Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Fishery

  • artisanal fishery
  • commercial fishery
  • longline fishery
  • net fishery
  • recreational fishery

  • Terms modified by Fishery

  • fishery management
  • fishery resource
  • fishery yield

  • Selected Abstracts


    Jay Barlow
    Abstract A controlled experiment was carried out in 1996,1997 to determine whether acoustic deterrent devices (pingers) reduce marine mammal bycatch in the California drift gill net fishery for swordfish and sharks. Using Fisher's exact test, bycatch rates with pingers were significantly less for all cetacean species combined (P < 0.001) and for all pinniped species combined (P= 0.003). For species tested separately with this test, bycatch reduction was statistically significant for short-beaked common dolphins (P= 0.001) and California sea lions (P= 0.02). Bycatch reduction is not statistically significant for the other species tested separately, but sample sizes and statistical power were low, and bycatch rates were lower in pingered nets for six of the eight other cetacean and pinniped species. A log-linear model relating the mean rate of entanglement to the number of pingers deployed was fit to the data for three groups: short-beaked common dolphins, other cetaceans, and pinnipeds. For a net with 40 pingers, the models predict approximately a 12-fold decrease in entanglement for short-beaked common dolphins, a 4-fold decrease for other cetaceans, and a 3-fold decrease for pinnipeds. No other variables were found that could explain this effect. The pinger experiment ended when regulations were enacted to make pingers mandatory in this fishery. [source]


    Wendy D. Noke
    Abstract Anecdotal reports from blue crab fishermen in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida suggested that bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) followed their boats, and stole bait fish from crab pots soon after they were deployed. To investigate these reports, we made biweekly observations from IRL commercial crab boats from January 1998 to January 1999 (670 h). Only 2.8% of the 18,891 crab pots surveyed revealed evidence of dolphin/crab pot interaction. Dolphin interactions included: (1) begging at boats, (2) feeding on discarded bait fish, (3) engaging in crab pot tipping behavior, and (4) dolphin mortality from crab pot float line entanglement. Overall, 16.6% of the 1,296 dolphins sighted interacted with fishing boats. Seasonal trends were evident, with fishery interactions peaking in the summer. Crab pot interactions ranged from 0% to 36% of the traps checked daily. Different methods of securing the bait-well door and the role of trap locality were tested using a replicated experimental design. Results showed significant differences in successful bait removal by dolphins, among the degrees of door security (P < 0.001) and between trap location (P < 0.01). Thus, increased door security may help to reduce the negative impacts to the fishery and dolphins involved. [source]


    Abstract Complete information is usually assumed in harvesting models of marine and terrestrial resources. In reality, however, complete information never exists. Fish and wildlife populations often fluctuate unpredictably in numbers, and measurement problems are frequent. In this paper, we analyze a time-discrete fishery model that distinguishes between uncertain natural growth and measurement error and in which exploitation takes place in an unregulated manner. Depending on the parameterization of the model and at which point of time uncertainty is resolved, it is shown that expected harvest under ecological uncertainty may be below or above that of the benchmark model with no uncertainty. On the other hand, when stock measurement is uncertain, expected harvest never exceeds the benchmark level. We also demonstrate that the harvesting profit, or rent, under uncertainty may be above that of the benchmark situation of complete information. In other words, less information may be beneficial for the fishermen. [source]


    Abstract The paper compares the management outcomes with a total allowable catch (TAC) and a total allowable effort (TAE) in a fishery under uncertainty. Using a dynamic programming model with multiple uncertainties and estimated growth, harvest, and effort functions from one of the world's largest fisheries, the relative economic and biological benefits of a TAC and TAE are compared and contrasted in a stochastic environment. This approach provides a decision and modeling framework to compare instruments and achieve desired management goals. A key finding is that neither instrument is always preferred in a world of uncertainty and that regulator's risk aversion and weighting in terms of expected net profits and biomass, and the trade-offs in terms of expected values and variance determine instrument choice. [source]


    ABSTRACT. Exit and entry of fishermen, as well as vessels, is modeled explicitly. If the speed of exit and entry of fishermen is less than instantaneous the wage rate varies with the fortunes of the fishing firms and affects the endogenous labor supply creating a second transmission mechanism from profits to effort. There are realistic cases where this mechanism has important effects on the stability of the dynamic system and on the effects of taxes (subsisdies) on the size of the fish stock. If labor supply depends negatively on the wage rate, the immediate effect of an increase in the tax rate is to increase effort and harvest. This condition makes it also more probable that the dynamic system is unstable. In those cases where the dynamic system is unstable the increase in the tax rate increases overexploitation not only in the short-term but also in the long-term. [source]


    ABSTRACT. Survival rates and carrying capacities in a fishery may be strongly affected by variations in climatic factors. When the stock is under the control of a single manager, information about the stochastic growth parameters leads to improved economic returns. However, when the stock is transboundary, additional information concerning the stochastic parameters can lead to over harvesting and in turn to lower economic returns. When the harvests are taken sequentially by more than one fleet, additional information will benefit the first harvester while harming those who follow. [source]


