Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Feelings

  • negative feeling
  • own feeling
  • patient feeling
  • positive feeling
  • strong feeling
  • subjective feeling
  • suicidal feeling

  • Selected Abstracts


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 2 2002
    Michalinos Zembylas
    First page of article [source]


    Edmunds Valdem, rs Bunk
    ABSTRACT. This article is work-in-progress, an orientation of thought towards possibilities for individual human beings to diminish the distance between outer and inner landscapes imposed by cultural norms and happenstances such as exile. The dominance of visual landscapes and visual perceptions is seen as a pivotal problem, to be solved by the engagement of all the senses in landscape discourse and formation. All the senses are engaged in earliest childhood, as they have been in ,primitive' societies. While returning to either a state of childhood or primitivism is an impossible dream, it is possible to edge closer to human nature by engaging and honing all the senses, especially the ,earth-bound senses' of feel, smell and taste. Cultivating those senses and developing discourse about them, and incorporating them into landscape formation and enjoyment, is much more difficult than having a discourse about sight and hearing, for which there is a rich and well-developed symbolic language and which can be shared through various types of media. The way towards a deeper discourse about the earth-bound senses, and the way out of the tyranny of the visual, is to be found in stories, as several thinkers suggest. The story told is autobiographical and literary , a mode of geographic writing that I developed in a 2004 book (Bunk,e 2004a), in which the complex dilemmas of home and road were explored. This article shows how in the early 1970s I defined the individual's landscape as ,a unity in one's surroundings perceived through all the senses', with imagination as the key human faculty. And I tell the story of how through complex circumstances, a visually and emotionally repugnant landscape became emotionally and intellectually attractive, with a scent, not a picture or image causing the initial attraction. The external and internal landscapes are thus unified, resulting in a sense of timelessness and placelessness of deep existential significance for the person. [source]


    Elior Moreh MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    METAPHILOSOPHY, Issue 5 2006
    Abstract: The nature of fantasy has been little discussed, despite its importance in the arts. Its significance is brought out here in relation to the long-standing debate on the alleged paradox of fiction,that we respond emotionally to characters and events known to be unreal. Examination of the paradox shows it to be ill founded once the nature of fantasy is appreciated. Moreover, a detailed consideration of fantasy shows that it can itself provide a plausible account of our emotional reactions to creative literature, an account that, after a review of some possible objections, is then contrasted with the leading contemporary theories. [source]

    Once More With Feeling: Ethnographic Reflections on the Mediation of Tension in a Small Team of Call Centre Workers

    Matthew J. BrannanArticle first published online: 12 AUG 200
    This article explores the labour process of a team of call-centre workers based in a multi-client call centre in the West Midlands. Founded on the basis of a 13-month ethnographic study into workplace resistance in call-centre environments, this article provides insights into control in call centres, focusing on sexuality, internal team dynamics and discipline. It is argued that control is exerted through management and information technology but it is crucially exerted laterally in the team and sexuality is an important medium of such control. This article focuses specifically on how worker sexuality is deployed to regulate the tension between contradictory imperatives faced by workers. The article then considers the emotional content of the call-centre labour process, arguing that the apparent resolution of potentially contradictory logic, in fact, depends upon the development by call-centre workers, encouraged by more senior employees, of informal, pseudo-sexualized client relations at the point of production. Crucially however the fieldwork reveals that the demands placed upon customer service representatives are subtly gendered. [source]

