate that such lesions can lead to a significant reduction of seizure frequency and could be proposed as a palliative procedure if no resective surgery is possible. A randomized controlled trial is needed to determine which patients are likely to respond to SEEG-guided RF thermolesions. [source]


    DNA methylation patterns in adenomas from FAP, multiple adenoma and sporadic colorectal carcinoma patients

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 4 2006
    Coral V.A. Wynter
    Abstract Colorectal adenomas have traditionally been regarded as homogeneous. The aim of our study was to identify molecular features that may differentiate sporadic adenomas from familial adenomas such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and Multiple Adenoma patients. DNA methylation was tested at Methylated IN Tumor (MINT) loci (1,2,12,31) and the CpG promoter region of genes MLH1, HPP1, MGMT, p14ARF and p16INK4a in FAP-associated adenomas (33) from 5 patients with a known APC mutation (Group 1, FAP), adenomas (29) from 4 Multiple Adenoma patients (Group 2 Multiple), adenomas (14) from 3 patients with sporadic colorectal cancers showing high microsatellite instability (Group 3, MSI-H) and adenomas (16) from 7 patients, with sporadic colorectal cancers showing microsatellite stable or low level instability (Group 4, MSS/MSI-L). Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACFs), Hyperplastic Polyps (HPs) and cancers were also examined for methylation status as well as K- ras mutation. Multiple Adenoma patients were examined for germline polymorphisms in the base excision repair gene, MYH. The familial syndrome, FAP -associated adenomas showed a significantly low frequency of MINT methylation (15.5%,) compared to sporadic MSS/MSI-L-associated adenomas (35.5%). Group 3 (MSI-H) adenomas were different in that many showed serration and a high level of methylation (57.1%). Group 2, Multiple Adenoma cases, resembled sporadic MSS/MSI-L-associated adenomas. However the promoter regions of key genes, MGMT, p14ARF and p16INK4a were methylated to a greater extent than MINTs in both sporadic and familial adenomas. Genetic profiling of adenomas supports the concept that adenomas belonging to familial syndromes pursue a different pathway to tumorigenesis than their sporadic counterpar/ts from their earliest formation. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Cutaneous sarcoid-like granulomas with alveolar hemorrhage and c-ANCA PR-3