    ABSTRACT. What bio-economic benefits can be expected from the implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs) in a fishery facing a shock in the form of recruitment failure, and managed jointly compared to separately? What are the optimal sizes of MPAs under cooperation and non-cooperation? I explore these questions in the current paper by developing a computational two-agent model, which incorporates MPAs using the North East Atlantic codfishery as an example. Results from the study indicate that MPAs can protect the discounted economic rent from the fishery if the habitat is likely to face a shock, andfishers have a high discount rate. The total standing biomass increases with increasing MPA size but only up to a point. Basedon the specifics of the model, the study also shows that the economically optimal size of MPA for cod varies between 50 70% depending on (i) the exchange rate between the protectedandunprotectedareas of the habitat; (ii) whether fishers behalf cooperatively or non-cooperatively; and(iii) the severity of the shock that the ecosystem may face. [source]

    Near real-time spatial management based on habitat predictions for a longline bycatch species

    A. J. HOBDAY
    Abstract, Southern bluefin tuna (SBT), Thunnus maccoyii (Castelnau), is a quota-managed species that makes annual winter migrations to the Tasman Sea off south-eastern Australia. During this period it interacts with a year-round tropical tuna longline fishery (Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery, ETBF). ETBF managers seek to minimise the bycatch of SBT by commercial ETBF longline fishers with limited or no SBT quota through spatial restrictions. Access to areas where SBT are believed to be present is restricted to fishers holding SBT quota. A temperature-based SBT habitat model was developed to provide managers with an estimate of tuna distribution upon which to base their decisions about placement of management boundaries. Adult SBT temperature preferences were determined using pop-up satellite archival tags. The near real-time predicted location of SBT was determined by matching temperature preferences to satellite sea surface temperature data and vertical temperature data from an oceanographic model. Regular reports detailing the location of temperature-based SBT habitat were produced during the period of the ETBF fishing season when interactions with SBT occur. The SBT habitat model included: (i) predictions based on the current vertical structure of the ocean; (ii) seasonally adjusted temperature preference data for the 60 calendar days centred on the prediction date; and (iii) development of a temperature-based SBT habitat climatology that allowed visualisation of the expected change in the distribution of the SBT habitat zones throughout the season. At the conclusion of the fishing season an automated method for placing management boundaries was compared with the subjective approach used by managers. Applying this automated procedure to the habitat predictions enabled an investigation of the effects of setting management boundaries using old data and updating management boundaries infrequently. Direct comparison with the management boundaries allowed an evaluation of the efficiency and biases produced by this aspect of the fishery management process. Near real-time fishery management continues to be a realistic prospect that new scientific approaches using novel tools can support and advance. [source]

    Effects of size and fragmentation of marine reserves and fisher infringement on the catch and biomass of coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus, on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    L. R. LITTLE
    Abstract, A spatially structured simulation model of the population dynamics and line fishing exploitation of common coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus Lacepède, was used to evaluate the effects of infringement and different amounts and arrangements of marine reserves on the Reef Line Fishery of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. With no marine reserves and under a constant future effort level equal to that for 1996, the size of the population was reduced and the biomass stabilised at about 40% of pre-exploitation levels. Marine reserves were ineffective at conserving biomass when limited infringement was allowed throughout an entire reserve. When infringement was absent altogether or limited to the edges of reserves, larger marine reserves lead to lower total catches and higher overall biomass. When infringement was limited to reserve edges, a single large closure was more effective at conserving biomass than more fragmented arrangements. Simulations suggested that marine reserves might lead to better conservation of a fishery-targeted species if infringement is negligible or limited to reserve margins. Even where infringement occurred only at the edges of reserves, a network of small reserves may be less effective at conserving a targeted species than a smaller number of larger reserves. [source]

    Maximizing profits and conserving stocks in the Australian Northern Prawn Fishery

    Tom Kompas
    The Australian Northern Prawn Fishery (NPF) is one of the few that has adopted a dynamic version of a ,maximum economic yield' (MEY) target, and, on this basis, the fishery is undergoing a process of substantial stock rebuilding. This study details the bioeconomic model used to provide scientific management advice for the NPF, in terms of the amount of allowable total gear length in the fishery, for both the MEY target and the path to MEY. It combines the stock assessment process for two species of tiger prawns with a specification for discounted economic profits, where the harvest function in the profit equation is stock-dependent. Results for the NPF show a substantial ,stock effect', indicating the importance of conserving fish stocks for profitability. MEY thus occurs at a stock size that is larger than that at maximum sustainable yield, leading to a ,win-win' situation for both the industry (added profitability) and the environment (larger fish stocks and lower impact on the ecosystem). Sensitivity results emphasize this effect by showing that the MEY target is much more sensitive to changes in the price of prawns and the cost of fuel, and far less so to the rate of discount. [source]