    Feeling at home in nursing homes

    Anke J.E. De Veer PhD
    Feeling at home in nursing homes Aim.,The purpose of this study was to examine determinants of feeling at home and in particular the privacy in nursing homes in The Netherlands. The first question was to what extent nursing homes differed in the degree residents feel at home and experience privacy. The second question was whether feeling at home is related to privacy in the nursing homes. Background.,Feeling at home is of particular importance to residents of nursing homes because the average length of stay in The Netherlands is about 16 months. A growing number of people are of the opinion that the privacy of the residents has to be improved. Privacy in nursing homes, therefore, has been high on the political agenda over the last few years. Four aspects of privacy were distinguished: privacy related to the characteristics of the building, privacy as a consequence of the attitude of nurses towards residents, privacy in terms of choice and control over time schedules and activities, and privacy related to the amount of disturbance caused by other residents. Design.,The data were collected from individual interviews with 686 residents and family-members in 36 nursing homes in The Netherlands. Results.,Following quantitative data analysis, it was found that nursing homes differed in the proportion of residents feeling at home as well as in three aspects of privacy. Differences in feeling at home were found to be related to privacy, especially to the perceived attitudes of nurses and perceived disturbance caused by other residents. A weak relationship was found between residents and their perceived privacy of the building. Conclusions.,A significant amount of variation in privacy was found at the nursing home level. This implies that feeling at home is not only individually determined but can be influenced by the nursing home's management policy. [source]

    Impact of UK academic foundation programmes on aspirations to pursue a career in academia

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 10 2010
    Oliver T A Lyons
    Medical Education 2010: 44: 996,1005 Objectives, This study aimed to determine the role played by academic foundation programmes in influencing junior doctors' desire to pursue a career in academic medicine. Methods, We conducted an online questionnaire-based study of doctors who were enrolled on or had completed academic foundation programmes in the UK. There were 92 respondents (44 men, 48 women). Of these, 32 (35%) possessed a higher degree and 73 (79%) had undertaken a 4-month academic placement during Foundation Year 2. Outcomes were measured using Likert scale-based ordinal response data. Results, From a cohort of 115 academic foundation trainees directly contacted, 46 replies were obtained (40% response rate). A further 46 responses were obtained via indirect notification through local programme directors. From the combined responses, the majority (77%) wished to pursue a career in academia at the end of the academic Foundation Year (acFY) programme. Feeling well informed about academic careers (odds ratio [OR] 16.9, p = 0.005) and possessing a higher degree (OR 31.1, p = 0.013) were independently associated with an increased desire to continue in academia. Concern about reduced clinical experience whilst in academic training dissuaded from continuing in academia (OR 0.15, p = 0.026). Many respondents expressed concerns about autonomy, the organisation of the programme and the quantity and quality of academic teaching received. However, choice of work carried out during the academic block was the only variable independently associated with increasing the desire of respondents to pursue a career in academia following their experiences in the acFY programme (OR 6.3, p = 0.007). Conclusions, The results support the provision of well-organised academic training programmes that assist junior clinical academics in achieving clinical competencies whilst providing protected academic time, information about further academic training pathways and autonomy in their choice of academic work. [source]

    Feeling Misunderstood: A Concept Analysis

    NURSING FORUM, Issue 4 2008
    Barbara Backer Condon MS
    TOPIC.,Feeling misunderstood. PURPOSE.,The purpose of this study was to analyze the concept of feeling misunderstood to explicate the antecedents, attributes, and consequences of this phenomenon. SOURCE.,A comprehensive review of literature, from 1957 to 2005, was completed with the keywords feeling misunderstood to guide the search. CONCLUSIONS.,Three defining attributes of feeling misunderstood were identified: (a) disquietude; (b) discordant perceptions; and (c) heightened cognizance of emotions. Antecedents, including presence of an issue, communication barrier, and unexpected response from receiver, are explicated, along with the consequences, or transformations in behavior. [source]

    An interactive process model of psychosocial support needs for women living with breast cancer,

    PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Beth Marlow
    Psychosocial support is acknowledged as an important aspect of the care and recovery process for women diagnosed with breast cancer. To develop an understanding of support needs, a series of focus groups were conducted with a total of 80 Australian women living with breast cancer. The psychosocial needs identified in discussion were summarised into four main categories, Organisation of Care, Sense of Control, Validation of Experience and Feeling of Reassurance. From these themes an interactive model of psychosocial support needs was developed. As a process model it demonstrates that the provision of effective support is, necessarily, an integrated, not a piecemeal, process. The categories of support are broad, and are made more inclusive through interactions with each other, providing room to accommodate individual needs and styles of adjustment. The model is not esoteric or complicated , it is an accessible overview of the process for both client and helper. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Feeling, caring, knowing: different types of empathy deficit in boys with psychopathic tendencies and autism spectrum disorder

