Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Fish

  • adult fish
  • affected fish
  • anadromous fish
  • annual fish
  • benthic fish
  • bony fish
  • break-apart fish
  • captive fish
  • cartilaginous fish
  • cichlid fish
  • commercial fish
  • control fish
  • coral reef fish
  • cultured fish
  • cyprinid fish
  • d. fish
  • dead fish
  • demersal fish
  • diadromous fish
  • different fish
  • diseased fish
  • electric fish
  • estuarine fish
  • exotic fish
  • experimental fish
  • farmed fish
  • fatty fish
  • female fish
  • food fish
  • free-swimming fish
  • fresh fish
  • freshwater fish
  • g fish
  • galaxiid fish
  • hatchery fish
  • hatchery-reared fish
  • healthy fish
  • herbivorous fish
  • important commercial fish
  • important fish
  • individual fish
  • infected fish
  • interphase fish
  • juvenile fish
  • large fish
  • large pelagic fish
  • larger fish
  • larval fish
  • live fish
  • livebearing fish
  • male fish
  • many fish
  • marine fish
  • marked fish
  • medaka fish
  • metaphase fish
  • migratory fish
  • native fish
  • native freshwater fish
  • non-native fish
  • oily fish
  • older fish
  • omnivorous fish
  • ornamental fish
  • other fish
  • pelagic fish
  • piscivorous fish
  • planktivorou fish
  • predatory fish
  • prey fish
  • raw fish
  • ray-finned fish
  • reef fish
  • resident fish
  • river fish
  • riverine fish
  • salmonid fish
  • same fish
  • small fish
  • smaller fish
  • stocked fish
  • stream fish
  • tagged fish
  • teleost fish
  • temperate fish
  • transgenic fish
  • trash fish
  • treated fish
  • triploid fish
  • water fish
  • weakly electric fish
  • whole fish
  • wild fish
  • young-of-the-year fish
  • zebra fish

  • Terms modified by Fish

  • fish abundance
  • fish analysis
  • fish assemblage
  • fish assemblage composition
  • fish assemblage structure
  • fish ball
  • fish behaviour
  • fish bioassay
  • fish biomass
  • fish body
  • fish bone
  • fish catch
  • fish community
  • fish community data
  • fish community structure
  • fish condition
  • fish conservation
  • fish consumption
  • fish culture
  • fish density
  • fish diet
  • fish disease
  • fish distribution
  • fish diversity
  • fish egg
  • fish embryo
  • fish enterocyte
  • fish family
  • fish farm
  • fish farmer
  • fish farming
  • fish fauna
  • fish feed
  • fish feeding
  • fish fillet
  • fish food
  • fish gelatin
  • fish groups
  • fish growth
  • fish habitat
  • fish health
  • fish hosts
  • fish intake
  • fish ladder
  • fish larva
  • fish length
  • fish liver
  • fish meal
  • fish meal diet
  • fish meal protein
  • fish meat
  • fish metabolism
  • fish migration
  • fish mortality
  • fish movement
  • fish muscle
  • fish nutrition
  • fish oil
  • fish oil supplementation
  • fish otolith
  • fish passage
  • fish passage facility
  • fish pathogen
  • fish performance
  • fish physiology
  • fish pond
  • fish population
  • fish population dynamics
  • fish predation
  • fish predator
  • fish prey
  • fish probe
  • fish production
  • fish products
  • fish protein
  • fish receiving
  • fish removal
  • fish reproduction
  • fish response
  • fish result
  • fish sample
  • fish signal
  • fish size
  • fish skin
  • fish spawning
  • fish species
  • fish species richness
  • fish sperm
  • fish sperm dna
  • fish stock
  • fish studies
  • fish survey
  • fish survival
  • fish taxa
  • fish technique
  • fish tissue
  • fish used
  • fish weight
  • fish yield

  • Selected Abstracts

    Effects of dietary N -acetylcysteine on the oxidative stress induced in tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) exposed to a microcystin-producing cyanobacterial water bloom,

    María Puerto
    Abstract Fish can be exposed to toxic cyanobacterial cells in natural waters and fish farms and suffer from oxidative damage. The present study investigates the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione (GSH) precursor, on the oxidative stress induced by Microcystis cyanobacterial cells containing microcystins (MCs) in tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). Variation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, carbonyl group content, reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH: GSSG), and catalase (Enzyme Commission [EC], superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC, glutathione reductase (GR; EC, glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC, and glutathione S-transferase (EC activities in liver and kidney of tilapia exposed to a single oral dose of 120 ,g MC-LR (with leucine [L] and arginine [R])/fish and killed in 24 h were investigated in the absence and presence of 20.0, 44.0, and 96.8 mg NAC/fish/d. Results showed a protective role of NAC, depending on the dose and the biomarker considered. The increase in LPO (1.9-and 1.4-fold in liver and kidney, respectively) and the decreased protein content and GSH:GSSG in the liver induced by MCs were recovered mainly by the lower doses of NAC employed. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased (range, 1.4-to 1.7-fold) by MCs also were ameliorated by NAC, although the highest level used induced significant alteration of some enzymatic activities, such as SOD, GPx, and GR. Thus, NAC can be considered to be a useful chemoprotectant that reduces hepatic and renal oxidative stress in the prophylaxis and treatment of MC-related intoxications in fish when careful attention is given to its application dose because of its own pro-oxidant activity, as shown in the present study at 96.8 mg NAC/ fish/d. [source]