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 9 2004
    Natividade Rocha MD
    A 28-year-old woman, employed as a leather factory worker, noted asymptomatic, well-delimited plaques on both knees, 6 years ago. The plaques were violaceous with a smooth surface. One appeared over a post-traumatic scar from childhood (Fig. 1). Two years later, she began to complain of symptoms suggestive of polyarthritis, first of the small joints of the hands (proximal interphalanges) and then of the larger joints (wrists, elbows, and knees). She was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and began treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for 1 month without any change. Deflazacort, 12 mg/day, and hydroxychloroquine, 400 mg/day, were administered for 3 months, with improvement of her articular complaints, but not her skin lesions. Figure 1. Well-delimited, violaceous plaques with a smooth surface on the knees, one over an old post-traumatic scar One year later, she complained of dysphonia, which remitted spontaneously after some weeks. After one additional year, she noted papules, with similar characteristics to the plaques, on the elbows, and two well-delimited orange-to-brown plaques on the forehead (Fig. 2). Figure 2. Orange,brown plaques symmetrically placed on the forehead During the fifth year of the disease, she was referred for the first time to a dermatologist, who biopsied one of the knee lesions. The histologic result was compatible with "sarcoid granuloma." At that time, she presented with skin lesions as her only complaint. Sarcoidosis was suspected based on a chest X-ray, which revealed hilar lymphadenopathy and diffuse accentuation of the interstitium. In November 2000, she suddenly developed fever (40 C), cough with hemoptysis, dysphonia, and subcutaneous nodules on the palmar surface of the fingers of both hands that were painless, well-delimited, 5 mm in diameter, and firm (Fig. 3). She reported a weight loss of 12 kg in the previous 3 months. Pulmonary condensation was found on auscultation, and she had palpable hepatomegaly. Peripheral lymphadenopathy was not present. Figure 3. Painless, well-delimited, firm subcutaneous nodules on the palmar surface of the fingers Laboratory investigations revealed normochromic, normocytic anemia (hemoglobin, 7.7 g/dL), iron deficit, a white blood cell count of 16,000/L with neutrophilia, an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 130 mm/h, elevation of liver enzymes, a slight increase in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) level (72 U/L), hypergammaglobulinemia (IgG, 3350 mg/dL), antinuclear antibody (ANA) of 1 : 320, and a slight increase in CD4 and decrease in CD8 lymphocytes with normal cellular morphology in blood. Renal function, urine sediment, urine and serum calcium, complement (C4), dsDNA, antimitochondrial antibody, direct and indirect Coombs test, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), tuberculin skin tests, viral markers of hepatitis B, C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), electrocardiogram (ECG), ophthalmic examinations, and culture for infectious agents in blood and sputum were all normal or negative. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed an infiltrate in the upper right pulmonary lobule with a central cavity and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy (Fig. 4). Homogeneous hepatosplenomegaly was present. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) showed a slight lymphocytic increase predominantly of CD8 cells and hemosiderosis. Stains for infectious agents, including acid-fast bacillus, fungi, Mycoplasma, and Legionella, were negative. Three biopsies from the forehead, elbows, and knees showed well-formed noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas with giant cells of the Langhans type in the dermis, suggestive of sarcoidosis (Figs 5 and 6). A fourth biopsy from a finger nodule demonstrated inflammatory infiltration of the dermis and necrosis with cellular debris. Vasculitis was not seen (Fig. 7). Figure 4. Computed tomography scan showing an infiltrate in the upper right pulmonary lobule with a central cavity Figure 5. Beneath a flattened epidermis, several sarcoid granulomas composed of epithelioid histiocytes and several multinucleated giant cells of Langhans type can be seen (hematoxylin and eosin, 10) Figure 6. Less well-formed sarcoid granulomas in a hyperkeratotic area, surrounded by a sparse rim of lymphocytes (hematoxylin and eosin, 20) Figure 7. Foci of necrosis and fibrinoid degeneration with some neutrophil infiltration and nuclear dusting (hematoxylin and eosin, 40) The patient was treated with a broad-spectrum empirical antimicrobial (levofloxacin, 500 mg daily intravenously) over 12 days, with prompt improvement in her symptoms and remission of the forehead and finger lesions. Nevertheless, on the first evaluation after hospitalization, the CT scan showed persistence of the pulmonary cavity (Fig. 8). A repeat ANCA determination was positive (cytoplasmic pattern, c-ANCA) at 1 : 640 by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). Antiproteinase-3 antibody was demonstrated at 78 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Figure 8. Computed tomography scan showing persistence of the pulmonary cavity She underwent an open lung biopsy which revealed intra-alveolar hemorrhage and scanty noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas of the sarcoidosis type in the peripheral blood vessels without vasculitis. A diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis was made and she began prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) and oral cyclophosphamide (2 mg/kg/day). One year later, she is asymptomatic, the skin lesions have completely remitted, c-ANCA is negative, and the CT scan shows partial regression of the pulmonary cavity. [source]


    Experimental acute respiratory Burkholderia pseudomallei infection in BALB/c mice

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Mark S. Lever
    Summary Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, which is considered a potential deliberate release agent. The objective of this study was to establish and characterise a relevant, acute respiratory Burkholderia pseudomallei infection in BALB/c mice. Mice were infected with 100 B. pseudomallei strain BRI bacteria by the aerosol route (approximately 20 median lethal doses). Bacterial counts within lung, liver, spleen, brain, kidney and blood over 5 days were determined and histopathological and immunocytochemical profiles were assessed. Bacterial numbers in the lungs reached approximately 108 cfu/ml at day 5 post-infection. Bacterial numbers in other tissues were lower, reaching between 103 and 105 cfu/ml at day 4. Blood counts remained relatively constant at approximately 1.0 102 cfu/ml. Foci of acute inflammation and necrosis were seen within lungs, liver and spleen. These results suggest that the BALB/c mouse is highly susceptible to B. pseudomallei by the aerosol route and represents a relevant model system of acute human melioidosis. [source]


    Predicting the Arrhythmogenic Foci of Atrial Fibrillation Before Atrial Transseptal Procedure:

    JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 7 2000
    Implication for Catheter Ablation
    Arrhythmosenic Foci of Atrial Fibrillation. Introduction: Use of endocardial atrial activation sequences from recording catheters in the right atrium. His bundle, and coronary sinus to predict the location of initiating foci of atrial fibrillation (AF) before an atrial transseptal procedure has not been reported. The purpose of the present study was to develop an algorithm using endocardial atrial activation sequences to predict the location of initiating foci of AF before transseptal procedure. Methods and Results: Seventy-five patients (60 men and 15 women, age 68 12 years) with frequent episodes of paroxysmal AF were referred for radiofrequency ablation. By retrospective analysis, characteristics of the endocardial atrial activation sequences of right atrial, His-bundle, and coronary sinus catheters from the initial 37 patients were correlated with the location of initiating foci of AF, which were confirmed by successful ablation. The endocardial atrial activation sequences of the other 38 patients were evaluated prospectively to predict the location of initiating foci of AF before transseptal procedure using the algorithm derived from the retrospective analysis. Accuracy of the value <0 msee (obtained by subtracting the time interval between high right atrium and His-bundle atrial activation during atrial premature beats from that obtained during sinus rhythm) for discriminating the superior vena cava or upper portion of the crista terminalis from the pulmonary vein (PV) foci was 100%. When the interval between atrial activation ostial and distal pairs of the coronary sinus catheter of the atrial premature beats was <0 msec, the accuracy for discriminating left PV foci from right PV foci was 92% in the 24 foci from the left PVs and 100% in the 19 foci from the right PVs. Conclusion: Endocardial atrial activation sequences from right atrial, His-bundle, and coronary sinus catheters can accurately predict the location of initiating foci of AF before transseptal procedure. This may facilitate mapping and radiofrequency ablation of paroxysmal AF. [source]


    Testing for Spatial Correlation in Nonstationary Binary Data, with Application to Aberrant Crypt Foci in Colon Carcinogenesis

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 4 2003
    Tatiyana V. Apanasovich
    Summary. In an experiment to understand colon carcinogenesis, all animals were exposed to a carcinogen, with half the animals also being exposed to radiation. Spatially, we measured the existence of what are referred to as aberrant crypt foci (ACF), namely, morphologically changed colonic crypts that are known to be precursors of colon cancer development. The biological question of interest is whether the locations of these ACFs are spatially correlated: if so, this indicates that damage to the colon due to carcinogens and radiation is localized. Statistically, the data take the form of binary outcomes (corresponding to the existence of an ACF) on a regular grid. We develop score-type methods based upon the Matern and conditionally autoregressive (CAR) correlation models to test for the spatial correlation in such data, while allowing for nonstationarity. Because of a technical peculiarity of the score-type test, we also develop robust versions of the method. The methods are compared to a generalization of Moran's test for continuous outcomes, and are shown via simulation to have the potential for increased power. When applied to our data, the methods indicate the existence of spatial correlation, and hence indicate localization of damage. [source]


    Differential Effects of Partial Hepatectomy and Carbon Tetrachloride Administration on Induction of Liver Cell Foci in a Model for Detection of Initiation Activity

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 10 2001
    Hiroki Sakai
    Differential effects of partial hepatectomy (PH) and carbon tetrachloride (CC14) administration on induction of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci were investigated in a model for detection of initiation activity. Firstly, we surveyed cell proliferation kinetics and fluctuation in cytochrome P450 (CYP) mRNA levels by means of relative-quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and CYP 2E1 apoprotein amount by immuno-blotting (experiment I) after PH or CC14 administration. Next, to assess the interrelationships among cell proliferation, fluctuation of CYPs after PH or CC14 administration and induction of liver cell foci, the non-hepatocarcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was administered to 7-week-old male F344 rats and initiated populations were selected using the resistant hepatocyte model (experiment II). In experiment I, the values of all CYP isozyme mRNAs after PH or CC14 administration were drastically decreased at the 12-h tune point. From 72 h, mRNAs for all CYP isozymes began increasing, with complete recovery after 7 days. The CYP 2E1 apoprotein content in the PH group fluctuated weakly, whereas in the CC14 group it had decreased rapidly after 12 h and was still low at the 48 h point. In experiment II, induction of GST-P-positive foci was related to cell kinetics in the PH group, with about a 6-h time lag between tune for carcinogen administration giving greatest induction of GST-P-positive foci and peaks in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling, presumably due to the necessity for bioactivation of DMH. With CC14 administration, induction of foci appeared dependent on the recovery of CYP 2E1. In conclusion, PH was able to induce cell proliferation with maintenance of CYP 2E1, therefore being advantageous for induction of liver cell foci in models to detect initiation activity. [source]


