Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Feeding

  • ad libitum feeding
  • adult feeding
  • alcohol feeding
  • aphid feeding
  • artificial feeding
  • bottle feeding
  • breast feeding
  • cattle feeding
  • cholesterol feeding
  • chronic alcohol feeding
  • compensatory feeding
  • complementary feeding
  • continuous feeding
  • daily feeding
  • day feeding
  • early enteral feeding
  • early feeding
  • enteral feeding
  • ethanol feeding
  • exogenous feeding
  • female feeding
  • first feeding
  • fish feeding
  • formula feeding
  • gastrostomy feeding
  • herbivore feeding
  • high-fat feeding
  • infant feeding
  • initial feeding
  • insect feeding
  • larva feeding
  • larval feeding
  • libitum feeding
  • long-term feeding
  • milk feeding
  • normal feeding
  • oral feeding
  • precursor feeding
  • reduced feeding
  • restricted feeding
  • selective feeding
  • species feeding
  • supplemental feeding
  • supplementary feeding
  • tick feeding
  • time feeding
  • tube feeding
  • week feeding
  • winter feeding

  • Terms modified by Feeding

  • feeding activity
  • feeding adaptation
  • feeding aggregation
  • feeding apparatus
  • feeding area
  • feeding artery
  • feeding assistance
  • feeding behavior
  • feeding behaviour
  • feeding bout
  • feeding category
  • feeding condition
  • feeding damage
  • feeding deterrence
  • feeding deterrent
  • feeding difficulty
  • feeding disorders
  • feeding ecology
  • feeding efficiency
  • feeding environment
  • feeding event
  • feeding experiment
  • feeding frequency
  • feeding ground
  • feeding groups
  • feeding guild
  • feeding habit
  • feeding habitat
  • feeding history
  • feeding inhibition
  • feeding intensity
  • feeding interaction
  • feeding intolerance
  • feeding larva
  • feeding level
  • feeding locations
  • feeding mechanism
  • feeding method
  • feeding methods
  • feeding mode
  • feeding mouse
  • feeding network
  • feeding niche
  • feeding observation
  • feeding pattern
  • feeding performance
  • feeding period
  • feeding position
  • feeding practice
  • feeding preference
  • feeding problem
  • feeding process
  • feeding program
  • feeding programme
  • feeding rat
  • feeding rate
  • feeding regime
  • feeding regimen
  • feeding response
  • feeding schedule
  • feeding sequence
  • feeding site
  • feeding specialisation
  • feeding stage
  • feeding state
  • feeding stations
  • feeding status
  • feeding strategy
  • feeding structure
  • feeding studies
  • feeding study
  • feeding style
  • feeding success
  • feeding system
  • feeding technique
  • feeding time
  • feeding treatment
  • feeding trial
  • feeding trials
  • feeding trip
  • feeding tube
  • feeding tube placement
  • feeding tubes
  • feeding type
  • feeding value
  • feeding vessel