    Current awareness in prenatal diagnosis

    PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 9 2009
    Article first published online: 28 AUG 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of prenatal diagnosis. Each bibliography is divided into 21 sections: 1 Reviews; 2 General Interest; 3 Normal Fetal Development; 4 Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis; 5 First Trimester Diagnosis; 6 Second Trimester Diagnosis; 7 Fetal Imaging: General; Ultrasound; MRI; 8 Maternal Serum Screening for Aneuploidy; 9 Screening for Carriers of Genetic Abnormality; 10 Molecular Cytogenetics: Metaphase Cytogenetics/FISH; Array CGH; 11 Fetal Cells in Maternal Circulation; 12 Fetal DNA/RNA in Maternal Body Fluids; 13 Fetal Therapy; 14 Psychosocial and Ethical Aspects; 15 Epidemiology and Environmental Factors; 16 Developmental and Placental Pathology; 17 Genetic Counseling. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted [source]

    Current awareness in prenatal diagnosis

    PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 4 2009
    Article first published online: 30 MAR 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of prenatal diagnosis. Each bibliography is divided into 20 sections: 1 Reviews; 2 General Interest; 3 Normal Fetal Development; 4 Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis; 5 First Trimester Diagnosis; 6 Second Trimester Diagnosis; 7 Fetal Imaging: General; Ultrasound; MRI; 8 Maternal Serum Screening for Aneuploidy; 9 Screening for Carriers of Genetic Abnormality; 10 Molecular Cytogenetics: Metaphase Cytogenetics/FISH; Array cGH; 11 Fetal Cells in Maternal Circulation; 12 Fetal DNA/RNA in Maternal Body Fluids; 13 Fetal Therapy; 14 Psychosocial and Ethical Aspects; 15 Epidemiology and Environmental Factors; 16 Developmental and Placental Pathology; 17 Genetic Counseling. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted [source]

    Current awareness in prenatal diagnosis

    PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 3 2009
    Article first published online: 26 FEB 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of prenatal diagnosis. Each bibliography is divided into 20 sections: 1 Reviews; 2 General Interest; 3 Normal Fetal Development; 4 Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis; 5 First Trimester Diagnosis; 6 Second Trimester Diagnosis; 7 Fetal Imaging: General; Ultrasound; MRI; 8 Maternal Serum Screening for Aneuploidy; 9 Screening for Carriers of Genetic Abnormality; 10 Molecular Cytogenetics: Metaphase Cytogenetics/FISH; Array cGH; 11 Fetal Cells in Maternal Circulation; 12 Fetal DNA/RNA in Maternal Body Fluids; 13 Fetal Therapy; 14 Psychosocial and Ethical Aspects; 15 Epidemiology and Environmental Factors; 16 Developmental and Placental Pathology; 17 Genetic Counseling. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted [source]

    Further delineation of 9q22 deletion syndrome associated with basal cell nevus (Gorlin) syndrome: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    Kayono Yamamoto
    ABSTRACT Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS; Gorlin syndrome) is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by a predisposition to neoplasms and developmental abnormalities. BCNS is caused by mutations in the human homolog of the Drosophila patched gene-1, PTCH1, which is mapped on chromosome 9q22.3. Nonsense, frameshift, in-frame deletions, splice-site, and missense mutations have been found in the syndrome. Haploinsufficiency of PTCH1, which is caused by interstitial deletion of 9q22.3, is also responsible for the syndrome. To date, 19 cases with interstitial deletion of long arm of chromosome 9 involving the region of q22 have been reported. We describe two unrelated patients with some typical features of BCNS associated with deletion of 9q21.33-q31.1 and determined the boundary of the deletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. The results showed that the size of deletions is between 15.33 and 16.04 Mb in patient 1 and between 18.08 and 18.54 Mb in patient 2. Although the size and breakpoints were different from those of previously reported cases, the clinical features are common to patients with 9q22 deletion associated with BCNS. Delineation of the 9q22 deletions and further consideration of the genes responsible for the characteristic manifestations may provide insight into this newly recognized deletion syndrome. [source]

    An examination of different fetal specific antibodies and magnetic activated cell sorting for the enrichment of fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood

    Xiao Xi Zhao
    ABSTRACT, The aim of the present study was to compare the rates of fetal cells obtained after separation from maternal blood by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) using different fetal specific antibodies, and to evaluate the potential role of this method in the prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomies. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 42 women carrying chromosomally normal fetuses and from 4 women with aneuploid fetuses (2 cases of 47,XX,+18 and 2 of 47,XY,+21) at 9,20 weeks of gestation. After fetal cells were enriched by MACS with three different monoclonal antibodies (GPA, CD71, CD14), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome X, and Y-specific probes was performed to detect the rates of fetal cells in the samples sorted. FISH with chromosome 13-, 18-, and 21-specific probes was carried out to compare proportions of cells with three-signal nuclei in chromosomally normal and abnormal groups. In male infants, X-and Y-positive cells were detected in 80%, 73.3%, and 66.6% of samples after the separation by antibodies CD14, GPA, and CD71, respectively. The percentage of nuclei with three signals was increased in pregnancies with trisomy, ranging between 2% and 5.18%. Pregnancies with normal fetuses showed 0 to 3.7% of nuclei with three signals. The data demonstrate that fetal cell detection varies depending on the antibodies used for cell sorting. This study provides further evidence on the feasibility of screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities by enriching maternal blood for fetal cells and using FISH. [source]