    Conservation Focus: Baiji, Freshwater Dolphin

    CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Devra G. Kleiman
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Conservation Biology and Private Land: Shifting the Focus

    CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2000
    David A. Norton
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Characterization of a 2.8 kJ Small Plasma Focus Using a Five Phase Radiative Model

    CONTRIBUTIONS TO PLASMA PHYSICS, Issue 1-2 2009
    Sh. Al-Hawat
    Abstract A radiative five-phase plasma focus model (axial phase, inward radial phase, reflected shock phase, radiative phase and expanded phase) was applied to a 2.8 kJ plasma focus device to find the structure of the plasma focus formation and to calculate the plasma parameters and emitted radiation from the plasma pinch. To verify the model, the radiation probability of such device in neon plasma has been studied; a linear approximation method was applied by a FORTRAN program which has been written for this purpose. The theoretical and experimental results of the temporal development of current and voltage at 0.9 mbar of neon and spike voltages at different filling gas pressures were obtained and compared. In addition to that our plasma focus (PF) device was compared with different PF devices in relation to the plasma energy density and the drive parameter ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Economic sustainability and the cost of poor quality

    CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2005
    Raine Isaksson
    Abstract Sustainable development (SD) on the organizational level is often measured using the triple bottom line, which divides performance reporting into the economic, environmental and social dimensions. Since total quality management (TQM) over the years has proven to contribute to good economic performance, it is interesting to review synergies of the two concepts TQM and SD. Indicators commonly used in the triple bottom line are compared with quality related measurements and a synthesis is proposed. Focus is on the economic dimension and indicators in the form of cost of poor quality (CPQ). The CPQ as a sustainability indicator is discussed and exemplified. The results indicate that existing economic sustainability performance measurements based on distribution of surplus should be complemented with indicators for internal losses. A sound profit is in most cases necessary, but it is not the sole condition for economic sustainability. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


    Has the education of professional caregivers and lay people in dental trauma care failed?

    DENTAL TRAUMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Ulf Glendor
    This situation could seriously affect the outcome of TDIs, especially a complicated TDI. The overall aim of this study was to present a review of dental trauma care with focus on treatment and dentists and lay persons' lack of knowledge on how to manage a TDI. A further aim is to introduce the actors involved and the outcome of their education. Material and method:, The databases Medline, Cochrane, SSCI, SCI and CINAHL from the year 1995 to the present were used. Focus was on treatment need, inadequate care, lack of knowledge and poor organization of emergency care. Result:, Studies from different countries demonstrated that treatment needs were not properly met despite the fact that not all untreated teeth needed treatment. Treatment in emergency dental care was often inadequate or inappropriate. With the exception of lay people, teachers, medical personnel and even dentists performed inadequate care. Furthermore, information to the public was insufficient. Despite a low level of knowledge, lay people expressed a strong interest in helping someone with a TDI. Conclusion:, The conclusion from this review is that consideration must be given the problematic results from different studies on education or information about dental trauma care. Despite that the studies reviewed were from different countries and groups of people, the results seem to be consistent, i.e. that a large part of the educational process of professional caregivers and lay people has failed. Too much hope seems to be put on lay people to handle difficult cases such as tooth avulsion. Education of caregivers and lay people is a field where much remains to be explored. [source]


    Reducing the duration of untreated first-episode psychosis , effects on baseline social functioning and quality of life