    Alice P. Jones
    Background:, Empathy dysfunction is one of the hallmarks of psychopathy, but it is also sometimes thought to characterise autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Individuals with either condition can appear uncaring towards others. This study set out to compare and contrast directly boys with psychopathic tendencies and boys with ASD on tasks assessing aspects of affective empathy and cognitive perspective taking. The main aim of the study was to assess whether a distinct profile of empathy deficits would emerge for boys with psychopathic tendencies and ASD, and whether empathy deficits would be associated with conduct problems in general, rather than psychopathic tendencies or ASD specifically. Methods:, Four groups of boys aged between 9 and 16 years (N = 96) were compared: 1) psychopathic tendencies, 2) ASD, 3) conduct problems and 4) comparison. Tasks were included to probe attribution of emotions to self, empathy for victims of aggression and cognitive perspective-taking ability. Results:, Boys with psychopathic tendencies had a profile consistent with dysfunctional affective empathy. They reported experiencing less fear and less empathy for victims of aggression than comparison boys. Their cognitive perspective-taking abilities were not statistically significantly different from those of comparison boys. In contrast, boys with ASD had difficulties with tasks requiring cognitive perspective taking, but reported emotional experiences and victim empathy that were in line with comparison boys. Boys with conduct problems did not differ from comparison boys, suggesting that the affective empathy deficit seen in boys with psychopathic tendencies was specific to that group, rather than common to all boys with conduct problems. Conclusions:, Although both groups can appear uncaring, our findings suggest that the affective/information processing correlates of psychopathic tendencies and ASD are quite different. Psychopathic tendencies are associated with difficulties in resonating with other people's distress, whereas ASD is characterised by difficulties in knowing what other people think. [source]

    "This Great Emptiness We Are Feeling": Toward a Decolonization of Schooling in Simunurwa, Colombia

    Luz A. MurilloArticle first published online: 14 DEC 200
    This article examines the decolonization of schooling in an Arhuaco community in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta region of Colombia. Interweaving ethnographic description with accounts of key events that took place between 1915 and 2006, I trace the community's struggle to develop an Indigenous school capable of appropriating Western forms of knowledge while retaining Indigenous practices and beliefs. I describe how Indigenous educators incorporate local forms of knowledge into schooling, and how these are presented and understood relative to the structures and discourses of the colonized school. Using the concepts of "translocality" and "transculturation," I frame this discussion of the struggle for educational autonomy within broader efforts to decolonize knowledge and epistemologies inherited from European traditions and the Colombian state. I argue that educators have transformed the school from a colonizing space to one in which Indigenous people contest and negotiate, via practices of cultural and linguistic revitalization, the state violence that threatens to surround them.,[Arhuaco, Colombia, decolonization, Indigenous education, local knowledge, transculturation, translocality] [source]

    Perceptions of Body Malleability: Linkages With Body-Related Feelings and Behaviors Among Undergraduate Women and Men

    Jennifer Paff Ogle
    This study explored the utility of body-related behaviors, body attitudes, normative beliefs, and body mass index (BMI) in predicting perceptions of malleability and the utility of body attitude, subjective norms, perceptions of malleability, and BMI in predicting desires to change the body and attempts to change the body. Aquestionnaire was administered to undergraduates. Regression analyses suggested that female and male perceptions of malleability were predicted by attempts to change the body. Among females, body attitudes and normative beliefs about siblings and friends predicted perceptions of malleability. For both females andmales, adding perceptions of malleability to a regression model including body attitude and subjective norm increased the variance explained in desire and attempts to change the body. BMI did not predict perceptions of malleability, desire to change the body, or attempts to change the body. [source]

    Vulvar Pain: A Phenomenological Study of Couples in Search of Effective Diagnosis and Treatment