    Genetic Identification of Pelagic Shark Body Parts for Conservation and Trade Monitoring

    Mahmood Shivji
    Difficulties with the identification of many commonly fished sharks and their body parts has resulted in a global dearth of catch and trade information, making reliable assessment of exploitation effects and conservation needs for individual species nearly impossible. We developed and tested a highly streamlined molecular genetic approach based on species-specific, polymerase-chain-reaction primers in an eight-primer multiplex format to discriminate simultaneously between body parts from six shark species common in worldwide pelagic fisheries. The species-specific primers are based on DNA sequence differences among species in the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 locus. The primers and multiplex format accurately and sensitively distinguished samples from each of three lamnid ( Isurus oxyrinchus, Isurus paucus, and Lamna nasus) and three carcharhinid ( Prionace glauca, Carcharhinus obscurus, and Carcharhinus falciformis) species from all but one other shark species encountered in the North Atlantic fishery. Furthermore, the three lamnid primers were robust enough in their discriminatory power to be useful for species diagnosis on a global scale. Preliminary testing of dried fins from Asian and Mediterranean commercial markets suggests that our genetic approach will be useful for determining the species of origin of detached fins, thus allowing the monitoring of trade in shark fins for conservation assessment. Our approach will also facilitate detection of products from protected and other at-risk shark species and may prove useful as a model for development of the high-throughput, genetic, species-diagnosis methods typically required in conservation and management contexts. Resumen: La conservación y manejo de tiburones fundamentado a nivel de especie es una necesidad imperativa debido a la creciente demanda de aletas de tiburón y el reconocimiento de que las especies individuales de tiburones responden de manera distinta a la explotación. Las dificultades para la identificación de muchos tiburones capturados comúnmente, así como de partes de su cuerpo, han resultado en una escasez global de información sobre capturas y comercialización, haciendo casi imposible el poder realizar evaluaciones de los efectos de la explotación y de las necesidades de conservación. Desarrollamos y evaluamos un método altamente estilizado de genética molecular basado en detonadores de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, especie-específicos, en un formato múltiple de ocho detonadores para discriminar simultáneamente entre las partes del cuerpo de seis especies de tiburones provenientes de pesquerías pelágicas mundiales comunes. Los detonadores especie-específicos están basados en diferencias en las secuencias de ADN entre especies del locus espaciador 2 nuclear, ribosomal, transcrito. Los detonadores y el formato múltiple distinguen muestras con precisión y sensitividad de cada uno de los tres lámnidos ( Isurus oxyrinchus, Isurus paucus y Lamna nasus) y tres especies de carcarínidos ( Prionace glauca, Carcharhinus obscurus y Carcharhinus falciformis) especies todas encontradas en las pesquerías de Norteamérica, excepto una. Mas aún, los detonadores de los tres lamnidos fueron lo suficientemente robustos en su poder discriminante como para ser usados para el diagnóstico de especies a escala mundial. Las pruebas preliminares de aletas secas de los mercados comerciales de Asia y el Mediterráneo sugieren que nuestro método genético puede ser útil para determinar la especie de origen de las aletas separadas, permitiendo así usar el monitoreo de las aletas de tiburón para evaluaciones de conservación. Nuestro método también podría facilitar la detección de productos provenientes de especies protegidas o en riesgo y podría resultar útil como un modelo para el desarrollo de métodos genéticos de alto rendimiento para el diagnóstico de especies, métodos típicamente requeridos en los contextos de conservación y manejo. [source]

    Commercializing bycatch can push a fishery beyond economic extinction

    Aaron Savio Lobo
    Abstract Tropical bottom trawling is among the most destructive fishing practices, catching large quantities of bycatch, which are usually discarded. We used questionnaire surveys of trawl fishers to look at changes in catches over the last 30 years (1978,2008) along India's Coromandel Coast. We show that catches and income from target species have declined sharply over the last two decades. Meanwhile, costs of fishing have increased substantially and now almost exceed income from target species. Over the same period, bycatch (which was traditionally discarded) has now become increasingly marketable, being sold for local consumption, and as fish meal to supply the region's rapidly growing poultry industry. Without this income from bycatch, the fishery would scarcely be economically viable. While such a change in the use of bycatch is good news in terms of reducing waste and improving livelihoods, it is also responsible for pushing the Indian bottom trawl fishery beyond the economic extinction of its target species. [source]

    Long term effects of cormorant predation on fish communities and fishery in a freshwater lake