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT Maturing Atlantic mackerel with and without artificial feeding, kept in sea pens (September to May), showed differences in digestive efficiency (protease activity ratio of trypsin to chymotrypsin), muscle growth (concentrations of RNA, protein, RNA/protein ratio and free amino acids [FAA]) and oocyte quality (trypsin-like specific activity, and concentrations of RNA, RNA/protein ratio and FAA). The artificially fed mackerel had higher body weights (1.7 times) but with less white muscle protein concentration (0.5 time), compared to the control group. Both groups showed higher levels of capacity for protein synthesis in the oocytes than in the white muscle, but it was about two times higher in the artificially fed fish whereas about four times higher in the control group. This indicated that, during maturation, development of oocytes and muscle for growth occurred concurrently in higher growth mackerel, while development of oocytes dominated in slower growth fish. A higher trypsin-like specific activity with higher FAA levels in the oocytes from females fed with an artificial diet, compared to the control group, suggested differences in development and quality between the gametes of the fish with different feedings. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The work illustrates differences in digestive efficiency and the quality of growth performance (growth and protein metabolism in muscle and oocytes) in fish with different feedings. The use of various methods for evaluating digestive efficiency and the quality of fish growth performance could provide reasonable information for some important biological differences between fish groups, especially when the number of samples are low. It is more advantageous to apply different methods simultaneously than using growth parameter alone in order to study for precise evaluation of the quality of fish growth performance. The methods are very practical for studying food utilization and growth quality of fish in different environmental conditions and with different behaviors in aquaculture as well as in natural ecosystem where food consumption rate and feeding regime cannot be under control. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Myung Gil Park
    In summer to autumn of 2008, a recently described thecate mixotrophic dinoflagellate, Fragilidium duplocampanaeforme Nézan et Chomérat, occurred in Masan Bay, Korea, where it frequently contained bright-orange fluorescent inclusions. Using cultures of F. duplocampanaeforme isolated from Masan Bay, we investigated feeding, digestion, and prey specificity of this mixotroph. F. duplocampanaeforme fed exclusively on Dinophysis spp. when offered a variety of prey including dinoflagellates, a raphidophyte, a cryptophyte, a ciliate, and diatoms separately. In addition, F. duplocampanaeforme had allelopathic effects on other organisms, including cell immobilization/motility decrease (in Dinophysis acuminata, D. caudata, D. fortii, D. infundibulus, Gonyaulax polygramma, Heterocapsa triquetra, and Prorocentrum triestinum), breaking of cell chains (in Cochlodinium polykrikoides), cell death (in Prorocentrum minimum), and temporary cyst formation (in Scrippsiella trochoidea). F. duplocampanaeforme engulfed whole Dinophysis cells through the sulcus. About 1 h after ingestion, F. duplocampanaeforme became immobile and shed all thecal plates. The ecdysal cyst persisted for ,7 h, during which the ingested prey was gradually digested. These observations suggest that F. duplocampanaeforme may play an important role in the Dinophysis population dynamics in the field. [source]


    Iain M. Jones
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Review of Policies and Guidelines on Infant Feeding in Emergencies: Common Ground and Gaps

    DISASTERS, Issue 2 2001
    Andrew Seal
    Recent crises in regions where exclusive breastfeeding is not the norm have highlighted the importance of effective policies and guidelines on infant feeding in emergencies. In 1993, UNICEF compiled a collection of policy and guideline documents relating to the feeding of infants in emergency situations. In June 2000 Save the Children, UK, UNICEF and the Institute of Child Health undertook a review of those documents, updating the list and identifying the common ground that exists among the different policies. The review also analysed the consistency of the policy framework, and highlighted important areas where guidelines are missing or unclear. This article is an attempt to share more widely the main issues arising from this review. The key conclusions were that, in general, there is consensus on what constitutes best practice in infant feeding, however, the lack of clarity in the respective responsibilities of key UN agencies (in particular UNICEF, UNHCR and WFP) over issues relating to co-ordination of activities which affect infant-feeding interventions constrains the implementation of systems to support best practice. Furthermore, the weak evidence base on effective and appropriate intervention strategies for supporting optimal infant feeding in emergencies means that there is poor understanding of the practical tasks needed to support mothers and minimise infant morbidity and mortality. We, therefore, have two key recommendations: first that the operational UN agencies, primarily UNICEF, examine the options for improving co-ordination on a range of activities to uphold best practice of infant feeding in emergencies; second, that urgent attention be given to developing and supporting operational research on the promotion of optimal infant-feeding interventions. [source]

    From Policy to Practice: Challenges in Infant Feeding in Emergencies During the Balkan Crisis

    DISASTERS, Issue 2 2001
    Annalies Borrel
    The preparation and dissemination of policy statements are necessary but insufficient to prevent the inappropriate use of infant-feeding products in emergencies. The widespread failure of humanitarian agencies operating in the Balkan crisis to act in accordance with international policies and recommendations provides a recent example of the failure to translate infant-feeding policies into practice. This article explores the underlying reasons behind the failures which include: (1) the weak institutionalisation of policies; (2) the massive quantities of unsolicited donations of infant-feeding products; (3) the absence of monitoring systems; (4) inadequate co-ordination mechanisms; (5) the high costs of correcting mistakes; and (6) the cumulative effects of poor practice. Efforts to uphold best practice during the crisis are also documented. Finally, the article identifies actions that could be undertaken in advance of and during future emergencies to enhance the application of infant feeding policies in emergencies. [source]

