Feed Efficiency (feed + efficiency)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Feed Efficiency

  • feed efficiency ratio

  • Selected Abstracts

    Effects of Periodic Feed Deprivation on Growth, Feed Efficiency, Processing Yield, and Body Composition of Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Menghe H. Li
    Two studies were conducted in 110-L flow-through aquaria and 0.4-ha ponds to evaluate effects of periodic feed deprivation on the growth performance of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Fish were deprived of feed 0, 1, 2, or 3 consecutive d/wk, l d per 5-d period, or 3 consecutive d per 10-d period and fed to satiation on days fish were fed. In Experiment 1, fish fed less frequently than daily consumed significantly less feed (over the experimental period) and gained significantly less weight than fish fed daily, except that feed consumption of fish deprived of feed 1 d/wk was not significantly different from that of fish fed daily. Compared with fish fed daily, fish deprived of feed 2 d/wk had significantly lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Visceral fat of fish deprived of feed 1 or 2 d/wk was similar to that of fish fed daily, but fish deprived of feed for longer periods had significantly lower visceral fat than fish fed daily. Regression analysis indicated that feed consumption, weight gain, and visceral fat increased linearly as the number of days that fish were fed increased. In Experiment 2, there were no significant differences in the amount of feed fed between fish deprived of feed 1 d/wk and those fed daily. Net production of fish deprived of feed 1 or 2 d/wk or 1 d per 5-d period was not significantly different from that of fish fed daily, but fish deprived of feed for longer periods had significantly lower net production than fish fed daily. Visceral fat of fish deprived of feed 1 d/wk or 1 d per 5-d period was similar to that of fish fed daily, but fish on other treatments had significantly lower visceral fat than fish fed daily. Regression analysis showed that as the number of days fed increased the amount of feed fed and net production increased quadratically. Feed conversion ratio, carcass yield, visceral fat, and fillet fat increased, while fillet moisture decreased linearly as the number of days fed increased. Although feeding less frequently than daily may improve feed efficiency, and fish deprived of feed may demonstrate compensatory growth when a full feeding regime is resumed, it may be difficult to provide enough feed to satiate all size-classes of fish under a multiple-batch cropping system without causing water quality problems. Under normal economic conditions, fish should be fed daily to apparent satiation without waste and without causing water quality problems. However, during periods of unfavorable economic conditions, channel catfish raised from advanced fingerlings to market size may be fed less frequently than daily to reduce production cost. Results from the present study indicated that feeding channel catfish to satiation 5 or 6 d/wk (not feeding on one or two weekend days) could provide some benefits in reducing production cost through reduced feed and labor costs for food-sized channel catfish during periods of low fish prices and high feed prices. [source]

    Effects of Amylopectin/Amylose Starch Ratio on Growth, Body Composition and Glycemic Response of Sunshine Bass Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis

    Steven Rawles
    Manipulation of the ratio of amylopectin (,-[1,4] and ,-[1,6] linked glucose) to amylose (,-[1,41 linked glucose) starches in the carbohydrate fraction of the diet has been used to improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in mammalian models. A 10-wk feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary amylopectin/amylose ratio on growth and composition of growth of advanced sunshine bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) fingerlings (60 g, initial weight). Fish were fed cold-pelleted, semipurified, isonitrogenous (35% crude protein), isocaloric (3.6 kcaVg protein), isolipidic (5%) diets containing 25% carbohydrate. The carbohydrate fraction of the diets was composed of either glucose, dextrin, 100% amylopectin/0% amylose, 70% amylopectin/30% amylose, or 30% amylopectin/70% amylose. Diets differing in ratios of amylopectin/amylose were achieved by adjusting the proportion of high-amylopectin (100% amylopectin) to high-amylose (70% amylose) corn starch. Diets were fed to fish in quadruplicate 76-L tanks (seven fish/tank) connected to a brackish water (5-7%v) recirculating culture system with biofiltration. Weight gain ranged from 195 to 236% of initial weight (60 g) and was significantly greater (P < 0.1) for fish fed diets containing 25% carbohydrate as dextrin or as 70% amylose and significantly lower in fish fed diets in which carbohydrate was composed of 30% amylose, 100% amylopectin, or glucose. Feed efficiency ranged from 0.52 to 0.61 and was higher in fish fed the diet containing the highest concentration of amylose and lower in fish fed the diet containing glucose. Hepatosomatic index was highest (2.71) in fish fed the diet containing glucose and lowest (1.401.45) in fish fed diets containing high-amylose cornstarch. Intraperitoneal fat ratio was distinctly lower in fish fed diets containing some amylose as compared to those fed diets without amylose. Liver lipid was significantly lower (4.8%) in fish fed the diet containing glucose and almost twice as high (7.3-8.9%) in fish fed the diets containing any starch. Glycogen content of the liver decreased from approximately 12% in fish fed the diet containing glucose to 5% in fish fed the diets containing amylose. Muscle proximate composition and ratio were unaffected by the dietary treatments. Fasting levels (15 h) of blood glucose in fish reared for 10 wk on the diet containing glucose were significantly elevated (5.5 mmol/L) when compared to fasting levels of those that had been reared on diets containing starch (3.4-1.1 mmol/L). Fish fed the diet containing glucose exhibited maximum blood concentrations (14.6 mmoVL) 4 h postprandial then rapidly declined to nearly fasting levels within 8 h postprandial. In contrast, maximum plasma glucose concentrations in fish fed diets containing starch were roughly half (6.8-8.1 mmol/L) those of fish fed the diet containing glucose. Blood glucose in fish fed diets containing dextrin or predominantly amylopectin starch remained elevated longer than that of fish fed diets containing glucose or predominantly amylose starch. Glycemic response appeared to decrease with increasing dietary amylose content. These data suggest that feeding diets in which a greater portion of the starch is amylose may be a useful strategy for improving carbohydrate use in sunshine bass. [source]