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2001
    Henri Engström
    Cormorant impact upon natural fish populations has long been debated but little studied because of the requirements of sound data that are often hard to fill. In this study I have monitored fish community composition/abundance before and after a cormorant colony was established in a high productive lake, Ymsen, of south-central Sweden. Data on fish abundance before cormorant establishment enabled me to control for changes in fish densities prior to cormorant colonisation. To control for possible changes in fish populations caused by factors other than cormorant predation (i.e. large-scale regional changes due to climate) data were compared with a control lake, Garnsviken, with no cormorants. Since Lake Ymsen also harbour an important commercial fishery, cormorant impact upon fishery yields was evaluated. The most important fish species in the diet of the cormorants were ruffe (75% by number), roach (11%) and perch (10%). Except for perch, commercially important fish made up a very small fraction of the cormorant diet. Eel, the most important fish for the fishery, was absent in the cormorant diet, pikeperch constituted 0.2% and pike 1.5%. Estimated fish outtake by the cormorants was 12.8 kg ha,1 yr,1 compared to 8.6 kg ha,1 yr,1 for the fishery. Despite considerable fish withdrawal by the cormorants, fish populations did not seem to change in numbers or biomass. The present study indicates that cormorant impact upon fish populations in Lake Ymsen was small and probably in no case has led to declines of neither commercial nor of non-commercial fish species. Still, the number of breeding cormorants in Lake Ymsen, in relation to foraging area, is among the highest known for Swedish lakes. [source]

    Trace metals, stable isotope ratios, and trophic relations in seabirds from the North Pacific Ocean

    John E. Elliott
    Abstract Trace elements including mercury, cadmium, selenium, and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (,15N) were measured in tissues of Pacific seabirds. Two species of albatross (Diomedea immutabilis, Diomedea nigripes), four species of shearwaters (Puffinus bulleri, Puffinus carneipes, Puffinus griseus, Puffinus tenuirostris), northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), and horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata) were collected opportunistically by an experimental fishery in the North Pacific Ocean. Two species each of petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Oceanodroma furcata) and auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Cerorhinca monocerata) were collected at breeding colonies on the north coast of British Columbia, Canada. Concentrations of toxic trace metals varied considerably among the pelagic nonbreeders; highest concentrations consistently were in D. nigripes (e.g., Hg), 70-fold greater than F. corniculata (e.g., Cd), eightfold greater than P. tenuirostris (e.g., Se), and fourfold greater than F. corniculata. Most essential trace elements varied little among species, consistent with physiological regulation. Values for ,15N correlated positively with hepatic Se (r = 0.771, p = 0.025) and negatively with Co (r = 0.817, p = 0.013). Among the four breeding species, there were significant positive associations for ,15N in muscle and hepatic Se (r = 0.822, p = 0.002), Hg (r = 0.744, p = 0.0001), and Cd (r = 0.589, p = 0.003). Differences in time scales integrated by ,15N versus trace metals in tissues probably reduced the apparent associations between trace-metal exposure and diet. [source]

    SYNTHESIS: Evolutionary consequences of fishing and their implications for salmon

    Jeffrey J. Hard
    Abstract We review the evidence for fisheries-induced evolution in anadromous salmonids. Salmon are exposed to a variety of fishing gears and intensities as immature or maturing individuals. We evaluate the evidence that fishing is causing evolutionary changes to traits including body size, migration timing and age of maturation, and we discuss the implications for fisheries and conservation. Few studies have fully evaluated the ingredients of fisheries-induced evolution: selection intensity, genetic variability, correlation among traits under selection, and response to selection. Most studies are limited in their ability to separate genetic responses from phenotypic plasticity, and environmental change complicates interpretation. However, strong evidence for selection intensity and for genetic variability in salmon fitness traits indicates that fishing can cause detectable evolution within ten or fewer generations. Evolutionary issues are therefore meaningful considerations in salmon fishery management. Evolutionary biologists have rarely been involved in the development of salmon fishing policy, yet evolutionary biology is relevant to the long-term success of fisheries. Future management might consider fishing policy to (i) allow experimental testing of evolutionary responses to exploitation and (ii) improve the long-term sustainability of the fishery by mitigating unfavorable evolutionary responses to fishing. We provide suggestions for how this might be done. [source]

    Operationalizing governability: a case study of a Lake Malawi fishery

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 3 2010
    Andrew Moonseok Song
    Abstract Governability is seen as an adjustment process between governing needs and governing capacities. Understanding these two aspects and the interplay between them in a governance setting would pave a way for managing the pervasive difficulties confronting fisheries. In this study, we demonstrate how to operationalize the concept of governability by applying governability assessment framework to an inland fishery in the Southeast Arm of Lake Malawi. First, the needs and the demands of the natural and socio-economic aspects of the lake fishery system are examined according to four properties , diversity, complexity, dynamics and scale. Similarly, the capacities of the governing system are assessed. The characteristics of the governing interactions between these systems are next explored to provide a basis for improving governability. Assessment findings produce a systematic and holistic image of the fishery, and offer some insights into key governance issues and processes. In the Southeast Arm fishery, these include taking a close look at the internal, normative drivers of illegal fishing to ease the socio-economic complexity and streamlining the institutional structure to boost governing capacity. [source]