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2008
    Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS), a vulvar pain disorder, continues to puzzle medical and mental health professionals due to its unknown etiology and lack of effective treatment. This study used transcendental phenomenology methodology to explore the experiences of couples in which the woman has a diagnosis of VVS. Sixteen in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 heterosexual couples and 3 women. Four essences emerged: (1) In search of, the medical journey required extensive searching for knowledgeable and respectful practitioners to provide treatment. (2) The process of developing a personal understanding of this disorder led many couples to question their role in causing and maintaining VVS. (3) Developing strategies for coping with painful intercourse led to three strategies: becoming non-sexual, using alternatives to vaginal sex, and altering or enduring painful intercourse. (4) Feelings of isolation were experienced as adapting to this chronic pain syndrome was often a lonely process. Clinical suggestions included: treating the couple, not just the woman with VVS; encouraging couples to broaden definitions about the importance and primacy of vaginal intercourse and suggest alternative sexual activities less likely to cause vulvar pain; developing shared meaning as a couple, and assisting couples in locating physicians and resources. Suggestions are relevant for couples with VVS and those with chronic health problems affecting sexual relationships. RESUMEN Dolor vulvar: estudio fenomenológico de parejas que buscan un diagnóstico y tratamiento efectivos El síndrome de vestibulitis vulvar (svv), un trastono de dolor vulvar, continúa dejando perplejos a los profesionales de la salud física y mental debido a su etiología desconocida y a la inexistencia de un tratamiento efectivo. Este estudio utilizó metodología fenomenológica experimental para explorar las experiencias de parejas en que a la mujer se le ha diagnosticado el svv. Se llevaron a cabo dieciséis entrevistas (en profundidad y semiestructuradas) con 13 parejas heterosexuales y 3 mujeres, de las que se obtuvieron cuatro conclusiones esenciales: (1) En busca de , la investigación médica requería una búsqueda más exhaustiva de médicos eruditos y respetuosos que aportasen un tratamiento. (2) El proceso de desarrollar una comprensión personal del trastorno condujo a varias parejas a plantearse su papel en la causa y la prolongación del svv. (3) Desarrollar estrategias para afrontar un coito doloroso condujo a tres estrategias: prescindir del sexo, optar por alternativas al sexo vaginal y modificar o soportar el coito doloroso. (4) Se experimentaron sensaciones de aislamiento, pues el proceso de adaptación a este síndrome de dolor crónico resultó, a menudo, un proceso solitario. Entre los consejos clínicos se incluyen tratar a la pareja, y no sólo a la mujer con svv; animar a las parejas a ampliar las definiciones de la importancia y preferencia por el coito vaginal, así como sugerir actividades sexuales con menor riesgo de causar dolor vulvar; desarrollar un significado común como pareja; y ayudar a las parejas a encontrar médicos y recursos. Palabras clave: síndrome de vestibulitis vulvar; dolor vulvar; terapia de pareja. [source]

    Links between Community Violence and the Family System: Evidence from Children's Feelings of Relatedness and Perceptions of Parent Behavior,

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 3 2002
    Michael Lynch Ph.D.
    In this study, we examined some of the ways in which broader ecological systems may influence the organization of behavior within the family system. Specifically, links between exposure to community violence and children's relationships with maternal caregivers were investigated in a sample of 127 urban children between the ages of 7 and 13 years. Children were asked to indicate whether they had been exposed to a wide variety of violent events. In addition, their feelings of relatedness and separation anxiety, and their perceptions of maternal behavior were assessed. It was expected that exposure to community violence would be associated with feeling less secure with caregivers. Consistent with predictions from ecological-transactional theory, data supported this hypothesis. Children who reported that they had been exposed to high levels of community violence also indicated that they felt less positive affect when with their caregiver, were dissatisfied with how close they felt to her, felt more separation anxiety, and reported more negative maternal behavior than children exposed to less violence. Findings are discussed in terms of how violence may affect the family system and the protective function of human attachment. [source]

    Chronic medical problems and distressful thoughts of suicide in primary care patients: mitigating role of happiness