    Effects of Dietary Protein and Energy Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Sang-Min Lee
    A feeding trial of three protein levels (30, 40 and 50%) and two energy levels (300 and 400 kcal/100-g diet) factorial design with three replications was carried out to investigate the proper dietary protein and energy levels for the growth of juvenile flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Weight gain of fish tended to improve with increasing dietary protein level. Weight gain of fish fed either the 40% or 50% protein diet with 300 kcal/100-g diet was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than with 400 kcal/100-g diet. The best weight gain was obtained from fish fed the 50% protein diet with 300 kcal/100-g diet. Feed efficiency tended to improve with increasing dietary protein level. However, dietary energy level had no significant effect on feed efficiency of fish fed the 30% or 50% protein diet, but that of fish fed the 40% protein diet with 300 kcal/100-g diet was significantly higher than with 400 kcal/100-g diet. Protein retention tended to increase as dietary protein level increased and energy level decreased. Lipid content of fish fed the diet containing 400 kcal/100-g diet was significantly higher than that of fish fed the diet containing 300 kcal/100-g diet at all protein levels. Fatty acid compositions such as linoleic acid, EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3) offish were directly affected by dietary lipid (squid liver oil and/or soybean oil) used for energy source. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that the proper dietary protein and energy levels for the growth of juvenile flounder are 50% and 300 kcal/100-g diet, respectively. [source]

    Intestinal Villus Histological Alterations in Piglets fed Dietary Charcoal Powder Including Wood Vinegar Compound Liquid

    A. Mekbungwan
    Summary To investigate the effects of dietary charcoal powder including wood vinegar compound liquid (CWVC, 4 : 1) on intestinal villus histology, piglets were fed 0, 1, 3 and 5% dietary CWVC diets for 30 days. Feed intake and body weight gain were measured during the experimental period. At the end of the experiments, intestinal villus height, epithelial cell area and cell mitosis were examined using light microscopy (LM), and the duodenal villus tip surface was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Feed efficiency tended to be improved in the CWVC group. The 3% CWVC group showed the highest value, followed by 1% CWVC group of most LM parameters in most intestinal parts, but the 5% CWVC group showed the almost similar value compared with the control. In addition, on the duodenal villus tip surface, the 3% CWVC group showed a clearer cell outline, larger cells and cells protuberated further into the lumen than those of the 1% CWVC group. However, the 5% CWVC group showed faint SEM features than the 1% CWVC group. The present trend of improved feed efficiency after feedings of dietary CWVC demonstrates that the CWVC could be incorporated into piglet diets up to 3% level, and that the CWVC might activate intestinal functions both at villus and cellular levels. [source]

    Identification of polymorphisms influencing feed intake and efficiency in beef cattle

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 3 2008
    E. L. Sherman
    Summary Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in beef cattle. Net feed efficiency, measured as residual feed intake (RFI), is the difference between actual feed intake and the predicted feed intake required for maintenance and gain of the animal. SNPs that show associations with RFI may be useful quantitative trait nucleotides for marker-assisted selection. This study identified associations between SNPs underlying five RFI QTL on five bovine chromosomes (BTA2, 5, 10, 20 and 29) with measures of dry matter intake (DMI), RFI and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in beef cattle. Six SNPs were found to have effects on RFI (P < 0.05). The largest single SNP allele substitution effect for RFI was ,0.25 kg/day located on BTA2. The combined effects of the SNPs found significant in this experiment explained 6.9% of the phenotypic variation of RFI. Not all the RFI SNPs showed associations with DMI and FCR even though these traits are highly correlated with RFI (r = 0.77 and r = 0.62 respectively). This shows that these SNPs may be affecting the underlying biological mechanisms of feed efficiency beyond feed intake control and weight gain efficiency. These SNPs can be used in marker-assisted selection but first it will be important to verify these effects in independent populations of cattle. [source]

    Dietary protein requirement of white sea bream (Diplodus sargus) juveniles

    R. SÁ
    Abstract A trial was undertaken to estimate the protein requirement of white sea bream (Diplodus sargus). Five fish meal-based diets were formulated to contain graded levels of protein (from 60 to 490 g kg,1). Each diet was assigned to triplicate groups of 25 fish with a mean individual body weight of 22 g. Fish fed the 60 g kg,1 protein diet lost weight during the trial, while growth improved in the other groups as dietary protein level increased up to 270,370 g kg,1. Feed efficiency improved as dietary protein level increased. Maximum protein efficiency ratio (PER) was observed with the 17% protein diet. N retention (NR) (% N intake) was not different among groups fed diets with 17% protein and above. Ammonia excretion (g kg,1ABW day,1) increased as dietary protein level increased, while no differences in urea excretion were noted. An exponential model was used to adjust specific growth rate and NR (g kg,1 day,1) to dietary protein level. Based on that model, dietary protein required for maximum retention was 330 g kg,1, while for maximum growth it was 270 g kg,1. On a wet weight basis, there were no differences in whole body composition of fish-fed diets with 170 g kg,1 protein and above, except for the protein content, which was lower in group fed the 170 g kg,1 protein diet than the 490 g kg,1 protein diet. Specific activities of hepatic amino acid catabolism enzymes (glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) increased as dietary protein levels increased. There were no differences among groups in fatty acid synthetase and malyc enzyme but 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was significantly lower in fish fed the 60 g kg,1 protein diet than the 170 and 490 g kg,1 protein diets. [source]

