Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Feed

  • animal feed
  • artificial feed
  • catfish feed
  • commercial feed
  • control feed
  • dry feed
  • enteral feed
  • fish feed
  • formulated feed
  • g feed
  • kg feed
  • larval feed
  • live feed
  • monomer feed
  • other feed
  • pelleted feed
  • protein feed
  • same feed
  • shrimp feed
  • single feed
  • solid feed
  • species feed
  • trout feed

  • Terms modified by Feed

  • feed additive
  • feed composition
  • feed concentration
  • feed consumption
  • feed containing
  • feed conversion
  • feed conversion efficiency
  • feed conversion rate
  • feed conversion ratio
  • feed cost
  • feed deprivation
  • feed efficiency
  • feed efficiency ratio
  • feed flow rate
  • feed formulation
  • feed formulations
  • feed gas
  • feed industry
  • feed ingredient
  • feed intake
  • feed intolerance
  • feed line
  • feed material
  • feed mixture
  • feed moisture
  • feed moisture content
  • feed particle
  • feed pellet
  • feed preference
  • feed production
  • feed protein
  • feed rate
  • feed ratio
  • feed sample
  • feed side
  • feed solution
  • feed stream
  • feed structure
  • feed supplement
  • feed type
  • feed used
  • feed utilization
  • feed utilization efficiency

  • Selected Abstracts

    Oil and the Euro area economy

    ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 60 2009
    Gert Peersman
    Summary We examine the macroeconomic effects of different types of oil shocks and the oil transmission mechanism in the Euro area. A comparison is made with the US and across individual member countries. First, we find that the underlying source of the oil price shift is crucial to determine the repercussions on the economy and the appropriate monetary policy reaction. Second, the transmission mechanism is considerably different compared to the US. In particular, inflationary effects in the US are mainly driven by a strong direct pass-through of rising energy prices and indirect effects of higher production costs. In contrast, Euro area inflation reacts sluggishly and is much more driven by second-round effects of increasing wages. The monetary policy reaction of the ECB to oil shocks is also strikingly different compared to the FED. The inflation objective, relative to the output stabilization objective, appears more important for Euro area monetary authorities than for the FED. Third, there are substantial asymmetries across member countries. These differences are due to different labour market dynamics which are further aggravated by a common monetary policy stance which does not fit all. --- Gert Peersman and Ine Van Robays [source]


    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 3 2005
    Jac C. Heckelman
    The theory of opportunistic political business cycles predicts incumbent politicians will alter their economic policies to spur short-run growth to attract additional votes for the upcoming election. There has not been much emphasis on the possibility of historical political business cycles prior to the Keynesian Revolution. No study has yet undertaken a systematic approach to testing for policy cycles during this period. Our study will bridge this gap by considering cycles in monetary policy for the periods of 1879,1914 until the start of Fed operations, and 1914,1932 until abandonment of the gold standard. To properly test for political cycles, it is necessary to develop reaction functions for the Treasury and compare against the reaction function later held by the Fed. This also reveals that creation of an independent monetary authority to be insulated from political pressures changed the manner in which policy was directed, aside from political issues. The evidence is not consistent, however, with monetary cycles closely tied to electoral concerns. [source]

    Microbial Community Dynamics of a Continuous Mesophilic Anaerobic Biogas Digester Fed with Sugar Beet Silage