    The potential contribution of fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis to the cytopathological diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    V. Suciu
    We report the cases of two patients with head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) who developed local recurrences confirmed by cytopathology. Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was performed for research purposes using centromeric probes of chromosomes 6 and 8, on cytological slides. Trisomy of chromosome 6 was found in 85% of tumour cells in the first case of MCC and case 2 exhibited trisomy 8 in 77% of tumour cells. In the absence of specific molecular markers, detection of trisomy 6 and/or trisomy 8 could help in identifying MCC. FISH analysis is easily and quickly performed on interphase nuclei obtained through fine needle aspiration and may be extended to the study of other relevant genetic abnormalities. [source]

    Role of ancillary techniques in diagnosing and subclassifying non-Hodgkin's lymphomas on fine needle aspiration cytology

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    P. DeyArticle first published online: 8 SEP 200
    Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are tumours of the lymphoid cells. During the process of development of lymphoid cells, neoplasia may evolve at any point. Neoplastic cells usually carry the imprint of cell of origin at the stage of origin. Various types of NHL may have similar morphology with wide variation in origin, immunophenotype and other biological features. Different ancillary laboratory techniques may help to overcome the limitations of morphology in this aspect. The commonly used ancillary techniques in lymphomas are immunocytochemistry (IC), flow cytometry, Southern blot (SB) technique, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In addition, laser scanning cytometry (LSC) and DNA microarray technologies are in the research phase. Various laboratory techniques are used for immunophenotyping, demonstration of monoclonality, identification of chromosomal translocation, assessment of cell kinetics and expression of mRNA in the tumour cells. Flow cytometry helps in rapid immunophenotying of NHL and it has an added advantage over IC in recognizing the co-expression of CD markers. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) combined with flow immunophenotyping may help us to diagnose and subclassify certain NHLs, such as follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma, which were previously recognized as pure morphological entities. Loss of morphology is one of the important limitations of flow cytometry. LSC can overcome this limitation by studying morphology along with the immunophenotyping pattern of individual cells. Chromosomal changes in NHL can be identified by SB, PCR and FISH. Molecular diagnosis of NHL helps in diagnosis, subclassification, prognostic assessment and even in planning of therapy. DNA microarray is a relatively newer and promising technology. It gives information about the expression of several thousands of genes in a tumour in a single experiment. In the near future, FNAC combined with ancillary techniques may play a major role in diagnosis, subclassification and management of lymphomas. [source]

    Correlation between morphology and human telomerase gene amplification in bronchial brushing cells for the diagnosis of lung cancer

    Yi-Bo Fan M.D.
    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of amplification of the human telomerase gene (TERC), as measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), in routine liquid-based cytological preparations from bronchial brushing specimens, and to assess the associations between TERC amplification, cytological diagnosis, and cytological morphology, in order to obtain further insight into these associations. Bronchial brushings from 102 patients with lung carcinoma (52 squamous-cell carcinomas, 22 adenocarcinomas, 28 small cell lung carcinomas) and 40 patients with nonmalignant disease were used. Amplification of TERC was performed using a commercially available two-color FISH probe, and slides were prepared for the SurePath liquid-based Pap test (LPT) using the same samples. Amplification of TERC was significantly associated with histological diagnoses (P < 0.05). Patients with lung cancer, and especially those with nonsmall cell lung cancer, had significantly higher percentages of cells with amplification of TERC than did patients with nonmalignant disease (P < 0.05). Comparing the FISH and LPT results, there was no significant difference in diagnostic sensitivity between the two methods (P > 0.05). However the difference in diagnostic sensitivity of the two methods for squamous-cell carcinoma was significant (P < 0.01). FISH can be performed on bronchial brushing specimens to detect amplification of TERC. This test may be an adjunct to cytology screening, especially in squamous-cell carcinoma, and may provide an indication of the potential of individual lesions to progress. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor: Using FISH as an ancillary technique to support cytologic diagnosis in an unusual case

    Michael S. Waugh M.D.
    Abstract Desmoplastic small round cell tumor is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that predominantly affects young males. In almost all cases, a reciprocal translocation is present resulting in the fusion of the Ewing sarcoma gene with the Wilms' tumor gene. Here we describe an unusual case occurring in a 59-year-old male, in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used in conjunction with immunohistochemical studies to confirm the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of using FISH as an ancillary technique to confirm the cytologic diagnosis of this tumor. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2007;35:516,520. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The study of cytopathological aspects induced by human cytomegalovirus infection