    Effects of high carbohydrate and high lipid diets on growth, body composition and glucose metabolism in southern catfish at two temperatures

    Yiping Luo
    Abstract The effects of high carbohydrate and high lipid diets on the growth, body composition and glucose metabolism in the southern catfish were determined at 17.5 °C and 27.5 °C. At each temperature, the feeding rate, specific growth rate and protein productive value decreased with increasing dietary carbohydrate (P<0.05). Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were lower in the fish fed a high dietary carbohydrate diet at 17.5 °C, but were not significantly different between diets at 27.5 °C. Plasma glucose and activities of pyruvate kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were higher in fish reared at 27.5 °C than those reared at 17.5 °C, and within each temperature, they were higher in fish fed the high-carbohydrate diet. Hepatosomatic index was higher in fish fed the high-carbohydrate diet than those fed the high-lipid diet at 27.5 °C, but no significant difference was found at 17.5 °C. The results indicate that higher temperatures enhance glycogen deposition and lipogenous enzyme activities when fed with a high-carbohydrate diet; thus, at higher temperatures, this fish uses carbohydrate more efficiently for protein sparing. [source]

    Effects of dietary prebiotics on the growth, feed efficiency and non-specific immunity of juvenile red drum Sciaenops ocellatus fed soybean-based diets

    J Alejandro Buentello
    Abstract Previous work has demonstrated several benefits of dietary prebiotics for fish. Here, we report the effects of added dietary fructooligosaccharide (FOS), mannanoligosaccharide (MOS), transgalactooligosaccharide (TOS) and GroBiotic® -A (GBA) on the weight gain, feed efficiency and non-specific immunity of juvenile red drum fed soybean meal (SBM)-based diets, in brackish water at 25 ± 1 °C. Test diets incorporated FOS, MOS, TOS or GBA at 10 g kg,1 in place of cellulose in a basal diet with 40% crude protein, half from SBM and half from fishmeal. After a 4-week feeding period, experimental fish were challenged by exposure to Amyloodinium ocellatum, after which growth and survival were monitored for 2 more weeks. Feed efficiency, serum lysozyme and intracellular superoxide anion production were significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by prebiotic supplementation. Likewise, survival after A. ocellatum exposure was significantly higher for fish fed GBA, MOS and TOS (87%, 84% and 78%) versus 58% for fish fed either the FOS or the basal diet. Taken together, these results indicate that inclusion of several prebiotics at 10 g kg,1 of the diet is adequate to improve the feed efficiency of red drum as well as to enhance disease protection. [source]

    N -3 enrichment of pork with fishmeal: Effects on production and consumer acceptability

    Stelios Sioutis
    Abstract This study aimed to develop pork products of acceptable organoleptic quality enriched with long-chain n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n -3 PUFA). Female pigs were fed a finisher diet containing 15% PorcOmegaÔ tuna fishmeal or a commercial diet. Pigs and rations were weighed weekly. The feed conversion ratio was significantly lower in pigs fed fishmeal than in controls (2.61,±,0.01 versus 2.96,±,0.06, p,<0.05). After 6,weeks, the pigs were butchered and the fatty acid contents of selected pork products were analyzed by gas chromatography. Shelf life was tested by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), initially and after 5,days of cold storage, and sensory qualities were evaluated after cooking. LC n -3 PUFA contents of pork products from pigs fed fishmeal were higher than in controls (steak 300%, stir-fry 250%, diced 520%, mince 480%, sausage 360%; p,<0.05 in all cases). There were no differences between n -3-enriched and regular pork in either TBARS content of stored raw products or sensory characteristics after cooking. Incorporating fishmeal in the finisher diet resulted in greater feed efficiency and production of nutritionally enhanced pork products with organoleptic profiles and stability comparable to those of regular pork. [source]

    Linkage of microbial ecology to phenotype: correlation of rumen microbial ecology to cattle's feed efficiency

    Le Luo Guan
    Abstract Linkage of rumen microbial structure to host phenotypical traits may enhance the understanding of host,microbial interactions in livestock species. This study used culture-independent PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to investigate the microbial profiles in the rumen of cattle differing in feed efficiency. The analysis of detectable bacterial PCR-DGGE profiles showed that the profiles generated from efficient steers clustered together and were clearly separated from those obtained from inefficient steers, indicating that specific bacterial groups may only inhabit in efficient steers. In addition, the bacterial profiles were more likely clustered within a certain breed, suggesting that host genetics may play an important role in rumen microbial structure. The correlations between the concentrations of volatile fatty acids and feed efficiency traits were also observed. Significantly higher concentrations of butyrate (P<0.001) and valerate (P=0.006) were detected in the efficient steers. Our results revealed potential associations between the detectable rumen microbiota and its fermentation parameters with the feed efficiency of cattle. [source]

