Finance Systems (finance + system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

New York City's Campaign Finance System: Why Is the Best Hope for Reform Being Ignored?

Mark Schmitt
First page of article [source]

Key issues relating to decentralization at the provincial level of health management in Cambodia

Bunnan Men
Abstract The following study was conducted as part of a review of management systems at a Provincial Health Department (Kampong Cham Province) and a National Health Programme (National Immunization Program) in 2002,2003 in Cambodia. The aim of this paper is to identify, analyse and recommend those management system factors that are critical to the success of health management performance, with a particular focus on provincial management. The review has identified critical success factors associated with health management performance at the sub-national level that include a stronger role for effective human resource management in health sector reform, elevation of the status of planning in senior level management, and the development of a more comprehensive and transparent finance system. These success factors will position the provincial level of health management to respond more effectively to the reform challenges of administrative de-concentration and political decentralization that are currently underway across a range of government sectors in Cambodia. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Money, Elections, and Democracy in Brazil

David Samuels
ABSTRACT Brazil,s 1993 law requiring candidates to report their campaign contributions has generated a new source of data to explore the supposition that Brazilian elections are extraordinarily expensive. An examination of these data from Brazil,s 1994 and 1998 general elections reveals that most money for Brazilian electoral campaigns comes from business sources and that leftist candidates have extremely limited access to such financing. The effect on democracy is that Brazil,s largely unregulated campaign finance system tends to decrease the scope of interest representation. [source]

Overview of interventions to enhance primary-care provider management of patients with substance-use disorders

Abstract Issues. Despite the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions to manage substance use disorders, which are common presenting complaints in primary care, primary-care providers find managing substance use disorders a difficult business. This paper provides an overview of the evidence for interventions, including training and education programmes, in enhancing the management of alcohol- and tobacco-use disorders by health-care providers. Approach. The Cochrane Library and the database of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group were searched for answers to five questions: (i) Can education and training increase the involvement of primary care providers? (ii) Can education and training cause harm? (iii) Can education and training be enhanced with support and other organisational factors? (iv) Can finance systems change provider behaviour? and (v) Is political support needed? Key Findings. Education and training can increase the involvement of primary-care providers in managing alcohol- and tobacco-use disorders, with the impact enhanced by additional support and other organisational factors. There is some evidence that if education and training does not take account of providers' attitudes, then harm can be caused. There is limited evidence that finance systems can change provider behaviour, and that comprehensive policy, in which a health sector response is a part, can increase the potential of primary-care management of alcohol- and tobacco-use disorders. Conclusions. Tailored education and training programmes for the management of alcohol- and tobacco-use disorders need to be broadly implemented and embedded in overall comprehensive policies that provide the necessary organisational and financial incentives for enhancing provider behaviour. There is an urgent need to extend the evidence base on the impact of education and training and other strategies to increase the involvement of providers in managing substance-use disorders.[Anderson P. Overview of interventions to enhance primary-care provider management of patients with substance-use disorders. Drug Alcohol Rev 2009;28:567,574] [source]

Student Finance and Widening Participation in the British Isles: Common Problems, Different Solutions

Nick Adnett
Across the British Isles there are common forces encouraging an expansion of higher education (HE) while constraining the ability and willingness of governments to finance it. We examine the nature of these forces and conclude that together they are likely to lead over time to the general taxpayer funding a declining share of HE costs. While there are some potential efficiency and social equity benefits from reforms of student finance motivated by switching more of the costs towards students and their parents, the likely impact of these reforms on widening participation is unclear. We examine the current student finance systems in the British Isles and assess whether or not a system based upon income-contingent student loans, means-tested grants and targeted bursaries can deliver both the desired expansion and widening access. [source]

Reforming Budget Systems in Countries of the Former Soviet Union

John L. Mikesell
The countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) required considerable revision to their budget processes and procedures to establish systems consistent with transformation from controlled dependencies within a larger planned economy to independent governments of fledgling market-oriented democracies. This article considers the degree to which preexisting, reforming, and reformed budget systems in FSU countries deliver the basic expectations of a public sector resource allocation system. Evidence indicates failures to realign budgeting and finance systems designed for command and control environments to the demands of more market based economic systems, with effects often magnified by the hybrid economies of these transitional states. Significant difficulties and shortcomings in the ability of existing systems to perform basic public sector allocation, management, and control functions are the result, but some countries are ahead of others and their experience can guide reforms across the FSU. [source]

A Comparative Analysis of Political Communication Systems and Voter Turnout

Mijeong Baek
This article explores how political communication institutions affect cross-national differences in voter turnout in democratic elections. It demonstrates how the structure and means of conveying political messages,gauged by media systems, access to paid political television advertising, and campaign finance laws,explain variations in turnout across 74 countries. Relying on a "mobilization" perspective, I argue that institutional settings that reduce information costs for voters will increase turnout. The major empirical findings are twofold. First, campaign finance systems that allow more money (and electioneering communication) to enter election campaigns are associated with higher levels of voter turnout. Second, broadcasting systems and access to paid political television advertising explain cross-national variation in turnout, but their effects are more complex than initially expected. While public broadcasting clearly promotes higher levels of turnout, it also modifies the effect of paid advertising access on turnout. [source]