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 6 2005
    I. Melle
    Objective:, Long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with poorer outcome. The TIPS study demonstrated that DUP can be reduced through early detection (ED). As quality of life (QoL) is associated with DUP it is expected that reduction of DUP leads to better QoL. Method:, Consecutive first-episode patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of non-organic, non-affective psychosis were included, 281 patients gave informed consent and 263 completed a full evaluation of QoL. Results:, There were no differences in subjective QoL between ED and No-ED groups attributable to reduction in DUP. There were significant bivariate differences in frequency of family and social contacts in favor of the ED group, but multivariate analyses indicated that these differences were based on differences in sample characteristics. Conclusion:, Deterioration in QoL may precede overt symptom formation. Focus on functional loss in ED educational campaigns may identify risk subjects earlier in the course of the disorder. [source]


    Introduction: Special Content Focus: ED Operations

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 5 2010
    Richard Sinert DO
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Advancing Firm Growth Research: A Focus on Growth Mode Instead of Growth Rate

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 2 2010
    Alexander McKelvie
    The development of firm growth research has been notably slow. In this paper, we argue that a major reason for this lack of development is the impatience of researchers to prematurely address the question of "how much?" before adequately providing answers to the question "how?" On the basis of an extensive review of the literature, we suggest how growth research can advance by changing focus to growth mode (organic, acquisition, hybrid). Toward this end, we provide a research agenda that helps establish the types of questions that growth researchers can ask within this new focus. [source]


    The Slovak national SD strategy process: a mix of achievements and shortcomings

    ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND GOVERNANCE, Issue 6 2007
    Michal Sedla
    Abstract National strategies for sustainable development are gaining increasing recognition as an instrument to reconcile needs of development and environmental protection by improving policy-making procedures. The paper assesses the Slovak sustainable development strategy in the context of two key documents, the National Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Slovak Republic (MESR, 2001a) and the Action Plan for Sustainable Development of the Slovak Republic for 2005,2010 (OGSR, 2005). Focus is mainly placed on horizontal policy integration, but institutional arrangements and mechanisms for implementation, monitoring and review, stakeholder participation and vertical integration are also assessed. Based on the results of a series of interviews with ministerial planners and utilizing the example of the Working Group for Environmental Education, the paper identifies barriers to horizontal policy integration. The main conclusion is that improvement of mechanisms for horizontal policy integration is offset by recession in other areas, including public participation. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


    Design and integration of eco-industrial parks for managing water resources

    ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 2 2009
    Eva M. Lovelady
    Abstract This work is aimed at developing an optimization-based approach to the design and integration of eco-industrial parks (EIPs). Focus is given to the management of water among multiple processes in a common EIP facility. Recycle, reuse, and separation using interception devices are considered as possible strategies for managing wastewater. A source-interception-sink structural representation is used to embed potential configurations of interest. The representation accounts for the possibilities of direct recycle, material (waste) exchange, mixing and segregation of different streams, separation and treatment in interception units, and allocation to process users (sinks). Then, the EIP design problem is formulated as an optimization program whose objective is to minimize cost of the EIP while determining optimal recycle and separation strategies. A case study is solved to illustrate the applicability of the devised approach. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2009 [source]


    Management issues for women with epilepsy,Focus on pregnancy (an evidence-based review): II.

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 5 2009
    Teratogenesis, perinatal outcomes
    Summary A committee assembled by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) reassessed the evidence related to the care of women with epilepsy (WWE) during pregnancy, including antiepileptic drug (AED) teratogenicity and adverse perinatal outcomes. It is highly probable that intrauterine first-trimester valproate (VPA) exposure has higher risk of major congenital malformations (MCMs) compared to carbamazepine (CBZ), and possibly compared to phenytoin (PHT) or lamotrigine (LTG). It is probable that VPA as part of polytherapy and possible that VPA as monotherapy contribute to the development of MCMs. AED polytherapy probably contributes to the development of MCMs and reduced cognitive outcomes compared to monotherapy. Intrauterine exposure to VPA monotherapy probably reduces cognitive outcomes and monotherapy exposure to PHT or phenobarbital (PB) possibly reduces cognitive outcomes. Neonates of WWE taking AEDs probably have an increased risk of being small for gestational age and possibly have an increased risk of a 1-minute Apgar score of <7. If possible, avoidance of VPA and AED polytherapy during the first trimester of pregnancy should be considered to decrease the risk of MCMs. If possible, avoidance of VPA and AED polytherapy throughout pregnancy should be considered and avoidance of PHT and PB throughout pregnancy may be considered to prevent reduced cognitive outcomes. [source]