    Intake, liveweight gain and feed preference by steers fed combinations of lucerne and Westerwolds ryegrass silages

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 1 2002
    E. Charmley
    Nutritive value and voluntary intake of legumes are generally considered to be higher than those of grasses when ensiled at similar digestibility, although high levels of soluble protein can result in low N utilization by animals and high losses to the environment. The objectives of this experiment were to describe the optimum combination of Westerwolds ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Aubade) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L. cv. AC Caribou) silages to maximize liveweight gain of steers fed silage, determine chemical components that are important and ascertain whether steers selected the optimum mixture when given a choice. Both silages contained similar concentrations of dry matter (DM), acid-detergent fibre (ADF) and organic acids, but lucerne silage had higher concentrations of N, soluble-N and ammonia-N. Westerwolds ryegrass silage contained more neutral-detergent fibre (NDF). In a 12-week experiment, voluntary intake by Hereford steers was not influenced when the proportion of the two silages was changed from 1 to 0 in 0·25 increments. However, liveweight gain and feed efficiency increased linearly (P < 0·001) as the proportion of ryegrass silage fed was increased. When preconditioned to either of the two silages, steers showed a significant preference for ryegrass over lucerne (P < 0·05). When conditioned to a mixture of both silages, no preference was elicited. It is suggested that extensive solubilization and deamination of protein in the lucerne silage may have caused the preference for Westerwolds ryegrass silage and the higher liveweight gains on diets containing higher proportions of Westerwolds ryegrass silage. [source]

    Genetic parameters for dry matter, energy and protein intake, and their relationships with performance and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle

    M.A. Hoque
    Summary Genetic parameters for feed intake and performance traits of 514 bulls and carcass traits of 22 099 of their progeny, and the relationships of measures of feed intake with performance and carcass traits were estimated. Feed intake traits were dry matter intake (DMI), concentrate intake (CONI), roughage intake, ratio of roughage intake to DMI, metabolizable energy intake (MEI) and digestible crude protein intake (DCPI). Performance traits included daily gain, metabolic weight, live weight at the end of test, dry matter conversion ratio and residual feed intake. Progeny carcass traits were carcass weight, percentage of meat yield, rib eye area (REA), subcutaneous fat, marbling score, meat colour (MCS), fat colour (FCS) and meat quality grade. All the feed intake and performance traits were moderately heritable. The heritabilities for REA and MCS were moderate, and that for FCS was low, while those for the other carcass traits were high. Selection against DMI, CONI and DCPI would reduce excessive intake of feed, but would have undesirable effects on growth and most of the carcass traits. Selection against MEI would lead to improvements in feed efficiency and growth traits. Selection against DCPI would also improve feed efficiency; however, responses in growth traits would decrease. Results indicate that selection against MEI might be better than any other measures of feed intake to improve feed efficiency with simultaneous improvement in growth and most of the carcass traits. [source]

    Variance components due to direct genetic, maternal genetic and permanent environmental effect for growth and feed-efficiency traits in young male Japanese Black cattle

    M. A. Hoque
    Summary Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using data recorded on 740 young male Japanese Black cattle during the period from 1971 to 2003. Traits studied were feed intake (FI), feed-conversion ratio (FCR), residual feed intake (RFI), average daily gain (ADG), metabolic body weight (MWT) at the mid-point of the test period and body weight (BWT) at the finish of the test (345 days). Data were analysed using three alternative animal models (direct, direct + maternal environmental, and direct + maternal genetic effects). Comparison of the log likelihood values has shown that the direct genetic effect was significant (p < 0.05) for all traits and that the maternal environmental effects were significant (p < 0.05) for MWT and BWT. The heritability estimates were 0.20 ± 0.12 for FI, 0.14 ± 0.10 for FCR, 0.33 ± 0.14 for RFI, 0.19 ± 0.12 for ADG, 0.30 ± 0.14 for MWT and 0.30 ± 0.13 for BWT. The maternal effects (maternal genetic and maternal environmental) were not important in feed-efficiency traits. The genetic correlation between RFI and ADG was stronger than the corresponding correlation between FCR and ADG. These results provide evidence that RFI should be included for genetic improvement in feed efficiency in Japanese Black breeding programmes. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Effects of dietary supplementation of synbiotics and phytobiotics on performance, caecal coliform population and some oxidant/antioxidant parameters of broilers

    Z. Erdo
    Summary The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of synbiotics and phytobiotics on performance, small intestine weight, pH and caecal coliform counts of broilers. The influences of synbiotics and phytobiotics on oxidant/antioxidant status in the blood of broilers were also assessed. A total of 200 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments, either fed a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 1 g/kg synbiotic, 1 g/kg phytobiotic or 1 g/kg synbiotic plus 1 g/kg phytobiotic. The diet supplemented with both synbiotic and phytobiotic had no effect on body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency of broilers at the end of the study (p > 0.05). Neither small intestine weight nor pH was affected by any of the treatments. Supplementation of both synbiotic and phytobiotic to diet decreased the caecal coliform count (p < 0.01). Addition of synbiotics and phytobiotics in combination significantly increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (p , 0.05), whereasphytobiotic addition alone showed only a slight increase. Similarly, elevated nitric oxide (NO) level was recorded in the synbiotic- and phytobiotic-fed group and in the phytobiotic-fed group (p , 0.001). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of synbiotic and phytobiotic improved the gut health by decreasing the caecal total coliform count, but growth performance was not affected by the supplementations. Further investigations are needed to determine the effects of phytobiotics on oxidative/antioxidative metabolism as regards their compositional analysis. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Intestinal villus histological alterations in broilers fed dietary dried fermented ginger