    B. Demirel
    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term fermentation of an extremely sour substrate without any addition of manure. In the future, the limitation of manure and therefore the anaerobic digestion of silage with a very low buffering capacity will be an increasing general bottleneck for energy production from renewable biomass. During the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sugar beet silage (without top and leaves) as the sole substrate (without any addition of manure), which had an extreme low pH of around 3.3, the highest specific gas production rate (spec. GPR) of 0.72,L/g volatile solids (VS),d was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 25,days compared to an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.97,g VS/L,d at a pH of around 6.80. The methane (CH4) content of the digester ranged between 58 and 67,%, with an average of 63,%. The use of a new charge of substrate (a new harvest of the same substrate) with higher phosphate content improved the performance of the biogas digester significantly. The change of the substrate charge also seemed to affect the methanogenic population dynamics positively, thus improving the reactor performance. Using a new substrate charge, a further decrease in the HRT from 25 to 15,days did not influence the digester performance and did not seem to affect the structure of the methanogenic population significantly. However, a decrease in the HRT affected the size of the methanogenic population adversely. The lower spec. GPR of 0.54,L/g,VS,d attained on day,15 of the HRT could be attributed to a lower size of methanogenic population present in the anaerobic digester during this stage of the process. Furthermore, since sugar beet silage is a relatively poor substrate, in terms of the buffering capacity and the availability of nutrients, an external supply of buffering agents and nutrients is a prerequisite for a safe and stable digester operation. [source]

    Predicting carbon content in illitic clay fractions from surface area, cation exchange capacity and dithionite-extractable iron

    M. Kahle
    Summary We used the specific surface area (SSA), the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the content of dithionite-extractable iron (Fed) to predict the content of organic carbon in illitic clay fractions of topsoils from loess. We determined SSA (BET-N2 method) and CEC of clay fractions after removing organic C or reducing oxides or both. The CEC and the SSA of the carbon- and oxide-free clay fraction explained 56% and 54% of the variation in C content, respectively. The Fed content of the clay fractions was strongly and negatively related to the C content, and with the SSA of the carbon-free clay fraction it predicted C content almost completely (R2 = 0.96). The results indicate that the amount of cations adhering to the silicate clay minerals and the size of the silicate mineral surface area are important properties of the mineral phase for the storage potential of C. The reason for the negative relation between iron oxides and C content remains unclear. [source]

    Prolonged gene knockdown in the tsetse fly Glossina by feeding double stranded RNA

    D. P. Walshe
    Abstract Reverse genetic studies based on RNA interference (RNAi) have revolutionized analysis of gene function in most insects. However the necessity of injecting double stranded RNA (dsRNA) inevitably compromises many investigations particularly those on immunity. Additionally, injection of tsetse flies often causes significant mortality. We demonstrate, at transcript and protein level, that delivering dsRNA in the bloodmeal to Glossina morsitans morsitans is as effective as injection in knockdown of the immunoresponsive midgut-expressed gene TsetseEP. However, feeding dsRNA fails to knockdown the fat body expressed transferrin gene, 2A192, previously shown to be silenced by dsRNA injection. Mortality rates of the dsRNA fed flies were significantly reduced compared to injected flies 14 days after treatment (Fed: 10.1% 1.8%; injected: 37.9% 3.6% (Mean SEM)). This is the first demonstration in Diptera of gene knockdown by feeding and the first example of knockdown in a blood-sucking insect by including dsRNA in the bloodmeal. [source]

    [Fe-Fe]-hydrogenase reactivated by residue mutations as bridging carbonyl rearranges: A QM/MM study