    Shrinking baseline: the growth in juvenile fisheries, with the Hong Kong grouper fishery as a case study

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 4 2009
    Allen W L To
    Abstract Historic and current information on the grouper fishery from Hong Kong and adjacent waters reveals significant changes in species composition and fish sizes over the past 50 years in this important Asian centre for seafood consumption. Once dominant, large groupers are now rare and small species and sizes prevail in the present-day fishery. Juveniles comprise over 80% of marketed fish by number among the most commonly retailed groupers, and reproductive-sized fish are absent among larger species. Current fishery practices and the lack of management in Hong Kong and adjacent waters pose a significant threat to large species with limited geographic distribution such as Epinephelus akaara and Epinephelus bruneus, both now listed as threatened by the IUCN. The heavy reliance on juveniles, not only for groupers, but for an increasing diversity of desired fishes within Asia, potentially reduces stock spawning potential. The ,shrinking baseline' in terms of a progressive reduction in fish sizes being marketed in the region can seriously undermine fishery sustainability and recoverability of depleted fish stocks. Fishing pressure on groupers and other valuable food fishes within the Asia-Pacific is intensifying, the declining long-term trend of grouper landings in Hong Kong and the increasing focus on juveniles for immediate sale or for mariculture ,grow-out' signal a worrying direction for regional fisheries. Moreover, the common appearance of small groupers for sale will influence public perception regarding what are ,normal-sized' fish. Management attention is needed if these fisheries are to remain viable. [source]

    Global constraints on rural fishing communities: whose resilience is it anyway?

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 1 2007
    Martin D Robards
    Abstract Sustaining natural resources is regarded as an important component of ecological resilience and commonly assumed to be of similar importance to social and economic vitality for resource-dependent communities. However, communities may be prevented from benefiting from healthy local resources due to constrained economic or political opportunities. In the case of Alaskan wild salmon, the fisheries are in crisis due to declining economic revenues driven by the proliferation of reliable and increasingly high-quality products from fish farms around the world. This stands in contrast with many of the world's wild-capture fisheries where diminished biological abundance has led to fishery collapse. Furthermore, increasing efficiency of salmon farm production, globalization, and dynamic consumer preferences, suggests that the wild salmon industry will continue to be challenged by the adaptability, price and quality of farmed salmon. Conventional responses to reduced revenues by the wild-capture industry have been to increase economic efficiency through implementing a range of entry entitlement and quota allocation schemes. However, while these mechanisms may improve economic efficiency at a broad scale, they may not benefit local community interests, and in Alaska have precipitated declines in local ownership of the fishery. To be viable, economic efficiency remains a relevant consideration, but in a directionally changing environment (biological, social or economic), communities unable to procure livelihoods from their local resources (through access or value) are likely to seek alternative economic opportunities. The adopted strategies, although logical for communities seeking viability through transformation in a changing world, may not be conducive to resilience of a ,fishing community' or the sustainability of their wild fish resources. We use a theoretically grounded systems approach and data from Alaska's Bristol Bay salmon fishery to demonstrate feedbacks between global preferences towards salmon and the trade-offs inherent when managing for the resilience of wild salmon populations and human communities at different scales. [source]

    Reducing seabird bycatch in longline, trawl and gillnet fisheries

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 1 2007
    Leigh S. Bull
    Abstract With an increasing number of seabird species, particularly albatross and petrels, becoming threatened, a reduction of fishery impacts on these species is essential for their future survival. Here, mitigation methods to reduce and avoid seabird bycatch are assessed in terms of their ability to reduce bycatch rates and their economic viability for longline, trawl and gillnet fisheries worldwide. Factors influencing the appropriateness and effectiveness of a mitigation device include the fishery, vessel, location, seabird assemblage present and season of year. As yet, there is no single magic solution to reduce or eliminate seabird bycatch across all fisheries: a combination of measures is required, and even within a fishery there is likely to be refinement of techniques by individual vessels in order to maximize their effectiveness at reducing seabird bycatch. In longline demersal and pelagic fisheries, a minimum requirement of line weighting that achieves hook sink rates minimizing seabird bycatch rates should be tailored with a combination of strategic offal and discard management, bird-scaring lines (BSLs) and night-setting, particulary in Southern Hemisphere fisheries. Urgent investigation is needed into more effective measures at reducing seabird interactions with trawl nets and gill nets. In trawl fisheries, a combination of offal and discard management, the banning of net monitoring cables, paired BSLs, and a reduction in the time the net is on or near the surface are likely to be the most effective in reducing seabird interactions with the warp cables and net. Few seabird bycatch reduction methods have been developed for gillnet fisheries, although increasing the visibility of the net has been shown to reduce seabird bycatch. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of this technique and its influence on target species catch rates. [source]