    B.S., C.M.I.A.C., Takako Takeuchi C.T.
    Abstract In cytological examination, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can not be implied unless typical HCMV-infected cells like owl's-eye cells are present. However, such cells are not always observed in HCMV-infection cases. The aim of our study is to establish the cytopathological features induced by HCMV. In vitro transfection and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed on human embryo lung (HEL) cells. Marked cellular aggregation was observed at 6-hr postinfection (hpi). Multinucleated cells, giant cells, and, particularly, small vacuoles were present in the nuclei or cytoplasm before the appearance of inclusion bodies. However, molding and ground glass in nuclei were absent. Cell clusters displayed round cytoplasm, dispersed later, and showed anisocytosis. All features occurred before 48 hpi when the owl's-eye cell appeared. In FISH, the positive signal highlighted viral particles that became predominant and localized in nuclei. These cytological aspects are dependent on viral replication and contribute to the cytological detection of HCMV infection. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2004;31:289,293. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Detection of a subset of CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Hyung Ju C. Shin M.D.
    Abstract T/null-cell anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a morphologically and clinically heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; to date several morphologic variants have been described on histologic specimens. However, the cytologic features of these variants in the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens have not been well evaluated. The t(2;5)(p23;q35) has been identified in a subset of T/null-ALCL and is known to be associated with a favorable prognosis. We reviewed the cytomorphologic characteristics in 24 FNA specimens of ALCL. In all cases, the diagnosis was confirmed on histologic specimens, and immunohistochemical studies for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) protein expression were performed on the aspirates. The presence of ALK breakpoints were evaluated in nine cases, using a DNA break-apart probe on chromosome 2 covering the ALK gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. Two hundred cells per case were examined. The results were expressed as the percentage of cells containing more than two signals of chromosome 2 to the total number of cells counted. FNA sites included lymph nodes (20), lung (2), breast (1), and soft tissue (1). The median age of the patients was 56 yr (range, 17,75 yr). Twenty cases had systemic involvement; in four cases, skin was the primary site with secondary involvement of the lymph nodes. All cases were CD30+ by immunohistochemistry; 20 were of T-cell phenotype and 4 were null cell type. The cytologic evaluation revealed typical anaplastic morphology (common type) with many "hallmark cells" in 16 (67%) cases. Other morphologic variants identified were small cell pattern in five cases, monomorphic pattern in two cases, and lymphohistiocytic pattern in one case. FISH studies showed that six (66.7%) of nine cases had at least two signals of chromosome 2, consistent with ALK breakpoints. With careful cytomorphologic evaluation in conjunction with appropriate immunohistochemical studies, a diagnosis of ALCL can be confidently made in the FNA specimens in the cellular aspirates and its morphologic variants also can be recognized. Furthermore, the FNA specimen is suitable in detecting ALK breakpoints by FISH study, permitting rapid identification of a subset of patients with ALCL, who may have a favorable prognosis. Using a commercially available probe, detection of ALK breakpoints in the FNA specimens is simple and can be a useful diagnostic adjunct in cases where distinction from other lymphomas or lymphoid lesions is morphologically difficult. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2003;29:61,66. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Quantitative FISH analysis on interphase nuclei may improve diagnosis of DNA diploid breast cancers

    Khuong Truong
    Abstract The detection of DNA aneuploid cells using flow cytometry is an indication for the presence of tumor cells, but when DNA diploid cells are found in 25,33% of the cases, the diagnostic and prognostic significance of DNA ploidy is more limited. We analyzed interphase nuclei after in situ hybridization and using image cytometry on 50 breast tumors with diploid DNA content to investigate whether early chromosome rearrangements were detectable and if their occurrence was clinically significant. Imbalances between the two arms of chromosome 1 were found in 55% of the cases and values ranged from 1.5,3.0. Comparison with histological data showed that Grade I tumors mainly have imbalances (67%) and that Grade III tumors were mainly without the imbalance (67%), whereas Grade II tumors were intermediate (50% imbalance). These data suggest that the diagnosis of DNA diploid cases may be improved by using interphase FISH. In addition, the data also indicates that early breast tumors may have different genetic origins, which is important in the comprehension of tumor malignancy in early stages, especially for preinvasive lesions. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2002;26:213,216. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    PNET-like features of synovial sarcoma of the lung: A pitfall in the cytologic diagnosis of soft-tissue tumors

    Pascale Hummel M.D.
    Abstract Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of soft-tissue tumors is evolving. As more experience is gained, we are becoming aware of potential pitfalls. We describe 2 cases of synovial sarcoma of the lung, primary and metastatic, in patients who had FNA biopsy performed on a lung mass. The cytologic smears showed extremely cellular groups of malignant small round cells, intersected by small blood vessels, with numerous loose single cells, in a background of macrophages and mature lymphocytes. The tumors displayed monomorphic cells forming rosettes and displaying occasional mitoses. A diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor/primitive neuroepithelial tumor (PNET) was suspected. Furthermore, this suspicion was supported by immunohistochemical stains, which showed positivity for a neuroendocrine marker, Leu 7 (case 1), and for a neural marker, CD 99 (O 13 or HBA 71) (both cases); and negativity for cytokeratins (case 1). The resection specimen of case 1 had mostly tightly packed small round cells, with occasional rosettes, similar to the FNA biopsy, and focal areas composed of spindle cells, organized in a focal fibrosarcoma-like and hemangiopericytoma-like pattern. A balanced translocation between chromosomes X and 18, demonstrated by both karyotyping and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), enabled us to make a diagnosis of synovial sarcoma, which was histologically classified as poorly differentiated. Case 2 was a metastatic biphasic synovial sarcoma of the arm, with a prominent epithelial component. Synovial sarcoma, when composed mainly of small round cells on cytologic smears, is a great mimicker of neuroendocrine/PNET tumors, with light microscopic and immunohistochemical overlap. Awareness of this potential pitfall may aid in preventing a misdiagnosis. Its recognition is of major concern, especially for the poorly differentiated variant, because it is associated with a worse prognosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 24:283,288, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Flow cytometry peripheral blood micronucleus test in vivo: Determination of potential thresholds for aneuploidy induced by spindle poisons