    Stefan Motiu
    Abstract In this work, we found aqueous enzyme phase reaction pathways for the reactivation of the exogenously inhibited [Fe-Fe]-hydrogenases by O2, or OH,, which metabolizes to H2O (Dogaru et al., Int J Quantum Chem 2008, 108; Motiu et al., Int J Quantum Chem 2007, 107, 1248). We used the hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method to study the reactivation pathways of the exogenously inhibited enzyme matrix. The ONIOM calculations performed on the enzyme agree with experimental results (Liu et al., J Am Chem Soc 2002, 124, 5175), that is, wild-type [Fe-Fe]-hydrogenase H-cluster is inhibited by oxygen metabolites. An enzyme spherical region with a radius of 8 (from the distal iron, Fed) has been screened for residues that prevent H2O from leaving the catalytic site and reactivate the [Fe-Fe]-hydrogenase H-cluster. In the screening process, polar residues were removed, one at a time, and frequency calculations provided the change in the Gibbs' energy for the dissociation of water (due to their deletion). When residue deletion resulted in significant Gibbs' energy decrease, further residue substitutions have been carried out. Following each substitution, geometry optimization and frequency calculations have been performed to assess the change in the Gibbs' energy for the elimination of H2O. Favorable thermodynamic results have been obtained for both single residue removal (,G,Glu374 = ,1.6 kcal/mol), single substitution (,GGlu374His = ,3.1 kcal/mol), and combined residue substitutions (,GArg111Glu;Thr145Val;Glu374His;Tyr375Phe = ,7.5 kcal/mol). Because the wild-type enzyme has only an endergonic step to overcome, that is, for H2O removal, by eliminating several residues, one at a time, the endergonic step was made to proceed spontaneously. Thus, the most promising residue deletions which enhance H2O elimination are ,Arg111, ,Thr145, ,Ser177, ,Glu240, ,Glu374, and ,Tyr375. The thermodynamics and electronic structure analyses show that the bridging carbonyl (COb) of the H-cluster plays a concomitant role in the enzyme inhibition/reactivation. In gas phase, COb shifts towards Fed to compensate for the electron density donated to oxygen upon the elimination of H2O. However, this is not possible in the wild-type enzyme because the protein matrix hinders the displacement of COb towards Fed, which leads to enzyme inhibition. Nevertheless, enzyme reactivation can be achieved by means of appropriate amino acid substitutions. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2010 [source]

    Reactivation pathway of the hydrogenase H-cluster: Density functional theory study

    Stefan Motiu
    Abstract This work puts forth a reaction pathway for the reactivation of exogenous ligand inhibited H-cluster, the active site of Fe-only hydrogenases. The H-cluster is a dimetal complex, Fe,Fe, with the metal centers bridged by di(thiomethyl)amine. Exogenous ligands, H2O, and OH,, are bound to the distal iron (Fed). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the native and ruthenium-modified H-cluster have been performed using the B3LYP functional with 6-31+G** and 6-311+G** basis sets. We have ascertained that there is a thermodynamically favorable pathway for the reactivation of the OH, inhibited H-cluster, which proceeds by an initial protonation of the Fed,OH, complex. The proposed reaction pathway has all its intermediate reactions ensue exothermically. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2007 [source]

    Asymmetries in Transatlantic Monetary Policy-making: Does the ECB Follow the Fed?,

    The belief that the European Central Bank (ECB) follows the US Federal Reserve (the Fed) in setting its policy is so entrenched with market participants and commentators that the search for empirical support would seem to be a trivial task. However, this is not the case. We find that the ECB is indeed often influenced by the Fed, but the reverse is true at least as often if one considers longer sample periods. There is empirically little support for the proposition that there has for a long time been a systematic asymmetric leader-follower relationship between the ECB and the Fed. Only after September 2001 is there more evidence of such an asymmetry. There is a clear-cut structural break between the period pre-economic and monetary union (EMU) and EMU itself in terms of the relationship between short-term interest rates on both sides of the Atlantic. [source]

    Forecasting the Treasury's balance at the Fed

    Daniel L. Thornton
    Abstract As part of the Fed's daily operating procedure, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the Board of Governors and the Treasury make a forecast of that day's Treasury balance at the Fed. These forecasts are an integral part of the Fed's daily operating procedure. Errors in these forecasts can generate variation in reserve supply and, consequently, the federal funds rate. This paper evaluates the accuracy of these forecasts. The evidence suggests that each agency's forecast contributes to the optimal, i.e., minimum variance, forecast and that the Trading Desk of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York incorporates information from all three of the agency forecasts in conducting daily open market operations. Moreover, these forecasts encompass the forecast of an economic model. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Noradrenergic Regulation of Hypothalamic Cells that Produce Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone and Somatostatin and the Effect of Altered Adiposity in Sheep