    Jameson K. Hirsch
    Abstract Objective Chronic medical problems might amplify suicide risk in later life. Feelings of happiness may reduce this risk. We tested the hypothesis that happiness attenuates the association between number of self-reported chronic diseases and suicidal distress. Methods A sample of 1,801 depressed, primary care patients, 60 years of age or older, entering a clinical trial, were assessed for the presence of positive emotion, suicidal distress and self-reported chronic medical problems. Results Chronic medical problems are associated with suicide ideation and, as hypothesized, happiness attenuates the relationship between self-reported diseases and suicidal distress. Conclusions Decreased risk for distressing thoughts of suicide in the context of medical illness is predicted by the presence of positive emotions. Our results suggest that treatments designed to help older primary care patients identify sources of joy and enhance happiness might decrease suicide risk. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Factor structure of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia among Japanese poststroke patients

    Andrea S. Schreiner
    Abstract Background The present study reports on the first translation and use of the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) (Alexopoulos, Abrams, Young, & Shamoian, 1988) among poststroke patients (n,=,101) in Japan. Objectives The study had three main purposes: 1. To examine the factor structure of the CSDD among Japanese poststroke patients; 2. To compare this with the factor structure identified for Anglo-American Alzheimer's (AD) patients; and 3. To examine the prevalence and covariates of depressive symptoms among the Japanese stroke survivors. Methods Poststroke patients and their caregivers (n,=,202), at a random sample of neurological hospitals in western Japan, were interviewed using the study instruments. Data was also collected from patient charts. All subjects at each site who met the study criteria participated in the study. Results The four-factor solution for poststroke subjects was analogous to that found among AD patients with 2 main exceptions. In contrast to AD patients: 1. Physical complaints were unrelated to depressed mood in stroke patients; and 2. Agitation and psychosis loaded with depressed mood in stroke patients rather than as a separate unique factor as in AD patients. However, in the exploratory 5-factor model, agitation and suicidal ideation comprised a unique factor. Using standard cutoff scores for the CSDD, 58.2% of poststroke patients had scores suggesting possible depression. CSDD scores were not related to functional ability, or stroke characteristics such as aphasia or right or left-sided paralysis. However, scores were significantly higher among subjects,2 years poststroke. Feelings of irritability, anxiety, sadness, and sleep problems were most prevalent. Discussion Despite the prevalence of depressive symptoms, none of the subjects were currently receiving any mental health treatment. Findings suggest that symptoms differ by poststroke duration, which may necessitate different treatment approaches. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The meaning of guilt and shame: A qualitative study of mothers who suffer from eating difficulties

    Kristine Rørtveit
    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to illuminate and interpret guilt and shame expressed by mothers with eating difficulties (ED). The research question was: What is the meaning of guilt and shame experienced by mothers with ED? Experiences of guilt and shame in mothers with ED may be strong, yet concealed, and should be addressed when promoting women's mental health. The study design was explorative, and in-depth interviews were conducted with eight mothers suffering from ED. The data were analysed by means of qualitative content analysis and interpreted according to a hermeneutic approach. The main theme ,Struggling in silence with guilt and shame as a mother living with ED and trying to keep it secret' was interpreted on two levels: emotional, ,Feeling worried about failure and wanting to be successful', and cognitive, ,Having condemning thoughts about one's own sense of responsibility'. In addition, each theme contained two subthemes. Feelings and awareness of guilt and shame are strong; they vary between individuals and are intensified in mothers who suffer from ED. It is important for mental health nurses to help mothers with ED articulate such feelings in order to promote health. [source]

    Morbidity following dental treatment of children under intubation general anaesthesia in a day-stay unit

    S. Atan
    Summary. Objectives., To determine which variables were best related to the overall morbidity of a child undergoing dental general anaesthetic (GA) and then to use these variables to determine those factors that might influence the extent and severity of morbidity experienced by healthy children following dental GA. Sample and methods., Data were collected on anxiety, pain and morbidity, GA procedure and dental procedure from 121 children attending a day stay GA unit for dental treatment. Patients were interviewed preoperatively, postoperatively before discharge then four further times over the next 148 h. Data were analysed using multivariate regression. Results., Thirty-one per cent of subjects had restorative work, 60% had at least one tooth extracted, 54% had a surgical procedure. Use of local analgesia reduced postoperative pain whilst an increase in the number of surgical procedures increased it. Increase in anaesthetic time was related to increased odds of feeling sleepy and nauseous, females were more likely to complain of sleepiness or weakness. Feelings of dizziness were increased if the patient was given local analgesia during the procedure. Conclusions., Pain following dental GA was the most prevalent and long lasting symptom of postoperative morbidity in this study. Reductions in operating time and improvement in pain control have the potential to reduce reported morbidity following dental GA. [source]