    Feeding and breeding across host plants within a locality by the widespread thrips Frankliniella schultzei, and the invasive potential of polyphagous herbivores

    M. Milne
    Abstract. Polyphagous insect herbivores could be expected to perform relatively well in new areas because of their ability to exploit alternative resources. We investigated relative abundance patterns of the polyphagous thrips species Frankliniella schultzei, which is characteristically found on plants from many different families, to establish the role of different host plant species in a single locality where the species is not indigenous (Brisbane, south-eastern Queensland, Australia). F. schultzei females and larvae were always present in flowers (where oviposition takes place) and never on leaves of the eight plant species that we surveyed regularly over one year. They were present in flowers of Malvaviscus arboreus in much higher densities than for any other host. F. schultzei females were more fecund and larvae developed faster on floral tissue diets of M. arboreus than on those of other hosts. M. arboreus is therefore regarded as the ,primary' host plant of F. schultzei in the locality that we investigated. The other species are regarded as ,minor' hosts. Available evidence indicates a common geographical origin of F. schultzei and M. arboreus. F. schultzei may therefore be primarily adapted to M. arboreus. The flowers of the minor species on which F. schultzei is also found may coincidentally share some features of the primary host. Adult thrips may therefore accumulate on minor hosts and breed there, but to a lesser extent than on the primary host. The general implications for investigating polyphagous host relationships and interpreting the ecology of these species as generalist invaders are spelt out. [source]

    Feeding by Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] larvae does not induce plant indirect defences

    Abstract 1.,Recent research has addressed the function of herbivore-induced plant volatiles in attracting natural enemies of feeding herbivores. While many types of insect herbivory appear to elicit volatile responses, those triggered by gall insects have received little attention. Previous work indicates that at least one gall insect species induces changes in host-plant volatiles, but no other studies appear to have addressed whether gall insects trigger plant indirect defences. 2.,The volatile responses of wheat to feeding by larvae of the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied to further explore indirect responses of plants to feeding by gall insects. This specialist gall midge species did not elicit a detectable volatile response from wheat plants, whereas a generalist caterpillar triggered volatile release. Moreover, Hessian fly feeding altered volatile responses to subsequent caterpillar herbivory. 3.,These results suggest that Hessian fly larvae exert a degree of control over the defensive responses of their host plants and offer insight into plant-gall insect interactions. Also, the failure of Hessian fly larvae to elicit an indirect defensive response from their host plants may help explain why natural enemies, which often rely on induced volatile cues, fail to inflict significant mortality on M. destructor populations in the field. [source]

    Feeding, growth and nutritional status of restocked salmon parr along the longitudinal gradient of a large European river: the Allier

    A. Descroix
    Abstract,,, The feeding, growth and nutritional status of salmon parr (0+) released at fry stage in different riffles were studied in a large temperate river (Allier, France) throughout the active feeding period. Significant differences were observed along the upstream,downstream gradient. Parr growth performance and energy storage were higher in downstream riffles and low in the most upstream one. These longitudinal growth variations are discussed in the context of diet and food availability differences, habitat variables and intra- and inter-species competition. The most favourable site for optimum growth and nutritional status appeared to be the intermediary riffle located in the grayling zone. [source]

    Size-related differences in diel activity of two species of juvenile eel (Anguilla) in a laboratory stream

    G. J. Glova
    Abstract , The diel activity of three size groups (small=<100 mm; medium=100,199 mm; large=200,299 mm total length) of juvenile shortfinned ("shortfin") eels (Anguilla australis) and longfinned ("longfin") eels (A. dieffenbachii) was tested in a laboratory flow tank over a 48-h period during summer. All size groups of both species were nocturnally active, with the eels hiding in the substratum during the day and coming out on top of the cobbles from dusk to dawn, to feed. During the foraging period, the numbers and activity of all sizes of longfins visible were greater than those seen of shortfins, with the differences being more pronounced for small and medium eels. The activity of all eels consisted mostly of foraging by crawling, searching and probing for prey among the cobbles. Rate of activity increased with size of eel for both species. Small eels of either species did more swimming than eels of the larger sizes, whereas large eels were observed more frequently with only their head out of the substrate than were the smaller individuals. Feeding of small eels within the interstitial spaces of the streambed may explain their significantly lower activity on top of the substrate at night. The significantly lower rate of activity recorded for shortfins than longfins of all sizes may be due partly to their ability to feed within the interstices of the stream bed, and (or) longer time to recover from handling and habituate to the test environment., [source]