    J. Iqbal
    Abstract The growth hormone (GH) axis is sensitive to alteration in body weight and there is evidence that central noradrenergic systems regulate neurones that produce growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF). This study reports semiquantitative estimates of the noradrenergic input to neuroendocrine GHRH and SRIF neurones in the sheep of different body weights. We also studied the effects of altered body weight on expression of dopamine ,-hydroxylase (DBH), the enzyme that produces noradrenalin from dopamine. Ovariectomised ewes were made Lean (39.6 2.6 kg; Mean SEM) by dietary restriction, whereas Normally Fed animals (61.2 0.8 kg) were maintained on a regular diet. Brains were perfused for immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation. The Mean SEM number of GHRH-immunoreactive (-IR) cells was lower in Normally Fed (65 7) than in Lean (115 14) animals, whereas the number of SRIF-IR cells was similar in the two groups (Normally Fed, 196 17; Lean 230 21). Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that the percentage of GHRH-IR cells (Normally Fed 36 1.5% versus Lean 32 4.6%) and percentage of SRIF-IR cells (Normally Fed 30 40.4% versus Lean 32 2.3%) contacted by noradrenergic fibres did not change with body weight. FluoroGold retrograde tracer injections confirmed that noradrenergic projections to the arcuate nucleus are from ventrolateral medulla and noradrenergic projections to periventricular nucleus arise from the ventrolateral medulla, nucleus of solitary tract, locus coeruleus (LC) and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). DBH expressing cells were identified using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation and the level of expression (silver grains/cell) quantified by image analysis. The number of DBH cells was similar in Normally Fed and Lean animals, but the level of expression/cell was lower (P < 0.02) in the PBN and LC of Lean animals. These results provide an anatomical basis for the noradrenergic regulation of GHRH and SRIF cells and GH secretion. Altered activity or noradrenergic neurones in the PBN and LC that occur with reduced body weight may be relevant to the control of GH axis. [source]

    Asymmetric monetary policy with respect to asset markets

    OXONOMICS, Issue 2 2009
    Andreas Hoffmann
    The paper suggests that during Greenspan's incumbency the Federal Reserve (Fed) lowered interest rates rapidly when asset price developments suggested a crisis potential. Whereas, when asset markets were growth-supporting, the Fed did not raise interest rates. This asymmetry contributed to a downward-trend in interest rates which pushed US interest rates down to zero in the current crisis. [source]

    Inside the Fed: Monetary Policy and its Management, Martin through Greenspan to Bernanke

    THE ECONOMIC RECORD, Issue 272 2010
    Stephen Grenville
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A quantitative approach to probe the dependence and correlation of food-effect with aqueous solubility, dose/solubility ratio, and partition coefficient (Log P) for orally active drugs administered as immediate-release formulations

    Brahma N. Singh
    Abstract The purpose of the present review was to systematically evaluate if aqueous solubility, dose/solubility ratio, and partition coefficient (Log P) could be used as useful parameters to quantitatively probe the dependence and correlation of in vivo food effects with these physicochemical properties of orally active drugs administered as immediate-release (IR) formulations. Mean AUC data obtained under fasted and fed states of over 100 structurally diverse orally active drugs with different physicochemical properties were obtained from the primary literature. Correlations of AUC ratio (Fed/Fasted) with aqueous solubility, dose/solubility ratio, and Log P were derived and statistically evaluated by Pearson's correlation test (two-tailed). A negative correlation was obtained between the logarithm of the aqueous solubility and the AUC ratio (r=,0.5982, N=93), whereas a positive correlation existed between AUC ratio and Log P (r=0.5147, N=110) and between AUC ratio and dose/solubility ratio (r=0.5511, N=87). All these correlations were significant (P<0.0001). Based on this study, the estimated range within which a drug is not expected to be significantly affected by food falls between 0.148,89.39 mg/ml for aqueous solubility and between 0.23,624 ml for the dose:solubility ratio. The corresponding range of Log P for expecting a lack of food-effect lies between ,1.13 and 2.98. Quantitatively, the effect of food was most pronounced for lipophilic, poorly water-soluble drugs (with only a few exceptions), irrespective of whether the drug is acidic, basic, or neutral. It is concluded that aqueous solubility, dose/solubility ratio, and partition coefficient can be used as useful parameters to probe the dependence and correlation of food-effect with these physicochemical parameters for immediate-release formulations. Drug Dev. Res. 65:55,75, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Feed and feeding quality of imported grass hays as evaluated by newly proposed grades