    T. Incharoen
    Summary To evaluate the effect of dietary dried fermented ginger (DFG) on intestinal villous histological alteration and growth performance, 64 Marshall Chunky male broilers were divided into four groups, each with four replicates of four chickens. Birds were fed the basal commercial mash diet supplemented with DFG at 0 (control), 5, 10 and 20 g/kg for 42 days. With increasing dietary DFG levels, feed intake tended to decrease and significantly decreased in the 20 g/kg DFG group (p < 0.05). Weight gain was higher in all the DFG groups, with the highest in the 10 g/kg DFG group (p < 0.05), resulting in an improved feed efficiency in all the DFG groups. Intestinal villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis in all the intestinal segments were higher in all the DFG groups than in the control group. Protuberated cells and cell clusters were found in all the DFG groups, suggesting that the intestinal villi and cells might be hypertrophied. The present results indicate that dietary DFG can be used as a natural feed additive to induce broiler growth performance as a result of stimulation of morphological maturation and in consequence intestinal function. [source]

    Dietary phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) regulates the activity of intestinal mucosa phytase

    E. M. Onyango
    Summary The role of dietary phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) in the regulation of intestinal mucosa phytase was investigated in chicks. Seven-day-old chicks were grouped by weight into six blocks of three cages with six birds per cage. Three purified diets [a chemically defined casein diet, a chemically defined casein diet plus sodium phytate (20 g/kg diet) and a chemically defined casein diet plus sodium phytate (20 g/kg diet) and microbial phytase (1000 units/kg diet)] were randomly assigned to cages within each block. Chicks were fed experimental diets from 8 to 22 days of age then killed, and duodenal mucosa and left tibia removed. Phytase activity in duodenal mucosa, growth performance and bone ash content were determined. Addition of phytate to the chemically defined casein diet reduced (p < 0.05) the Vmax of the duodenal brush border phytase, but the Km of the enzyme was not affected. Addition of phytate also reduced (p < 0.05) weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency and percentage ash. Addition of microbial phytase fully restored the feed efficiency (p < 0.05), but Vmax and body weight gain were only partially restored (p < 0.05). In conclusion, it would seem that dietary phytates non-competitively inhibit intestinal mucosa phytase. [source]

    Changes in selected serum parameters of broiler chicken fed supplemental chromium

    B. Króliczewska
    Summary The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chromium (Cr) from Cr yeast on the growth performance and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, total protein and Cr concentration in the serum of broiler chicken. The birds were fed a control diet or a control diet supplemented with Cr at a level of 300, 500 ,g/kg Cr. The supplementation of 500 ,g/kg Cr increased body weight, weight gain and feed efficiency (p < 0.05). In addition, supplementation with Cr decreased the serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (p < 0.05), triglycerides (p < 0.05) and glucose (p < 0.05) concentrations whereas serum HDL cholesterol increased. Serum total protein and serum Cr concentration slightly but not significantly increased in both Cr groups. The study suggest that Cr supplementation particularly at 500 ,g/kg Cr from Cr yeast can influence on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of broiler chicken and can be used as additives in animal diet but it still needs more investigations. [source]

    Influence of dietary ß-glucan on growth performance, lymphocyte proliferation, specific immune response and haptoglobin plasma concentrations in pigs

    S. Hiss
    Summary Immunomodulatory feed additives might offer alternatives to anti-microbial growth promoters in swine production. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of ,-1,3/1,6 glucans, i.e. of specific yeast cell wall components, on immune function and growth performance in pigs. After weaning at 4 weeks of age, 75 piglets were allocated to 3 different groups for 4 weeks, the diet was supplemented with 0, 0.015 or 0.03% of ,-glucan, respectively. All animals were vaccinated against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). After 4 weeks, average daily gains (ADG) of ,-glucan treated pigs were not different from the controls. Feed intake was tendentiously (p < 0.1) increased at 0.03%,-glucan, without alteration of feed efficiency. Serum haptoglobin concentrations at the end of the 4 week treatment were increased in all groups when compared to the initial levels (p < 0.001), without differences between the groups (p > 0.05). Haptoglobin levels were inversely related to ADG. Lymphocyte proliferation indices were not different in control and treatment groups. Specific vaccination responses, as quantified by the PRRS antibody titres occurred in all animals, but no relation with ,-glucan feeding was observed. Our results indicate marginal benefits of ,-glucan supplements for growth performance and no effect on the immune parameters tested. The observed trend towards increased feed intake needs further elucidation. [source]

    Effects of vitamin E and selenium on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails reared under heat stress (34 °C)