    Feeding the masses: plenty, want and the distribution of food and drink in historical perspective Editors' introduction

    Steve Hindle
    First page of article [source]

    Feeding the colleges: Cambridge's food and fuel supplies, 1450,1560

    John S. Lee
    Summary Von Thünen's model of the relationship between concentrated urban demand and rural land use proposes that towns will draw agricultural produce from a series of zones of specialized production around the urban centre. Using the accounts of King's Hall and King's College, this article identifies the areas that supplied Cambridge with food and fuel during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and the persistence of such trade. Local geographical conditions meant that, contrary to von Thünen's model, firewood and charcoal were brought from more distant regions than those supplying wheat and malt barley, and Cambridge's hinterland also had to compete with demand from London. [source]

    Oxygen and Temperature Control during the Cultivation of Microorganisms using Substrate Feeding

    J. Vanags
    Aerobic fermentation via substrate feeding controlled by O2 and temperature supplements the tools for the experimental and possibly industrial use. This substrate-feeding algorithm was realized with the help of the flexible Bioprocess controller BIO-2. [source]

    The feeding behavior of Trichogramma brassicae: new evidence for selective ingestion of solid food

    Z.X. Wu
    Abstract A descriptive study of the feeding behavior and structures of Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was conducted. Based on direct observational and biochemical evidence, larvae feed predominantly on particulate materials, starting ca. 25 h post-oviposition. Feeding lasted for ca. 9 h, at 25±1 °C. During this feeding period the shape of the larvae changed from vermiform to pyriform and then to sacciform, resulting in a ca. 40-fold increase in body size. Larvae used elaborate feeding behaviors as they pulled solid food particles to their oral opening, broke small particles from larger ones, and took the particles into the stomodaeum, which is a powerful pump. In the stomodaeum, peristaltic movement further macerated the particles, which eventually passed through the cardiac valve into the midgut. As indicated by changes in fluorescently labeled casein, digestive enzymes aid in the extra-oral chemical digestion of food. The contents of the gut, during and shortly after feeding, were almost entirely closely packed solid particles. The behavioral activity of feeding larvae centered almost exclusively on processing and ingesting solid food particles. The rapid larval growth is much more plausibly explained by their feeding on the highly concentrated nutrients found in solid foods, rather than the extensive concentration required if dilute liquids were the principal source of nutrients. The implications of these findings for the development of practical artificial diets are discussed. [source]

    Incubation Feeding and Nest Attentiveness in a Socially Monogamous Songbird: Role of Feather Colouration, Territory Quality and Ambient Environment

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 7 2010
    Beata Matysioková
    Parental investment and environmental conditions determine reproductive success in wild-ranging animals. Parental effort during incubation, and consequently factors driving it, has profound consequences for reproductive success in birds. The female nutrition hypothesis states that high male feeding enables the incubating female to spend more time on eggs, which can lead to higher hatching success. Moreover, both male and female parental investment during incubation might be signalled by plumage colouration. To test these hypotheses, we investigated relationships between male and female incubation behaviour and carotenoid and melanin-based plumage colouration, territory quality and ambient temperature in the Great Tit Parus major. We also studied the effect of female incubation behaviour on hatching success. Intensity of male incubation feeding increased with lower temperatures and was higher in territories with more food supply, but only in poor years with low overall food supply. Female nest attentiveness increased with lower temperatures. Plumage colouration did not predict incubation behaviour of either parent. Thus, incubation behaviour of both parents was related mainly to environmental conditions. Moreover, there was no relationship between male incubation feeding, female nest attentiveness and hatching success. Consequently, our data were not consistent with the female nutrition hypothesis. [source]