    Developing a Chinese quality of life in dementia instrument for patients with early-to-moderate dementia: an exploratory test of validity

    Yi-Chen Chiu
    Aims., The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese Dementia Quality of Life instrument, which included testing the different pathways through theoretical quality of life domains (self-esteem, feelings of belonging and sense of aesthetics) to reach outcomes of positive and negative affect. Background., Perceived quality of life in dementia has been conceptualised based on dementia stages. However, the relationships among quality of life domains are unclear in patients with dementia with a Mini-Mental State Examination >10. Design., Cross-sectional study. Methods., Older people (n = 110) were consecutively recruited from memory disorder clinics and community wellness centres (controls). Of these participants, 27 were controls, 39 were diagnosed with questionable dementia and 44 with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. The instrument was back translated and validated. Results., The instrument has good overall internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0·84,0·94). Item-total correlation coefficients, indicating construct validity, were all significant, except for one item. anova showed that controls, patients with questionable dementia and those with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease differed significantly in scores on Sense of Aesthetics subscale. Instrument total score and scores on three of five subscales (not Feelings of Belonging) differed significantly between control and dementia groups, but not between patients with questionable dementia and those with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. Factor analyses showed two inconsistencies with the instrument's prior conceptualisation, namely the Self-Esteem and Negative Affect subscales. The Positive Affect path model was supported but not the Negative Affect path model. Conclusions., This patient-reported Dementia Quality of Life instrument has acceptable psychometric properties in Taiwanese patients with dementia with a Mini-Mental State Examination score >10. Relevance to clinical practice., The Chinese Dementia Quality of Life instrument can be used to assess subjective quality of life in Taiwanese patients with dementia with a Mini-Mental State Examination score >10. [source]

    Psychometric evaluation of the body investment scale for use with adolescents

    Augustine Osman
    Abstract We conducted two studies to examine the psychometric properties of the Body Investment Scale (BIS; Orbach & Mikulincer, 1998) in U.S. adolescent samples. The BIS was designed to assess bodily experiences that are associated with suicide-related behaviors. In Study 1, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with data from a combined sample of 204 high school adolescents (83 boys, 121 girls) and 197 psychiatric inpatient (101 boys, 96 girls) adolescents provided moderate support for the oblique four-factor solution: Body Feelings (,=.86, 95% CI=.83,.89), Body Touch (,=.71, 95% CI=.65,.76), Body Care (,=.78, 95% CI=.71,.81), and Body Protection (,=.78, 95% CI=.73,.82); robust comparative fit index=.88 and the robust Tucker Lewis Index=.83. The second-order factor model also provided moderate fit to the data. In Study 2, results of the CFA with data from adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N=205; 101 boys, 104 girls) provided additional support for the four-factor solution. In addition, results of the receiver operating characteristic and logistic regression analyses showed that scores on the Body Feelings and Body Protection scales were most useful in differentiating the responses of suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents, all Cohen's d values >.30. The study also examined associations between scores on the BIS scales and the validation self-report measures of hopelessness, suicide-related behavior, and reasons for living. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 66: 259,276, 2010. [source]

    Feelings in context: Countertransference and the real world in feminist therapy

    Laura S. Brown
    The concept of countertransference has been seen as problematic by feminist therapists. However, feminist therapy theory is intensely interested in the symbolic levels of the relationships between therapists and clients, with an emphasis on how the here and now social context informs and transforms those symbols. This article describes a feminist perspective on the therapist's symbolic relationships to clients, and the positive and challenging ramifications of those symbolic encounters. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol/In Session 57: 1005,1012, 2001. [source]