    Zoryana Cammerer
    Abstract Non-DNA binding genotoxins (e.g., aneugens), unlike DNA-binding genotoxins, are theoretically expected to show thresholded concentration-effect response curves. This is a major issue in genetic toxicology testing because the identification of thresholds in vivo can provide a safety margin for exposure to a particular compound. In the current study we measured micronucleus induction by flow cytometry to determine the dose-response curves for tubulin interacting agents, a specific class of aneugens. All experiments with aneugens, which include colchicine, vinblastine, vincristine, as well as the clastogen cyclophosphamide (CP) were performed in mice to avoid the splenic elimination of micronucleated reticulocytes, which has been described in rats. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a non-linear dose-dependent increase in micronuclei frequencies for all tested aneugens, and a linear dose response curve for the clastogen, CP. To determine whether micronucleus induction at higher doses was due to chromosome loss (aneuploidy) or chromosome breakage (clastogenicity), flow sorting of the micronucleated reticulocytes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a mouse pan centromeric probe were performed for vinblastine, vincristine, and colchicine. Statistical evaluation of the flow cytometry and FISH data was performed to determine the threshold levels for chromosome loss in vivo. The threshold concentrations for vinblastine, vincristine, and colchicine were found at 0.35, 0.017, and 0.49 mg kg,1, respectively. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Folate deficiency in human peripheral blood lymphocytes induces chromosome 8 aneuploidy but this effect is not modified by riboflavin

    Juan Ni
    Abstract Chromosome 8 aneuploidy is a common event in certain cancers but whether folate (F) deficiency induces chromosome 8 aneuploidy is not known. Furthermore the impact of riboflavin (R) deficiency, which may alter activity of a key enzyme in folate metabolism, on these events is unknown. Therefore, the aim of our research was to test the following hypotheses: (a) F deficiency induces chromosome 8 aneuploidy; (b) chromosome 8 aneuploidy is affected by F deficiency to a similar degree as chromosome 17 and (c) R deficiency aggravates the risk of aneuploidy caused by F deficiency. These hypotheses were tested in long-term cultures of lymphocytes from twenty female healthy volunteers (aged 30,48 years). Lymphocytes were cultured in each of the four possible combinations of low (L) and high (H) F (LF, 20 nmol/L, HF 200 nmol/L, respectively) and L and H R (LR 1 nmol/L, HR 500 nmol/L, respectively) media (LFLR, LFHR, HFLR, HFHR) for 9 days. Chromosomes 8 and 17 aneuploidy was measured in mononucleated (MONO) and cytokinesis-blocked binucleated (BN) cells using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with fluorescent centromeric probes specific for chromosomes 8 and 17. Culture in LF media (LFLR or LFHR) induced significant and similar increases in frequencies of aneuploidy of chromosomes 8 and 17 (P < 0.001) relative to culture in HF media (HFLR or HFHR). There was no significant effect of R concentration on aneuploidy frequency for either chromosome. We conclude that F deficiency is a possible cause of chromosome 8 aneuploidy. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Etoposide and merbarone are clastogenic and aneugenic in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test complemented by fluorescence in situ hybridization with the mouse minor satellite DNA probe

    S.M. Attia
    Abstract The topoisomerase II (topo II) inhibitors etoposide (VP-16) and merbarone (MER) were investigated with the in vivo micronucleus test (MN test) combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the mouse minor satellite DNA probe to discriminate MN of clastogenic and aneugenic origin. All experiments were performed with male (102/ElxC3H/El) F1 mice bred in the mouse colony of the GSF Research Center. The sample size per experimental group was five animals and 2,000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) were scored per animal from coded slides in the conventional MN test. A separate set of coded slides was used for the FISH analysis. All treatments consisted of single intraperitoneal injections. Colchicine (COL, 3 mg/kg) and mitomycin (MMC, 1 mg/kg) were used as a positive control aneugen and clastogen, respectively, and these compounds produced the expected responses. A dose of 1 mg/kg VP-16 induced 3.44% MNPCE (compared to the concurrent solvent control of 0.37%, P < 0.001) and of these 39.9% (1.4% MNPCE) showed one or more fluorescent signals. MER (7.5,60 mg/kg) increased the MNPCE frequencies in a dose-dependent manner, with 15 mg/kg being the lowest positive dose. At the highest dose of 60 mg/kg of MER, a total of 4.26% MNPCE were found (compared to 0.31% in the concurrent solvent control, P < 0.001) and of these 46.2% (2.0% MNPCE) contained one or more fluorescent signals. The data demonstrate that VP-16 and MER induced both clastogenic and aneugenic events despite their different modes of topo II inhibition. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 41:99,103, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Detection of denitrification genes by in situ rolling circle amplification-fluorescence in situ hybridization to link metabolic potential with identity inside bacterial cells

    Tatsuhiko Hoshino
    Summary A target-primed in situ rolling circle amplification (in situ RCA) protocol was developed for detection of single-copy genes inside bacterial cells and optimized with Pseudomonas stutzeri, targeting nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase genes (nirS and nosZ). Two padlock probes were designed per gene to target both DNA strands; the target DNA was cut by a restriction endonuclease close to the probe binding sites, which subsequently were made accessible by 5,-3, exonucleolysis. After hybridization, the padlock probe was circularized by ligation and served as template for in situ RCA, primed by the probe target site. Finally, the RCA product inside the cells was detected by standard fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The optimized protocol showed high specificity and signal-to-noise ratio but low detection frequency (up to 15% for single-copy genes and up to 43% for the multi-copy 16S rRNA gene). Nevertheless, multiple genes (nirS and nosZ; nirS and the 16S rRNA gene) could be detected simultaneously in P. stutzeri. Environmental application of in situ RCA-FISH was demonstrated on activated sludge by the differential detection of two types of nirS -defined denitrifiers; one of them was identified as Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis by combining in situ RCA-FISH with 16S rRNA-targeted FISH. While not suitable for quantification because of its low detection frequency, in situ RCA-FISH will allow to link metabolic potential with 16S rRNA (gene)-based identification of single microbial cells. [source]