    K. Sahin
    This study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin E (dL-,-Tocopheryl acetate) and selenium (Se; Na2 -SeO3) on performance, digestibility of nutrients and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails reared under chronic heat stress (34 °C). A total of 120 10-day-old Japanese quails were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, three replicates of 10 birds each. The birds with a 2 × 2 factorial design received either two levels of vitamin E (125 and 250 mg/kg of diet) or two levels of Se (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg of diet). A 250-mg vitamin E/kg of diet compared with that of 125 mg/kg of diet and higher dietary Se inclusions (0.1 vs. 0.2 mg/kg) resulted in a better performance (p=0.001). The interaction between vitamin E and Se for feed intake (p=0.03), final body weight change (p=0.03) and feed efficiency (p=0.001) was detected. Carcass yield increased with increasing both dietary vitamin E and Se (p=0.001). The interactions on carcass characteristics were all non-significant (p > 0.06). Digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP and ether extract) was higher with higher dietary vitamin E (p=0.03), and DM digestibility was also higher with higher dietary Se (p=0.05). There were no interactions detected for digestibility of nutrients (p=0.28). From the results of the present study, it was concluded that a combination of 250 mg of vitamin E and 0.2 mg of Se provides the greatest performance in Japanese quails reared under heat stress and this combination can be considered as a protective management practice in Japanese quail diets, reducing the negative effects of heat stress. [source]

    Dietary vitamin A requirement of juvenile Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii)

    H. Wen
    Summary The present experiment was conducted to determine the dietary vitamin A requirement of juvenile Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) by formulating seven semipurified diets containing 10, 258, 510, 1050, 2020, 4100 and 8300 IU vitamin A (as retinol acetate) kg,1 diet, respectively. Each experimental diet was fed to triplicate groups of 20 juveniles each with initial average weights of 12.09 ± 0.22 g in 405-L aquaria and maintained at 25.0 ± 2.0°C for 8 weeks. Fish fed the basal diet (10 IU vitamin A kg,1 diet) exhibited poor appetite and activity, whereas these signs were not observed in any group fed vitamin A-supplemented diets. Weight gain, feed efficiency and hepatosomatic index increased significantly with increases in the dietary vitamin A level, reaching a peak with the vitamin A 1050 IU kg,1 diet, and then decreasing. Muscle chemical compositions were not affected by the dietary vitamin A levels. Vitamin A concentrations in liver and muscle increased significantly as the vitamin A levels increased within a range of 10,4100 IU kg,1 diet; above this level there were no significant changes. Broken-line regression analysis of weight gain and liver vitamin A concentration against the dietary vitamin A level showed that juvenile Amur sturgeon required a minimum of 923 IU vitamin A kg,1 in the diet for maximal growth, and 1981 IU kg,1 for highest liver vitamin A accumulation. [source]

    Growth and product quality of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) as affected by dietary protein and lipid sources

    U. Luzzana
    Summary A 12-week feeding trial was undertaken to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of marine raw materials in the diet with soybean meal and beef tallow on growth and product quality of European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Based on growth, feed efficiency and chemical composition, soybean meal was found to be an unsuitable ingredient for eel diets as a substitute for fishmeal (25% on a protein basis), probably because of the low digestibility of its carbohydrate content. However, beef tallow can be used to replace 50% of fish oil without reduction in growth, provided that digestible carbohydrates are present in the diet. No major effects of protein and lipid sources in the diet were found on fillet chemical composition. Sensory analysis revealed no significant differences between fish fed the control and the experimental diets, with the exception of salty taste which was significantly higher in fish fed combined soybean meal and beef tallow compared with fish fed the control diet. [source]

    Comparison of alternatives to in-feed antimicrobials for the prevention of clinical necrotic enteritis

    M.S. Geier
    Abstract Aims:, The capacity for Lactobacillus johnsonii and an organic acid (OA) blend to prevent Clostridium perfringens -induced clinical necrotic enteritis (NE) in chickens was studied. Methods and Results:, Cobb 500 birds were allocated into six groups (n = 25 birds/pen, eight pens/treatment); Unchallenged, Challenged, Antimicrobial (zinc bacitracin (ZnB)/monensin), OA, probiotic Lact. johnsonii and probiotic sham (Phosphate,buffered saline). All birds were challenged with Eimeria spp. and Cl. perfringens except for unchallenged controls. Birds fed antimicrobials were protected from NE development as indicated by maintenance of body weight, low mortality and clostridium levels, and decreased intestinal macroscopic lesion scores compared to challenged controls (P < 0·05). Lactobacillus johnsonii -fed birds had reduced lesion scores, whilst OA-fed birds had decreased Cl. perfringens levels. Both Lact. johnsonii and OA-fed birds had improved feed efficiency between days 0 and 28 compared to challenged controls; however, mortality and body weights were not improved by either treatment. Microbial profiling indicated that the challenge procedure significantly altered the jejunal microbiota. The microbiota of antimicrobial-fed birds was significantly different from all other groups. Conclusions:, Whilst Lact. johnsonii and OA altered specific intestinal parameters, significant protection against NE was not observed. Significance and Impact of the Study:,Lactobacillus johnsonii and OA did not prevent NE; however, some improvements were evident. Other related treatments, or combinations of these two treatments, may provide greater protection. [source]

    Do bacteria need to be regulated?