    The Effect of Male Incubation Feeding, Food and Temperature on the Incubation Behaviour of New Zealand Robins

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 6 2010
    Rebecca L. Boulton
    Because of finite resources, organisms face conflict between their own self-care and reproduction. This conflict is especially apparent in avian species with female-only incubation, where females face a trade-off between time allocated to their own self-maintenance and the thermal requirements of developing embryos. We recorded incubation behaviour of the New Zealand robin (Petroica longipes), a species with female-only incubation, male incubation feeding and high nest predation rates. We examined how male incubation feeding, ambient temperature and food availability (invertebrate biomass) affected the different components of females' incubation behaviour and whether incubation behaviour explained variation in nest survival. Our results suggest that male incubation feeding rates of 2.8 per hour affect the female's incubation rhythm by reducing both on- and off-bout duration, resulting in no effect on female nest attentiveness, thus no support for the female-nutritional hypothesis. The incubation behaviours that we measured did not explain nest survival, despite high nest predation rates. Increased ambient temperature caused an increase in off-bout duration, whereas increased food availability increased on-bout duration. While males play a vital role in influencing incubation behaviour, female robins attempt to resolve the trade-off between their own foraging needs and the thermal requirements of their developing embryos via alternating their incubation rhythm in relation to both food and temperature. [source]

    6-Deoxy-,- L -talopyranosides from Streptomyces sp.,

    Jens Bitzer
    Abstract Streptomyces sp. strain GöM1 was found to produce seven novel glycosides (2,8) containing the rare deoxysugar 6-deoxy-,- L -talose. The aglycones are small phenols, isovaleric acid or aromatic carboxylic acids. By precursor-directed biosynthesis, the yields of the compounds could be increased significantly. Feeding of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid led to the production of both acyl and aryl glycosides, and of compound 9 with both structural elements. Pyrrol-2-ylcarbonyl 6-deoxy-,- L -talopyranoside (6) shows remarkable growth inhibition of some parasites. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

    The use of probiotics in shrimp aquaculture

    Ali Farzanfar
    Abstract Shrimp aquaculture, as well as other industries, constantly requires new techniques in order to increase production yield. Modern technologies and other sciences such as biotechnology and microbiology are important tools that could lead to a higher quality and greater quantity of products. Feeding and new practices in farming usually play an important role in aquaculture, and the addition of various additives to a balanced feed formula to achieve better growth is a common practice of many fish and shrimp feed manufacturers and farmers. Probiotics, as ,bio-friendly agents' such as lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp., can be introduced into the culture environment to control and compete with pathogenic bacteria as well as to promote the growth of the cultured organisms. In addition, probiotics are nonpathogenic and nontoxic microorganisms without undesirable side-effects when administered to aquatic organisms. These strains of bacteria have many other positive effects, which are described in this article. [source]

    Veligers of an introduced bivalve, Limnoperna fortunei, are a new food resource that enhances growth of larval fish in the Paraná River (South America)

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 9 2010
    Summary 1.,Larvae of ,sábalo', Prochilodus lineatus, whose adults represent over 60% of overall fish biomass in the Río de la Plata Catchment, have been observed to feed intensively on veligers of the exotic bivalve Limnoperna fortunei. 2.,To assess the effects of this dietary shift on the growth of P. lineatus, 28-day laboratory experiments were carried out feeding newly hatched P. lineatus larvae with three diets: zooplankton artificially enriched with L. fortunei veligers; natural zooplankton; and zooplankton artificially enriched with cladocerans and copepods. The average length, weight and gut contents of the fish larvae were assessed weekly and metabolic rates of fish larvae were measured. 3.,Proportions of veligers in gut contents were always higher than those in the experimental diet: 100, 76 and 21% for veliger-enriched, natural and low-veliger diets, respectively. Larvae fed a veliger-enriched diet grew to a significantly larger size than larvae fed the other two diets. In energetic balance comparisons using metabolic rates and prey energy content, all three diets were sufficient to support metabolism and growth. The greatest values of excess energy at the end of each week were in the veliger-enriched experiments. 4.,Feeding on veligers of L. fortunei significantly enhances the growth of P. lineatus larvae and supports the idea that this new and abundant resource is selectively preyed upon by P. lineatus during its larval stage. Higher growth rates may stem from the higher energy contents of veligers compared to crustaceans and/or from the lower energy costs of capturing slower prey. [source]