    Multiple bacterial symbionts in two species of co-occurring gutless oligochaete worms from Mediterranean sea grass sediments

    Caroline Ruehland
    Summary Gutless oligochaete worms are found worldwide in the pore waters of marine sediments and live in symbiosis with chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the Mediterranean, two species of gutless oligochaete worms, Olavius algarvensis and O. ilvae, co-occur in sediments around sea grass beds. These sediments have extremely low sulfide concentrations (< 1 ,M), raising the question if O. ilvae, as shown previously for O. algarvensis, also harbours sulfate-reducing symbionts that provide its sulfur-oxidizing symbionts with reduced sulfur compounds. In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative sequence analysis of genes for 16S rRNA, sulfur metabolism (aprA and dsrAB), and autotrophic carbon fixation (cbbL) to examine the microbial community of O. ilvae and re-examine the O. algarvensis symbiosis. In addition to the four previously described symbionts of O. algarvensis, in this study a fifth symbiont belonging to the Spirochaetes was found in these hosts. The symbiotic community of O. ilvae was similar to that of O. algarvensis and also included two gammaproteobacterial sulfur oxidizers and two deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers, but not a spirochete. The phylogenetic and metabolic similarity of the symbiotic communities in these two co-occurring host species that are not closely related to each other indicates that syntrophic sulfur cycling provides a strong selective advantage to these worms in their sulfide-poor environment. [source]

    Abundance and activity of Chloroflexi -type SAR202 bacterioplankton in the meso- and bathypelagic waters of the (sub)tropical Atlantic

    Marta M. Varela
    Summary The contribution of Chloroflexi -type SAR202 cells to total picoplankton and bacterial abundance and uptake of d - and l -aspartic acids (Asp) was determined in the different meso- and bathypelagic water masses of the (sub)tropical Atlantic (from 35°N to 5°S). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the overall abundance of SAR202 was , 1 × 103 cells ml,1 in subsurface waters (100 m layer), increasing in the mesopelagic zone to 3 × 103 cells ml,1 and remaining fairly constant down to 4000 m depth. Overall, the percentage of total picoplankton identified as SAR202 increased from < 1% in subsurface waters to 10,20% in the bathypelagic waters. On average, members of the SAR202 cluster accounted for about 30% of the Bacteria in the bathypelagic waters, whereas in the mesopelagic and subsurface waters, SAR202 cells contributed < 5% to total bacterial abundance. The ratio of d -Asp : l -Asp uptake by the bulk picoplankton community increased from the subsurface layer (d -Asp : l -Asp uptake ratio , 0.03) to the deeper layers reaching a ratio of ,1 at 4000 m depth. Combining FISH with microautoradiography to determine the proportion of SAR202 cells taking up d -Asp versus l -Asp, we found that ,,30% of the SAR202 cells were taking up l -Asp throughout the water column while d -Asp was essentially not taken up by SAR202. This d -Asp : l -Asp uptake pattern of SAR202 cells is in contrast to that of the bulk bacterial and crenarchaeal community in the bathypelagic ocean, both sustaining a higher fraction of d -Asp-positive cells than l -Asp-positive cells. Thus, although the Chloroflexi -type SAR202 constitutes a major bathypelagic bacterial cluster, it does not contribute to the large fraction of d -Asp utilizing prokaryotic community in the meso- and bathypelagic waters of the North Atlantic, but rather utilizes preferentially l -amino acids. [source]

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the interactions between honeybee larvae and Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood of honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    Dominique Yue
    Summary American foulbrood (AFB) is a bacterial disease of honeybee larvae caused by the spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Although AFB and its aetiological agent are described now for more than a century, the general and molecular pathogenesis of this notifiable disease is poorly understood. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) performed with P. larvae -specific, 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes to analyse the early steps in the pathogenesis of American foulbrood. The following chain of events could be demonstrated: (i) the spores germinate in the midgut lumen, (ii) the vegetative bacteria massively proliferate within the midgut before, and (iii) they start to locally breach the epithelium and invade the haemocoel. The paracellular route was shown to be the main mechanism for invasion contrasting earlier hypotheses of phagocytosis of P. larvae. Invasion coincided with the death of the host implicating that the penetration of the midgut epithelium is a critical step determining the time of death. [source]

    Fungal rDNA signatures in coronary atherosclerotic plaques

    Stephan J. Ott
    Summary Bacterial DNA has been found in coronary plaques and it has therefore been concluded that bacteria may play a role as trigger factors in the chronic inflammatory process underlying coronary atherosclerosis. However, the microbial spectrum is complex and it is not known whether microorganisms other than bacteria are involved in coronary disease. Fungal 18S rDNA signatures were systematically investigated in atherosclerotic tissue obtained through catheter-based atherectomy of 38 patients and controls (unaffected coronary arteries) using clone libraries, denaturating gradient gel analysis (DGGE), in situ hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Fungal DNA was found in 35 of 38 (92.11%) coronary heart disease patients by either polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with universal primers or in situ hybridization analysis (n = 5), but not in any control sample. In a clone library with more than 350 sequenced clones from pooled patient DNA, an overall richness of 19 different fungal phylotypes could be observed. Fungal profiles of coronary heart disease patients obtained by DGGE analysis showed a median richness of fungal species of 5 (range from 2 to 9) with a high interindividual variability (mean similarity 18.83%). For the first time, the presence of fungal components in atherosclerotic plaques has been demonstrated. Coronary atheromatous plaques harbour diverse and variable fungal communities suggesting a polymicrobial contribution to the chronic inflammatory aetiology. [source]