    Reducing sea turtle by-catch in pelagic longline fisheries

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 1 2006
    Eric Gilman
    Abstract Reducing by-catch of sea turtles in pelagic longline fisheries, in concert with activities to reduce other anthropogenic sources of mortality, may contribute to the recovery of marine turtle populations. Here, we review research on strategies to reduce sea turtle by-catch. Due to the state of management regimes in most longline fisheries, strategies to reduce turtle interactions must not only be effective but also must be commercially viable. Because most research has been initiated only recently, many results are not yet peer-reviewed, published or readily accessible. Moreover, most experiments have small sample sizes and have been conducted over only a few seasons in a small number of fisheries; many study designs preclude drawing conclusions about the independent effect of single factors on turtle by-catch and target catch rates; and few studies consider effects on other by-catch species. In the US North Atlantic longline swordfish fishery, 4.9-cm wide circle hooks with fish bait significantly reduced sea turtle by-catch rates and the proportion of hard-shell turtles that swallowed hooks vs. being hooked in the mouth compared to 4.0-cm wide J hooks with squid bait without compromising commercial viability for some target species. But these large circle hooks might not be effective or economically viable in other longline fisheries. The effectiveness and commercial viability of a turtle avoidance strategy may be fishery-specific, depending on the size and species of turtles and target fish and other differences between fleets. Testing of turtle avoidance methods in individual fleets may therefore be necessary. It is a priority to conduct trials in longline fleets that set gear shallow, those overlapping the most threatened turtle populations and fleets overlapping high densities of turtles such as those fishing near breeding colonies. In addition to trials using large 4.9-cm wide circle hooks in place of smaller J and Japan tuna hooks, other fishing strategies are under assessment. These include: (i) using small circle hooks (, 4.6-cm narrowest width) in place of smaller J and Japan tuna hooks; (ii) setting gear below turtle-abundant depths; (iii) single hooking fish bait vs. multiple hook threading; (iv) reducing gear soak time and retrieval during daytime; and (v) avoiding by-catch hotspots through fleet communication programmes and area and seasonal closures. [source]

    Wasted fishery resources: discarded by-catch in the USA

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 4 2005
    Jennie M Harrington
    Abstract Fishery by-catch, especially discarded by-catch, is a serious problem in the world's oceans. Not only are the stocks of discarded species affected, but entire trophic webs and habitats may be disrupted at the ecosystem level. This paper reviews discarding in the marine fisheries of the USA; however, the type, diversity and regulatory mechanisms of the fisheries are similar to developed fisheries and management programmes throughout the world. We have compiled current estimates of discarded by-catch for each major marine fishery in the USA using estimates from existing literature, both published and unpublished. We did not re-estimate discards or discard rates from raw data, nor did we include data on protected species (turtles, mammals and birds) and so this study covers discarded by-catch of finfish and fishable invertebrates. For some fisheries, additional calculations were required to transform number data into weight data, and typically length and weight composition data were used. Specific data for each fishery are referenced in Harrington et al. (Wasted Resources: Bycatch and discards in US Fisheries, Oceana, Washington, DC, 2005). Overall, our compiled estimates are that 1.06 million tonnes of fish were discarded and 3.7 million tonnes of fish were landed in USA marine fisheries in 2002. This amounts to a nationwide discard to landings ratio of 0.28, amongst the highest in the world. Regionally, the southeast had the largest discard to landings ratio (0.59), followed closely by the highly migratory species fisheries (0.52) and the northeast fisheries (0.49). The Alaskan and west coast fisheries had the lowest ratios (0.12 and 0.15 respectively). Shrimp fisheries in the southeast were the major contributors to the high discard rate in that region, with discard ratios of 4.56 (Gulf of Mexico) and 2.95 (South Atlantic). By-catch and discarding is a major component of the impact of fisheries on marine ecosystems. There have been substantial efforts to reduce by-catch in some fisheries, but broadly based programmes covering all fisheries are needed within the USA and around the world. In response to international agreements to improve fishery management, by-catch and discard reduction must become a regular part of fishery management planning. [source]

    The dynamics of collapse in world fisheries

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 2 2005
    Christian Mullon
    Abstract The fear of a rapid depletion of world fish stocks because of over-exploitation is increasing. Analysis of 1519 main series of the FAO world fisheries catch database over the last 50 years reveals that 366 fisheries' collapses occurred, that is nearly one fishery of four. The robustness of this result is tested by performing several complementary analyses using different conservative options. The number of collapses has been stable through time since 1950s indicating no improvement in the overall fisheries management. Three typical patterns emerge from the analysis of catch series during the period preceding the collapses: smooth collapse (33%), i.e. a long regular decline, erratic collapse (45%), i.e. a fall after several ups and downs, and a plateau-shaped collapse (21%), i.e. a sudden fall after a relatively long and stable persistence of high level of catches. Using a simple mathematical model, we relate the plateau-shaped collapses (which are, by nature, the most difficult to predict) to surreptitiously increasing exploitation and a depensatory mechanism at low population levels. Thus, a stable level of catch over several years is shown to conceal the risk of a sudden collapse. This jeopardizes the common assumption that considers the stability of catch as a goal for fisheries sustainability. [source]