    Feeding rates, assimilation efficiencies and growth of two amphipod species on biodeposited material from zebra mussels

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 12 2008
    Summary 1. Accumulation of organic material by the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha is assumed to be the source of a biodeposition-based food web. However, only little is known about the importance of the biodeposited material as a food source and its contribution to increased abundances of macroinvertebrates in the presence of D. polymorpha. 2. Feeding, assimilation and growth of the amphipods Gammarus roeselii and Dikerogammarus villosus on food sources directly and indirectly associated with D. polymorpha (biodeposited material and chironomids) and on conditioned alder leaves were measured. The stoichiometry of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus of the diets was measured as an important determining factor of food quality. 3. Chironomids had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus contents, alder leaves were depleted in nitrogen and phosphorus, and the stoichiometry of biodeposited material was intermediate. 4. Both amphipod species had highest feeding rates and assimilation efficiencies on chironomids. Gammarus roeselii fed more on biodeposited material than on alder leaves, but assimilation efficiencies were similar; D. villosus also had similar feeding rates and assimilation efficiencies on the two diets. 5. Both amphipod species had highest growth rates on chironomids and lowest growth rates on alder leaves. Both grew at intermediate rates on biodeposited material of D. polymorpha. The growth rates of the amphipod species were related to food stoichiometry. Overall, the invasive D. villosus grew faster than the indigenous G. roeselii. 6. Food resources directly and indirectly associated with D. polymorpha are potential diets for amphipods, providing further evidence for a D. polymorpha biodeposition-based food web. [source]

    Feeding the Town: New Evidence from the Complex of the Giza Pyramid Builders

    Mary Anne Murray
    First page of article [source]

    Red-gartered Coot Fulica armillata feeding on the grapsid crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus: advantages and disadvantages of an unusual food resource

    IBIS, Issue 1 2008
    The behaviour of Red-gartered Coots feeding on an unusual food source was examined at Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon, Argentina. The grapsid crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus made up all observed prey items, and 61% were small. Both handling and foraging duration increased with the size of captured crabs, but foraging efficiency decreased. Crab availability affected both the dive duration of the Coots and their foraging decisions with regard to prey-size selection. Two species of gull were observed kleptoparasitizing Coots, especially when the Coot was handling medium or large crabs. Feeding by Coots on Cyrtograpsus angulatus has not been previously documented and may be a feeding innovation. Our estimations suggest that Coots were foraging optimally, since smaller crabs were more energetically profitable. [source]

    A specific inducible nitric oxide inhibitor, ONO-1714 attenuates inflammation-related large bowel carcinogenesis in male ApcMin/+ mice

    Hiroyuki Kohno
    Abstract It is generally assumed that inflammation influences carcinogenesis. We previously reported that dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) strongly enhances colon carcinogenesis in the ApcMin/+ mice and the over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) contributes to this enhancement. In the current study, we investigated the effect of a selective iNOS inhibitor, ONO-1714 on colitis-related colon carcinogenesis in the ApcMin/+ mouse treated with DSS. Male C57BL/6J ApcMin/+ and Apc+/+ mice were exposed to 1% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days. ONO-1714 was given to the mice at a dose level of 50 or 100 ppm in diet for 5 weeks (during the administration of DSS). The tumor inhibitory effects by ONO-1714 were assessed at week 5 by counting the incidence and multiplicity of colonic neoplasms. Additionally, we assessed serum lipid levels and colonic mRNA expression for cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, iNOS, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and interleukin (IL)-1,. Feeding with ONO-1714 significantly inhibited the occurrence of colonic adenocarcinoma in a dose-dependent manner in the ApcMin/+ mice. In addition, the treatment with ONO-1714 significantly lowered the serum triglyceride levels and mRNA expression levels of COX-2, TNF, and IL-1, of colonic mucosa in the DSS-treated ApcMin/+ mice. Neither ONO-1714 nor DSS affected the colonic pathology in the Apc+/+ mice. Our findings may suggest that ONO-1714 could therefore serve as an effective agent for suppression of colitis-related colon cancer development in the ApcMin/+ mice. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Feeding the family in India: an approach to household food consumption