    Raman-FISH: combining stable-isotope Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization for the single cell analysis of identity and function

    Wei E. Huang
    Summary We have coupled fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with Raman microscopy for simultaneous cultivation-independent identification and determination of 13C incorporation into microbial cells. Highly resolved Raman confocal spectra were generated for individual cells which were grown in minimal medium where the ratio of 13C to 12C content of the sole carbon source was incrementally varied. Cells which were 13C-labelled through anabolic incorporation of the isotope exhibited key red-shifted spectral peaks, the calculated ,red shift ratio' (RSR) being highly correlated with the 13C-content of the cells. Subsequently, Raman instrumentation and FISH protocols were optimized to allow combined epifluorescence and Raman imaging of Fluos, Cy3 and Cy5-labelled microbial populations at the single cell level. Cellular 13C-content determinations exhibited good congruence between fresh cells and FISH hybridized cells indicating that spectral peaks, including phenylalanine resonance, which were used to determine 13C-labelling, were preserved during fixation and hybridization. In order to demonstrate the suitability of this technology for structure,function analyses in complex microbial communities, Raman-FISH was deployed to show the importance of Pseudomonas populations during naphthalene degradation in groundwater microcosms. Raman-FISH extends and complements current technologies such as FISH-microautoradiography and stable isotope probing in that it can be applied at the resolution of single cells in complex communities, is quantitative if suitable calibrations are performed, can be used with stable isotopes and has analysis times of typically 1 min per cell. [source]

    Microbial community structure of ethanol type fermentation in bio-hydrogen production

    Nanqi Ren
    Summary Three continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) were used for H2 production from molasses wastewater at influent pH of 6.0,6.5 (reactor A), 5.5,6.0 (reactor B), or 4.0,4.5 (reactor C). After operation for 28 days, the microbial community formed ethanol type (C), propionate type (A) and ethanol-butyrate-mixed type (B) fermentation. The H2 production rate was the highest for ethanol type fermentation, 0.40 l (g VSS),1 day,1 or 0.45 l H2 (g COD removed),1. Microbial community dynamics and diversity were analysed using double-gradient denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DG-DGGE). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles indicated that the community structures changed quickly in the first 14 days. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the dominant bacterial groups were low G+C Gram-positive bacteria, Bacteroides, ,-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria; ,-Proteobacteria, ,-Proteobacteria, ,-Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes were also presented as minor groups in the three reactors. H2 -producing bacteria were affiliated with Ethanoligenens, Acetanaerobacterium, Clostridium, Megasphaera, Citrobacter and Bacteroides. An ethanol-based H2 -producing bacterium, Ethanoligenens harbinense CGMCC1152, was isolated from reactor C and visualized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to be 19% of the eubacteria in reactor C. In addition, isoenzyme activity staining for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) supported that the majority of ethanol-producing bacteria were affiliated with Ethanoligenens in the microbial community. [source]

    Grazer and virus-induced mortality of bacterioplankton accelerates development of Flectobacillus populations in a freshwater community

    Karel, imek
    Summary We present a detailed analysis of the effects of distinct bacterial mortality factors, viral lysis and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) bacterivory, associated with the development of filamentous Flectobacillus populations. Reservoir bacterioplankton communities were subjected to additions of both HNF and viruses together, or HNF alone, and then incubated in situ in dialyses bags. For distinct bacterial groups, mortality or growth stimulation was analysed by examining bacterial prey ingested in HNF food vacuoles with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and via FISH with microautoradiography (MAR-FISH). We also developed a semi-quantitative MAR-FISH-based estimation of relative activities of Flectobacillus populations (targeted by the R-FL615 probe). Bacterial groups vulnerable to HNF predation (mainly clusters of Betaproteobacteria), or discriminated against (Actinobacteria), were detected. Bacterial lineages most vulnerable to virus-lysis (mainly the Betaproteobacteria not targeted by the R-BT065 probe, of the Polynucleobacter cluster) were identified by comparing treatments with HNF alone to HNF and viruses together. Filaments affiliated with the Flectobacillus cluster appeared in both treatments, but were about twice as abundant, long and active as in incubations with viruses and HNF as compared with HNF alone. Viruses appeared to selectively suppress several bacterial groups, perhaps enhancing substrate availability thus stimulating growth and activity of filamentous Flectobacillus. [source]

    A dual symbiosis shared by two mussel species, Bathymodiolus azoricus and Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae), from hydrothermal vents along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Sébastien Duperron
    Summary Bathymodiolus azoricus and Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis are symbiont-bearing mussels that dominate hydrothermal vent sites along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Both species live in symbiosis with two physiologically and phylogenetically distinct Gammaproteobacteria: a sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotroph and a methane-oxidizer. A detailed analysis of mussels collected from four MAR vent sites (Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike, Rainbow, and Logatchev) using comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that the two mussel species share highly similar to identical symbiont phylotypes. FISH observations of symbiont distribution and relative abundances showed no obvious differences between the two host species. In contrast, distinct differences in relative symbiont abundances were observed between mussels from different sites, indicating that vent chemistry may influence the relative abundance of thiotrophs and methanotrophs in these dual symbioses. [source]

    Ecophysiology of a group of uncultured Gammaproteobacterial glycogen-accumulating organisms in full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal wastewater treatment plants