    Using fishers' anecdotes, naturalists' observations and grey literature to reassess marine species at risk: the case of the Gulf grouper in the Gulf of California, Mexico

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 2 2005
    Andrea Sáenz, Arroyo
    Abstract Designing fishing policies without knowledge of past levels of target species abundance is a dangerous omission for fisheries management. However, as fisheries monitoring started long after exploitation of many species began, this is a difficult issue to address. Here we show how the ,shifting baseline' syndrome can affect the stock assessment of a vulnerable species by masking real population trends and thereby put marine animals at serious risk. Current fishery data suggest that landings of the large Gulf grouper (Mycteroperca jordani, Serranidae) are increasing in the Gulf of California. However, reviews of historical evidence, naturalists' observations and a systematic documentation of fishers' perceptions of trends in the abundance of this species indicate that it has dramatically declined. The heyday for the Gulf grouper fishery occurred prior to the 1970s, after which abundance dropped rapidly, probably falling to a few percent of former numbers. This decline happened long before fishery statistics were formally developed. We use the case of the Gulf grouper to illustrate how other vulnerable tropical and semi-tropical fish and shellfish species around the world may be facing the same fate as the Gulf grouper. In accordance with other recent studies, we recommend using historical tools as part of a broad data-gathering approach to assess the conservation status of marine species that are vulnerable to over-exploitation. [source]

    Freshwater crayfish farming technology in the 1990s: a European and global perspective

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 4 2000
    H.E.G. Ackefors
    This paper aims to describe the state of crayfish farming technology in the USA, Australia and Europe, and to discuss some of the prerequisites for this industry. Data from Europe are partly based on replies from a questionnaire sent out to scientists in all European countries. For other parts of the world, the crayfish literature has been reviewed and data from the August 2000 meeting of the International Association of Astacology are also included. Issues addressed in this review are cultivated species, production and productivity figures, production technique with regard to enclosures, reproduction and feed items, disease problems, predators, pond vegetation and water quality. Fewer than a dozen crayfish species are cultivated. The most attractive ones for culture and stocking in natural waters have been transferred to more than one continent. Pond rearing techniques predominate in all countries, and the technology required to achieve the spawning and rearing of juveniles is relatively simple. Pieces of fish, carrots and potatoes are frequent supplementary feed items; plants, cereals, pieces of meat, zooplankton and pellets are also common. Diseases are not usually a major concern, except in Europe where the American plague fungus, Aphanomyces astaci, has eradicated many European crayfish populations. Predators identified as common include insects and amphibians, as well as fishes, birds and mammals. Many water macrophytes are common in crayfish farms. These may either serve a useful function or cause problems for the crayfish farmer. Water temperature is the crucial factor for crayfish production. Water parameters such as pH and certain inorganic ion concentrations may also be of concern. Acidic waters that occur in some areas are generally detrimental to crayfish. The total yield from crayfish production from farming and fishery is in the order of 120 000,150 000 tonnes, more than four times the quantity given by FAO statistics. The largest crayfish producer is the Peoples' Republic of China, followed by the USA (70 000 and 50 000 tonnes in 1999, respectively). Of the quantity produced in the USA in 1999, about 35 000 tonnes was farmed. The yield in Europe was about 4500 tonnes in 1994, and of this quantity only 160 tonnes came from aquaculture. There are no official statistics for crayfish fishery production in Australia, but about 400 tonnes came from aquaculture in 1999. [source]

    Managing non-target, data-poor species using catch limits: lessons from the Alaskan groundfish fishery

    R. F. REUTER
    Abstract, The 2006 reauthorisation of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act requires annual catch limits for all target and non-target species within federally managed fisheries in the United States. In Alaska, both target and non-target species in the Alaska groundfish fisheries have been managed using catch limits since the early 1990s. Non-target species that are caught incidentally in a fishery require monitoring to ensure that the population is not negatively impacted by commercial fishing. Resource assessment scientists have been challenged with obtaining sufficient data to recommend an acceptable catch level for management of these species. This paper reviews three case studies where a catch limit is determined for non-target species when certain data are limited: (1) varying levels of biomass and catch data for all species within a species group or complex; (2) adequate catch data but no biomass data; (3) emerging target fishery of data-poor species, plus an example of how a complex of ecosystem component species is managed. [source]

    Considering recreational catch and harvest in fisheries management at the bio-regional scale