    Alcohol-related violence defined by ultimate goals: a qualitative analysis of the features of three different types of violence by intoxicated young male offenders

    Mary McMurran
    Abstract Based upon a functional approach to understanding aggression, we aimed to identify the occurrence of and to describe the features of three types of alcohol-related violence defined a priori by ultimate goals: (1) violence in pursuit of nonsocial profit-based goals, (2) violence in pursuit of social dominance goals, and (3) violence as defence in response to threat. A sample of 149 young men with offences of violence that were alcohol related was interviewed. Cases were classified and detailed information from the first ten cases in each class (N=30) was subjected to thematic analysis. Intoxicated violence in pursuit of nonsocial profit-based goals was opportunistic and motivated by the desire for more alcohol or drugs. Violence, in these cases, although serious, appeared to be brief. Intoxicated violence in pursuit of social dominance goals was typically precipitated by past or current insult or injury, and was accompanied by strong anger and an adrenaline rush. Attacks were ferocious, and robbing the victim was not uncommon, perhaps to inflict additional humiliation. Feelings of pride and satisfaction were typical and expressions of remorse were uncommon. Regarding intoxicated violence as defence in response to threat, attacks were often expected, and in some cases the respondent made a pre-emptive strike. Weapon use was common in this group. Fear was experienced, but so too was anger. Feelings of excitement were not reported and remorse was common. Further validation of these types is warranted, and the potential implications of these findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 36:67,79, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Hostility- and gender-related differences in oscillatory responses to emotional facial expressions

    Gennady G. Knyazev
    Abstract Hostility is associated with biases in the perception of emotional facial expressions, such that ambiguous or neutral expressions tend to be perceived as threatening or angry. In this study, the effects of hostility and gender on the perception of angry, neutral, and happy faces and on the oscillatory dynamics of cortical responses elicited by these presentations were investigated using time,frequency decomposition by means of wavelet transforms. Feelings of hostility predisposed subjects to perceive happy and neutral faces as less friendly. This effect was more pronounced in women. In hostile subjects, presentation of emotional facial expressions also evoked stronger posterior synchronization in the theta and diminished desynchronization in the alpha band. This may signify a prevalence of emotional responding over cognitive processing. These effects were also more pronounced in females. Hostile females, but not hostile males, additionally showed a widespread synchronization in the alpha band. This synchronization is tentatively explained as a manifestation of inhibitory control which is present in aggressive females, but not in aggressive males. Aggr. Behav. 35:502,513, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mentoring relationships for youth: Investigation of a process-oriented model

    Gilbert R. Parra
    We investigated a process-oriented model of mentoring using data on 50 relationships in a Big Brothers/Big Sisters program. Data were collected on a monthly basis from both mentors and youth over a one-year period; relationship benefits for youth were assessed at the end of the year by each type of informant. The degree to which relationships were continued throughout the one-year period also was assessed. Path analyses using both youth and mentor report data revealed relations among study variables consistent with the proposed model. Mentors' ratings of their efficacy, obtained prior to the start of relationships, predicted greater amounts of mentor/youth contact as well as more positive experiences in relationships (e.g., fewer obstacles). Feelings of closeness between mentors and youth, in turn, were a final common component in model pathways that linked mentor/youth contact and most other measures to greater perceived benefits and relationship continuation. Implications for the design and evaluation of mentoring programs for youth are discussed. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Social status and shaming experiences related to adolescent overt aggression at school

    Cecilia Åslund
    Abstract Feelings of rejection and humiliation in interpersonal interaction are strongly related to aggressive behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between social status, shaming experiences, gender and adolescent aggressive behavior by using a status,shaming model. A population-based sample of 5,396 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 completed a questionnaire that asked questions regarding psychosocial background, shaming experiences, social status of family, peer group and school and involvement in physical or verbal aggression at school. Shaming experiences, i.e. being ridiculed or humiliated by others, were strongly related to aggressive behavior. Social status and shaming were related in the prediction of aggressive behavior, suggesting that a person's social status may influence the risk for taking aggressive action when subjected to shaming experiences. Medium social status seemed to have a protective function in the association between shaming experiences and aggression. This study confirms the importance of further evaluation of the role of perceived social status and shaming experiences in the understanding of aggressive behavior. Moreover, the results indicate the need for different kinds of status measures when investigating the associations between status and behavior in adolescent populations. The results may have important implications for the prevention of bullying at school as well as other deviant aggressive behavior among adolescents. Aggr. Behav. 35:1,13, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Role of Feelings in Investor Decision-Making