    Yunhong Kong
    Summary The presence of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) plants can seriously deteriorate the biological P-removal by out-competing the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs). In this study, uncultured putative GAOs (the GB group, belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria) were investigated in detail in 12 full-scale EBPR plants. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the biovolume of the GB bacteria constituted 2,6% of total bacterial biovolume. At least six different subgroups of the GB bacteria were found, and the number of dominant subgroups present in each plant varied between one and five. Ecophysiological investigations using microautoradiography in combination with FISH showed that, under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, all subgroups of the GB bacteria could take up acetate, pyruvate, propionate and some amino acids, while some subgroups in addition could take up formate and thymidine. Glucose, ethanol, butyrate and several other organic substrates were not taken up. Glycolysis was essential for the anaerobic uptake of organic substrates. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) but not polyphosphate (polyP) granules were detected in all GB bacterial cells. Polyhydroxyalkanoate formation after anaerobic uptake of acetate was confirmed by measuring the increase in fluorescence intensity of PHA granules inside GB bacterial cells after Nile blue staining. One GB subgroup was possibly able to denitrify, and several others were able to reduce nitrate to nitrite. PAOs were also enumerated by FISH in the same treatment plants. Rhodocyclus -related PAOs and Actinobacteria -related PAOs constituted up to 7% and 29% of total bacterial biovolume respectively. Rhodocyclus -related PAOs always coexisted with the GB bacteria and showed many physiological similarities. Factors of importance for the competition between the three groups of important bacteria in EBPR plants are discussed. [source]

    In situ substrate conversion and assimilation by nitrifying bacteria in a model biofilm

    Armin Gieseke
    Summary Local nitrification and carbon assimilation activities were studied in situ in a model biofilm to investigate carbon yields and contribution of distinct populations to these activities. Immobilized microcolonies (related to Nitrosomonas europaea/eutropha, Nitrosomonas oligotropha, Nitrospira sp., and to other Bacteria) were incubated with [14C]-bicarbonate under different experimental conditions. Nitrifying activity was measured concomitantly with microsensors (oxygen, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate). Biofilm thin sections were subjected to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), microautoradiography (MAR), and local quantification of [14C]-bicarbonate uptake (beta microimaging). Nitrifying activity and tracer assimilation were restricted to a surface layer of different thickness in the various experiments (substrate or oxygen limitation). Excess oxygen uptake under all conditions revealed heterotrophic activity fuelled by decay or excretion products during active nitrification. Depth limits and intensity of tracer incorporation profiles were in agreement with ammonia-oxidation activity (measured with microsensors), and distribution of incorporated tracer (detected with MAR). Microautoradiography revealed a sharp individual response of distinct populations in terms of in-/activity depending on the (local) environmental conditions within the biofilm. Net in situ carbon yields on N, expressed as e, equivalent ratios, varied between 0.005 and 0.018, and, thus, were in the lower range of data reported for pure cultures of nitrifiers. [source]

    Marine diatom species harbour distinct bacterial communities

    Hans-Peter Grossart
    Summary We examined bacterial dynamics in batch cultures of two axenic marine diatoms (Thalassiosira rotula and Skeletonema costatum). The axenic diatoms were inoculated with natural bacterial assemblages and monitored by 4,6-diamidino-2-phenolindole (DAPI) counts, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with subsequent analysis of excised, sequenced 16S rRNA gene fragments, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with group-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes. Our results show that algal growth exhibited pronounced differences in axenic treatments and when bacteria were present. Bacterial abundance and community structure greatly depended on species, growth and physiological status of even closely related algae. Free-living and phytoplankton-associated bacteria were very different from each other and were dominated by distinct phylogenetic groups. The diatom-associated bacteria mainly belonged to the Flavobacteria,Sphingobacteria group of the Bacteroidetes phylum whereas free-living bacteria, which were rather similar in both cultures, comprised mainly of members of the Roseobacter,group ,of ,,- Proteobacteria. ,Presence and disappearance of specific bacteria during algal growth indicated pronounced differences in environmental conditions over time and selection of bacteria highly adapted to the changing conditions. Tight interactions between marine bacteria and diatoms appear to be important for the decomposition of organic matter and nutrient cycling in the sea. [source]

    Multiple species of the dinophagous dinoflagellate genus Amoebophrya infect the same host species

    Paulo S. Salomon
    Summary Populations of the dinoflagellate Dinophysis norvegica in the Baltic Sea and in the adjacent North Sea are infected by the endoparasite Amoebophrya sp. The high diversity recently unveiled within the genus Amoebophrya brings uncertainty about their identities. We applied molecular biology techniques , 18S rDNA sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) , to compare this host,parasite system from both environments. The North Sea Amoebophrya sp. 18S rDNA sequence was 89% identical to the previously described Baltic Sea Amoebophrya sp. sequence, suggesting they are different species. In spite of that, a phylogenetical analysis placed the North Sea parasite sequence in a well-supported cluster with other Amoebophrya sp. sequences. The D. norvegica 18S rDNA sequences from both environments were 100% identical, indicating that the hosts have not evolved independently. A DNA probe designed for the Baltic Sea Amoebophrya sp. 18S rRNA was used in FISH assays on infected D. norvegica populations from both environments. The probe stained all infected cells from the Baltic sample, whereas none from the North Sea were stained. The results indicate that D. norvegica is released from one parasite when entering the Baltic Sea, and become less infected by an alternative parasite species. [source]