    Abstract, The Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia supports several commercial fisheries and a largely tourist-based recreational fishery. The results of a survey of 427 recreational fishing parties visiting the main town, Karumba, between March and September 2006 were examined using the bootstrap method to estimate confidence intervals for mean tourist catch and harvest of grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), and other recreational target species. Tourist anglers harvested between 99.8 and 117 t of P. kaakan and 32.6,38.2 t of blue salmon, Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw), during the survey period. Resident recreational anglers harvested an additional 15,35 t of P. kaakan, but very little E. tetradactylum. In comparison, commercial harvest was 19 t of P. kaakan and 64 t of E. tetradactylum in the whole of the Queensland section of the Gulf of Carpentaria. The results underscore the need for appropriately collected recreational fishing data to support integrated fisheries management at the bioregional scale, and in the case of angling-based tourist destinations, underpin a diversification of the tourist product. [source]

    Women's traditional fishery and alternative aquatic resource livelihood strategies in the Southern Cameroonian Rainforest

    Abstract, To inform the development of alternative livelihoods, the women's traditional alok fishery in the Campo-Ma'an National Park and buffer zone of southern Cameroon were studied over 15 months. Participatory rural appraisal was used to characterise livelihood strategies among 45 households. Thirty-three cultured crops, nine farmed animal species and 65 non-timber forest products, including 31 bushmeat species are cultivated in, or harvested from, the forest. Transport is a major impediment to commercial trade of all local products. In 16 alok fishing events, average weight of fish harvested was 5.14 kg per 280 m of stream distributed among an average of 23 fishers for a return of 220 g person,1 or 40 g fish h,1 over 5 h of work. Fish and crustacean standing stock was 25 g per linear metre or 167 t when extrapolated to the zone. Implications for rainforest livelihoods in light of the Millennium Development Goals are discussed. [source]

    Examining changes in participation in recreational fisheries in England and Wales

    Abstract, Inland fisheries in England and Wales have high economic and social values. Managing participation to maximise fishery performance is key to maintaining this status. The capital value of fishing rights for migratory salmonid fisheries is ,165 million. Coarse fisheries contribute ,1030 million to the economy. The central tenet to increasing participation in recreational salmonid fisheries is that an increase in stock size will result in more anglers accessing the fishery. This was examined for salmon on the rivers Usk and Lune where exploitation restrictions increased the number of salmon available to anglers. On the River Lune, the number of salmon available post-intervention increased by 66%. There was no significant increase in catch while the number of anglers decreased by 16.3%. On the River Usk, the closure of the net fishery potentially resulted in an additional ,1200 salmon being available. Following closure, there was no significant change in rod catch or in the number of anglers. Increased participation is dependent less upon stock manipulation for coarse fisheries and more upon facilitating the activity. In recent years, urban fishery development programmes have provided improved access to local fishing opportunity. Also, new anglers have been targeted through campaigns such as Get Hooked on Fishing and the Scout Angler Badge. [source]

    Estimating angling effort and participation in a multi-user, inland fishery in South Africa

    Abstract, Angler counts, on-lake interviews and a household survey were used to estimate angler effort and participation in Lake Gariep, South Africa's largest inland water body. Annual fishing effort was estimated from instantaneous counts at 16392 angler day,1 yr,1. Recreational and subsistence anglers contributed 41 and 59% to the total annual fishing effort, respectively. Household surveys in lakeshore settlements estimated that ,914 anglers fished the lake and minimum daily fishing effort in one of the fishing areas assessed was 77 anglers. As a result of recall bias, these estimates were almost twice as high as those determined by direct counts. A low cost method of assessing participation by applying a mark,recapture model to the proportion of anglers whom had been previously interviewed during eight bimonthly sampling events was tested. The model converged in three of four applications (2 areas × 2 sectors). The mark,recapture method revealed similar numbers of anglers to the estimate of regular anglers (fishing 1,3 times a week) from the household survey and was considered an appropriate estimator for the number of subsistence anglers. Regardless of the assessment method the results show that the resource is of importance to subsistence livelihoods, which is an important management consideration in future fisheries development and rights allocation processes. [source]

    Evaluation of a by-catch reduction device for glass eel fishing traps

    M. A. LOPEZ
    Abstract, The effectiveness of a new design of glass eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.), fishing trap was tested in the Ebro River delta fishery (Eastern Mediterranean, Spain). The modified fishing trap incorporated a by-catch reduction device (BRD) to increase trap selectivity and minimise by-catch of non-targeted fish, without affecting glass eel captures. The BRD is inexpensive and easy to implement, consisting of a cylinder covered with a rigid square-mesh of 2.0,2.4 mm knot-to-knot, which is easily fitted to the fishing trap entrance. Testing of the BRD was made by paired comparisons between captures of targeted and non-targeted fish species from both conventional and BRD-modified traps. The use of a BRD in the glass eel traps resulted in a 68.9% reduction in the number of captured non-targeted fish specimens, while it did not reduce glass eel yields. The BRD implementation was fully effective for all species and individuals with sizes >40 mm total length, with the exception of the black-striped pipefish, Syngnathus abaster Risso. These results support the implementation of the BRD in glass eel fisheries along the Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula where these fishing traps are used. [source]