    Brian M. Lucey
    Abstract., This paper surveys the research on the influence of investor feelings on equity pricing and also develops a theoretical basis with which to understand the emerging findings of this area. The theoretical basis is developed with reference to research in the fields of economic psychology and decision-making. Recent advancements in understanding how feelings affect the general decision-making of individuals, especially under conditions of risk and uncertainty [e.g. Loewenstein et al. (2001). Psychological Bulletin 127: 267,286], are covered by the review. The theoretical basis is applied to analyze the existing research on investor feelings [e.g. Kamstra et al. (2000). American Economic Review (forthcoming); Hirshleifer and Shumway (2003). Journal of Finance 58 (3): 1009,1032]. This research can be broadly described as investigating whether variations in feelings that are widely experienced by people influence investor decision-making and, consequently, lead to predictable patterns in equity pricing. The paper concludes by suggesting a number of directions for future empirical and theoretical research. [source]

    Struggling with an unfamiliar and unreliable body: the experience of irritable bowel syndrome

    Cecilia Håkanson MSc
    Aim., To describe the phenomenon living with irritable bowel syndrome from a life-world perspective. Background., Ten to twenty per cent of the adult population in the world is known to live with irritable bowel syndrome. The life-world experience of people with irritable bowel syndrome has been paid little attention. A deeper understanding about the phenomenon living with irritable bowel syndrome is of interest for the future development of care. Design and methods., The study was performed using a phenomenological method. Data was collected by in-depth, open interviews performed in 2006, with nine persons between 25,55 years, diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome. The interviews were analysed according to the method of Giorgi. Results., Six interrelated key constituents have been identified: Having an altered self-image, feeling ashamed, distrusting the body, feeling tired, blaming oneself, and finding solutions. A structure has been formulated, describing that living with irritable bowel syndrome means struggling with an unfamiliar and unreliable body. Tiredness, distrust, and feelings of shame towards the body bring about limitations in everyday life. At the same time, living with irritable bowel syndrome means having a strong will to exceed the limitations and become familiar with one self. Conclusion., This study suggests that living with irritable bowel syndrome means to struggle with an unfamiliar and unreliable body that brings about changes of self-image and limitations in every day life. Feelings of distrust, shame and embarrassment towards troublesome symptoms, are important contributions to the limitations experienced. Relevance to clinical practice., Nurses have a major role to play in the care for people with irritable bowel syndrome. A caring perspective, in which the life-world is central, is an important approach to care for these persons. Using the dialogue as a forum where patients can share their unique life-world experiences lets nurses gather knowledge that is essential in helping patients identify and acknowledge new and positive understandings of the lived body. [source]

    "A Disease of Frozen Feelings":

    Ethically Working on Emotional Worlds in a Russian Orthodox Church Drug Rehabilitation Program
    In a Russian Orthodox Church drug rehabilitation program in St. Petersburg, drug addiction was often described as a disease of frozen feelings. This image suggests that rehabilitation is a process of thawing emotional worlds and, thus, allows the emotions to flow once again. In this article I argue that "frozen feelings" is better understood as the unsocial emotional worlds many drug users experience, and that rehabilitation in this church-run program particularly focuses on the cultivation of an emotional world that supports sociality. This is done, I argue, by means of ethically training rehabilitants to learn how to control and manage their emotional worlds, and in so doing, rehabilitants become new moral persons better able to live in the social world. [source]

    Mixed Feelings: Conflicts in Emotional Responses to Film

    First page of article [source]

    Children's Knowledge, Beliefs and Feelings about Nations and National Groups: Essays in Developmental Psychology by Martyn Barrett