    P. Silley
    Abstract Additives for use in animal nutrition are regulated under Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003. The scope of this paper addresses the specific microbiological issues relevant to a microbial feed additive, containing a Bacillus spp. and uses as an example a product with the trade name, Calsporin®. Bacillus subtilis C-3102 is the active ingredient in Calsporin® and is added to animal feed to favourably affect animal production and performance (growth and feed efficiency), by modulating the gastrointestinal flora. It is not the purpose of this review to present the raw data for Calsporin® but rather to use Calsporin® as an example of the type of data required by the European regulatory authorities. At the time of preparation of this manuscript Calsporin® has yet to be reviewed by the authorities. The regulatory system under the auspices of the EFSA FEEDAP Panel is clearly attempting to move in line with development of scientific opinion and is to be applauded for such efforts. Bacteria do need to be regulated, and the regulations clearly provide adequate and appropriate protection to human health and to environmental considerations. [source]

    Effects of dietary black cumin seed (Nigella sativa L.) on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content and egg yolk fatty acid composition in laying hens

    Professor Dr Sakine Yalç
    Abstract BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary black cumin seed on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content and egg yolk fatty acid composition in laying hens during a 12 week period. For this purpose a total of 160 Lohmann Brown laying hens 36 weeks of age were allocated to four dietary treatments with one control group and three treatment groups. Black cumin seed (Nigella sativa L.) was used at the level of 5, 10 and 15 g kg,1 in the diets of the first, second and third treatment groups, respectively. RESULTS: Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, feed intake, egg production, egg quality characteristics and blood parameters. Diets containing 10 and 15 g kg,1 black cumin seed increased egg weight (P < 0.01), improved feed efficiency (P < 0.01) and decreased egg yolk cholesterol, saturated fatty acids (% of total fatty acid methyl esters) and the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) compared to the diet of control group. CONCLUSION: Dietary black cumin seed at the level of 10 and 15 g kg,1 had beneficial effects on egg weight, feed efficiency, egg cholesterol content and egg yolk fatty acid composition. Therefore it can be used at the level of 10 and 15 g kg,1 in the diets of laying hens. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    The effect of reduced amino acid level and increasing levels of lupin on growth performance and meat content in organic reared pigs

    Jan Værum Nørgaard
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Suitable protein sources for organic pig production are scarce. This project was aimed at studying the effect of a reduced amino acid level and thus crude protein level, and the inclusion of lupin in diets for grower-finisher pigs fed under organic conditions. Two hundred pigs (females:male castrates, 1:1) were fed either 100% or 85% of amino acid recommendations and lupin inclusions levels of 0%, 12.5% or 25% from 30 to 105 kg. RESULTS: Feed intake, daily gain and feed efficiency were not significantly affected by the amino acid level. Carcass meat percentage was 59.2% for females and 57.2% for castrates when fed low amino acid level and 0% lupin, and this was an effect of higher feed intake of castrates compared with females. The inclusion of 25% lupin reduced feed intake and daily gain, lowered feed efficiency and increased slaughter loss and carcass meat percentage. CONCLUSION: It is possible to reduce amino acid levels and thus crude protein levels without adverse effects on animal performance. It is, however, recommended to feed castrates restrictively to avoid low carcass meat percentage. Inclusion of up to 12.5% of lupin can be used in organic diets for pigs without negative effects on animal performance. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Effect of breed type, housing and feeding system on performance of growing pigs managed under organic conditions

    Hilary RC Kelly
    Abstract BACKGROUND: There is a need for information on the performance and carcass quality of pigs under different organic management systems. This study compared Duroc-sired progeny from three maternal breed types when kept either at pasture or in housing with an outdoor run and offered ad libitum concentrate either alone or with fodder beet or grass/clover silage as additional forage. RESULTS: Liveweight gain, feed intake and the proportion of forages consumed did not differ between genotypes. Carcass fatness of progeny was lowest for a ,modern' genotype (Camborough 12) and highest for a ,traditional' purebred genotype (Saddleback), with a ,crossbred traditional' genotype (Saddleback × Duroc) being intermediate (11.4, 14.3 and 13.4 mm P2 respectively, standard error of mean (SEM) 0.27, P < 0.001). With a cereal-based concentrate available ad libitum, intake of forages was low (<2% of dry matter intake). Although growth rate did not differ between housing systems, daily feed intake was greater at pasture (2.47 vs 2.22 kg meal equivalent, SEM 0.05, P < 0.001), giving poorer feed efficiency (P < 0.01). Pastured animals consumed less additional forage and had a higher killing-out % but similar carcass fatness. CONCLUSION: For organic pig production to be financially sustainable, disadvantages arising from the genotype and/or rearing system chosen need to be offset by a market premium for the pigs produced. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Factors affecting the meat quality of veal

    Tania M Ngapo
    Abstract Over the last 50 years the veal industry has seen a number of changes, in particularly in production systems with the introduction and acceptance of grain-fed and heavier calves and the progressive move from individual pens to group housing. Reasons for the changes are multi-faceted of which two important players are the well-being of the animal and the public perception of the industry. Regardless of the reasons for the changes, breeders strive to attain veal conforming to the rigorous standards reflecting consumer demands. Consequently a multitude of publications exists on production factors in veal farming. However, many of these reports stop at the ,farm gate', or more correctly, the slaughterhouse, where carcass characteristics in particular are assessed. Changes in production systems generally aim to improve feed efficiency and weight gains, but often overlook meat quality aspects which ultimately dictate financial gains. This review aims to summarise the existing and available literature on factors affecting the quality of veal meat. The topics covered include the effects of breed, sex, weight or age, diet composition and dietary treatments, environment and pre-slaughter handling, and processing factors such as stunning, electrical stimulation, ageing and packaging. Copyright © 2006 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effect of feeding complete feed block containing Prosopis cineraria leaves and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 on nutrient intake, its utilization, rumen fermentation pattern and rumen enzyme profile in kids