    Madhu Nagla
    First page of article [source]

    Feeding and eating disorders in childhood

    Rachel Bryant-Waugh DPhil
    Abstract Objective: To review the literature related to the current DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood; pica; rumination disorder; and other childhood presentations that are characterized by avoidance of food or restricted food intake, with the purpose of informing options for DSM-V. Method: Articles were identified by computerized and manual searches and reviewed to evaluate the evidence supporting possible options for revision of criteria. Results: The study of childhood feeding and eating disturbances has been hampered by inconsistencies in classification and use of terminology. Greater clarity around subtypes of feeding and eating problems in children would benefit clinicians and patients alike. Discussion: A number of suggestions supported by existing evidence are made that provide clearer descriptions of subtypes to improve clinical utility and to promote research. © 2010 American Psychiatric Association. (Int J Eat Disord 2010) [source]

    Life Cycle, Feeding and Production of Isoptena serricornis(Pictet, 1841) (Plecoptera, Chloroperlidae)

    Abstract Some aspects of the biology and ecology (life cycle, feeding and production) of a population of Isoptena serricornis in the Rudava River (Slovakia) are studied, reported and discussed. The life cycle is annual, with slow growth in autumn-winter and fast growth in late summer and spring. The growth decreased two weeks before the Fall Equinox and increased two weeks after the Spring Equinox. The flight period spans from the end of May to the beginning of July. The presence of large sand particles in the gut of all studied nymphs is of note, and indicates that I. serricornis acts as a deposit-collector species. Nymphal food is principally composed of detritus, unicellular organisms and, in nymphs of intermediate or large size, Chironomidae larvae. Adult food is composed fundamentally of different types of pollen grains. Males usually have lower food content than females. Annual production of this species (,694,750 mg · m,2) is very high in relation to other previously studied Chloroperlidae. This is probably largely responsible for I. serricornis being one of the most abundant components of the macroinvertebrate community in its habitat in the Rudava River. A negative correlation between production and temperature was observed. [source]

    Feeding and anhydrobiosis in bdelloid rotifers: a preparatory study for an experiment aboard the International Space Station

    Claudia Ricci
    Abstract. Here we report the effect of food concentration on the recovery from anhydrobiosis of a bdelloid rotifer, Macrotrachela quadricornifera. Cohorts were either starved, or fed high or low concentrations of food, before being dried and their subsequent recovery rates determined. The rotifers starved for 3 d before anhydrobiosis recovered in significantly higher proportion, and those fed lower food concentration recovered better than those fed higher food concentration. In addition, starvation did not decrease the recovery of other bdelloid species (Philodina roseola and Adineta sp. 1) which were either fed or starved before anhydrobiosis. These results suggest that a successful recovery from anhydrobiosis is not dependent on prior resource level supplied to the bdelloids. However, the lack of resources might not be the only factor in a successful recovery from anhydrobiosis. Observations using scanning electron microscopy of fed individuals of M. quadricornifera entering anhydrobiosis showed that some food remained in the digestive tract. Thus, we propose that the negative effect of rich food may be due to a purely mechanical effect and may be interfering with a proper folding of the rotifer body at the onset of anhydrobiosis. This contribution results from studies carried out in preparation for biological experiments scheduled on the International Space Station (ISS). [source]