    Raghavendra Bhatta
    Abstract A study was carried out to determine the effect of replacing the cake portion of concentrate mixture with 5 parts polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 in a complete feed block (CFB) containing Prosopis cineraria leaves on the performance, rumen fermentation pattern and rumen enzyme profile of kids under an intensive system of rearing. Eighteen weaners of Sirohi goat of similar body weight (16.0 ± 0.5 kg) and age (90 ± 5 days) were divided into three equal groups. They were housed in individual cages in a side open asbestos roof shed with mud floor. All the kids received CFBs containing 50 parts P cineraria leaves and 50 parts concentrate mixture. CFB offered to the first group had high protein (183.8 g kg,1; HP), that offered to the second group had low protein (131.3 g kg,1; LP) and that offered to the third group had low protein (124.7 g kg,1) but contained PEG-6000 (LP-PEG). The concentrate mixtures in LP and LP-PEG were without groundnut cake, whereas in LP-PEG, groundnut cake was replaced by barley and 5 parts PEG-6000 were incorporated. CFBs were similar in their nutritive value except for crude protein (CP). Prosopis leaves utilized in the CFB contained (g kg,1 dry matter) 129.1 CP, 535.5 neutral detergent fibre, 395.8 acid detergent fibre and 222.8 acid detergent lignin. There were significant differences in dry matter intake (g day,1) between HP (1102), LP (1108) and LP-PEG (1194); the trend in Metabolizable energy intake was similar. During the growth trial, LP kids consumed maximum amount of feed (76.91 kg) followed by HP (75.73 kg) and LP-PEG (73.12 kg). However, maximum feed efficiency (feed consumed kg,1 live weight gain) was recorded in LP-PEG kids (9.59) followed by HP (10.64) and LP (11.60). These differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Although there was no significant difference in the digestibility of dry matter among the groups, there was significant difference in the digestibility of CP, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre. The digestibility of CP was 0.591, 0.484 and 0.645, that of neutral detergent fibre was 0.397, 0.308 and 0.499 and that of acid detergent fibre was 0.168, 0.154 and 0.282 in HP, LP and LP-PEG, respectively. Rumen metabolites studied 6 h after feeding revealed that there were significant (p < 0.05) differences in the concentrations of ammonia N, tri-chloro acetic acid precipitable N and total volatile fatty acids among the three groups, but not pH. The rumen enzyme concentrations showed significant (p < 0.05) differences for ,-amylase, whereas the differences were non-significant for CMcase and protease. After 90 days of feeding trial, the maximum weight gain was recorded in LP-PEG (7.62 kg) followed by HP (7.23 kg) and LP (6.53 kg). It can be concluded that, when kids are reared under an intensive system on complete feed blocks containing Prosopis leaves, high protein concentrate can be replaced with a low protein concentrate containing 5 parts PEG, which would not only alleviate the negative effects of tannin but would also spare expensive groundnut protein. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Growth Performance, Immune Response, and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Fed Diets Containing Various Levels of Vitamins C and E

    Chhorn Lim
    Growth, immunity, and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge were evaluated after feeding diets supplemented with vitamin C (0, 100, 2000 mg/kg) and E (0, 50, 500 mg/kg) for 12 wk. Supplementation of 100 mg vitamin C/kg to the basal diet was sufficient to increase growth and feed efficiency. The amount of vitamin E present in the basal diet (23.1 mg/kg) was sufficient to promote good growth and feed efficiency, but adding 50 mg vitamin E/kg was necessary to increase survival. Liver vitamin C and E concentrations increased with increasing dietary concentrations of the corresponding vitamin. Dietary vitamin E concentrations had no effect on liver vitamin C concentration, but increasing dietary vitamin C increased liver vitamin E. Although hematology was generally unaffected by dietary vitamin E, significantly lower red blood cell count and hemoglobin and higher mean corpuscular volume were observed in fish fed the vitamin C-unsupplemented diets. Total immunoglobulin and lysozyme activity were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in fish fed 2000 mg/kg vitamin C diets. Vitamin E at 500 mg/kg diet significantly decreased alternative complement activity. Dietary concentrations of vitamin C had no effect on mortality following S. iniae challenge, but mortality significantly decreased in fish fed vitamin E,supplemented diets. [source]

    Evaluation of Glycerol from Biodiesel Production as a Feed Ingredient for Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Menghe H. Li
    Glycerol is the main by-product of biodiesel production from vegetable oils and animal fats. It has been evaluated as an energy source for several farm animals. A study was conducted to examine the effects of various levels of glycerol in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. Fish with mean initial weight of 6.8 ± 0.1 g were stocked in 110-L flow-through aquaria and fed practical diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% glycerol for 9 wk. There were no significant differences in feed consumption, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, and liver lipid level among fish fed diets containing 0, 5, and 10% glycerol. However, fish fed diets containing 15 and 20% glycerol had reduced weight gain, feed efficiency, and liver lipid content. Survival was not affected by dietary glycerol levels. Blood glucose level was significantly higher in fish fed 5% glycerol than fish fed other diets. Fillet protein and fat generally decreased and fillet moisture increased as dietary glycerol level increased. It appears that channel catfish can utilize about 10% glycerol in the diet without adverse effects on feed consumption, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, hemoglobin, hepatosomatic index, and liver lipid. [source]