    Feeding and dementia: a systematic literature review

    Roger Watson PhD RN FIBiol FRSA
    Aim., This paper reports a systematic review of the literature on interventions to promote oral nutritional intake of older people with dementia and feeding difficulty between 1993 and 2003. Background., Older people with dementia commonly experience difficulty with feeding, especially in the later stages of the condition. This topic and related nursing care was reviewed in 1993 and the conclusion was that there was little research into interventions that nurses could use to alleviate feeding difficulty. Method., A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases and the search terms ,feeding', ,eating' and ,dementia' combined as follows: ,(feeding or eating) and (dementia)'. A second search was carried out combining the search terms ,mealtimes' and ,dementia' as follows: ,mealtimes and dementia'. The literature search was carried out on 1 December 2003 and papers were included in the review if retrieved by 31 December 2003. English language papers only were retrieved. Results., Sixty-seven papers were retrieved, of which 13 addressed interventions aimed at helping older people with dementia to feed. All studies reported positive outcomes but only one randomized controlled trial was reported. Music was the most common intervention but there were no standardized interventions or outcomes across the studies and none reported the use of power analysis to decide on sample size. There were problems in some studies with confounding variables. Conclusions., Further research is needed into interventions aimed at how nurses can help older people with dementia to feed. There are some promising lines of enquiry, with music being one of these, but future studies need to use adequate samples and to use power calculations and account adequately for confounding variables. There is also a need to standardize interventions and outcomes across such studies to facilitate meta-analysis. [source]

    Postprandial Hypotension in Long-Term Care Elderly Patients on Enteral Feeding

    Emily Lubart MD
    OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence and nature of postprandial hypotension (PPH) in orally fed (OF), nasogastric tube (NGT)-fed, and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)-fed older people. DESIGN: Prospective comparative study. SETTING: Nursing and skilled nursing wards of three geriatrics hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Three groups (OF, PEG, NGT) of long-term care patients (50 in each cohort) were enrolled. MEASUREMENTS: Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate measurements were obtained just before lunch and at 15-minute intervals for 90 minutes after the completion of the meal. The meals were similar in caloric content and composition. RESULTS: PPH was evidenced in 64 (43%) patients. No significant intergroup (OF, PEG, NGT) differences were present. In 68% of PPH patients, the systolic BP (SBP) drop appeared within 30 minutes, and 70% reached their systolic nadir at 60 minutes. In 31%, the SBP drop was registered on only one measurement, whereas in 25%, the drop was detected on five to six measurements. All parameters were without notable intergroup differences. CONCLUSION: In enterally fed elderly patients (NGT or PEG), the rate and pattern of PPH are similar and not significantly different from that observed in OF patients. [source]

    State Practice Variation in the Use of Tube Feeding for Nursing Home Residents with Severe Cognitive Impairment

    Charles E. Gessert MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The role of plant trichomes and caterpillar group size on growth and defence of the pipevine swallowtail Battus philenor

    James A. Fordyce
    Summary 1The California population of the pipevine swallowtail Battus philenor is a specialist on the Dutchman's pipe Aristolochia californica, an endemic vine that is densely covered with trichomes. Populations of B. philenor outside California use other Aristolochia species that are largely glabrous. The average clutch size of the pipevine swallowtail is larger in California compared with populations elsewhere and larvae feed gregariously until late in the third instar. 2In the field, caterpillars consumed more leaf material and showed preference for portions of leaves with trichomes removed. However, large groups of caterpillars were consistently observed feeding on the apical portion of the plant, where trichome density was highest. Smaller groups of caterpillars were observed feeding more often on mature leaves on the lower portions of the plant, where trichome density was lower. 3Laboratory experiments showed that the walking speed of a commonly observed predator, larvae of the green lacewing Chrysopa carnea, was reduced as trichome density increased. Furthermore, lacewing search efficiency and capture rate of a model prey item were compromised by high trichome density. 4In an additional field experiment, no difference was found in the percentage mortality of groups of four and 12 caterpillars. However, growth rate of the larger group was accelerated by 25% compared with smaller groups. In an experiment using a ladybird beetle larva Hippodamia convergens as the predator, no difference was observed in absolute mortality of caterpillars, suggesting that group size does not function directly as a defence against predators. 5First instar caterpillars are most vulnerable to predators, thus feeding in larger groups may benefit caterpillars by accelerating growth. Feeding in large groups may also be an effective strategy for B. philenor to overcome plant trichomes and feed on portions of the plant conducive to faster development. However, feeding on areas with dense trichomes does not appear to provide larvae with a refuge from predators. [source]