    GRASSLAND SCIENCE, Issue 2 2007
    Yoshitsugu Niwa
    Abstract In conjunction with investigating the quality of imported grass hays, the present study set out to develop an evaluation standard. A total of 123 hay samples were tested: 70 of timothy hay, 23 of sudangrass hay, 20 of oat hay and 10 of bermudagrass hay. Crude protein content, nitrogen cell wall free extract (NCWFE) content, Oa (organic a fraction in cell wall, non-lignified portion of cell wall) content and Ob (organic b fraction in cell wall, lignified portion of cell wall) content were measured for each sample, and the values of these were used as the basis for the determination of digestible carbohydrate content and dry matter intake (DMI). The variation in crude protein, NCWFE, Oa and Ob content within each grass species was large. The coefficients of variation for the chemical composition of all 123 samples were 24.9% for crude protein, 37.4% for NCWFE, 30.7% for Oa and 11.0% for Ob. Because variation in composition was large, variations in digestible carbohydrate content and DMI within each species were also large. On the basis of the mean values of chemical composition, it was determined that the harvesting period was after the flowering stage. Evaluation standards were set using a five-point scale (5, excellent; 4, good; 3, medium; 2, low; 1, poor), based on the 123 samples tested in the present study, using the mean values and standard deviations of chemical parameters, digestible carbohydrate content and DMI. Consequently, in assessing DMI (per bodyweight of 600 kg), a grade of 5 was given for values of 14.3 kg or higher, 4 for values between 11.5 and 14.3 kg, 3 for values between 8.7 and 11.5 kg, 2 for values between 5.9 and 8.7 kg, and 1 for values lower than 5.9 kg. [source]

    Development and physiology of gastric dilation air sacculitis in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum)

    L G Forgan
    Abstract The syndrome known as gastric dilation air sacculitis (GDAS) has previously been shown to affect Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in seawater (SW) aquaculture. Feed and osmoregulatory stress have been implicated as potential epidemiological co-factors. The development and physiology of GDAS was investigated in SW and freshwater (FW) adapted smolts. Diet A (low-cohesion pellets) and diet B (high-cohesion pellets) were fed to both FW- and SW-adapted fish. GDAS was induced only in the SW trial on feeding diet A. Stimulated gastro-intestinal (GI) smooth muscle contractility, and fluid transport by the pyloric caeca were different in GDAS-affected fish, which also showed osmoregulatory dysfunction. Cardiac stomach (CS) smooth muscle contractility in response to acetylcholine and potassium chloride (KCl) was significantly reduced in fish fed diet A relative to controls from weeks 3,5. In contrast, maximal pyloric sphincter (PS) circular smooth muscle contraction in response to KCl was significantly elevated in fish fed diet A in weeks 4 and 5. Serum osmolality was elevated in GDAS-affected fish from week 2 of the SW trial. Fluid transport from the mucosal to serosal surface of isolated pyloric caeca was significantly reduced in weeks 3, 4 and 5 in SW fish fed diet A. Gastric evacuation from the stomach of healthy fish was shown to be significantly different when diets of low- and high-cohesion were fed. The results are consistent with the intestinal brake playing a role in the development of the disease. [source]

    Use of probiotics to control furunculosis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    A Irianto
    Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the intestinal contents of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, on tryptone soya agar and De Man Rogosa and Sharpe agar, of which 11 of 177 (6% of the total) of the isolates were antagonistic to Aeromonas salmonicida. Four of these cultures, which were identified tentatively as A. hydrophila, Vibrio fluvialis, Carnobacterium sp. and an unidentified Gram-positive coccus, were beneficial to fish when fed singly or as an equi-mixture. Feed supplemented with the putative probiotics indicated survival of the organisms in the gastrointestinal tract for 7 days. Feeding with the probiotics for 7 and 14 days led to better survival following challenge with A. salmonicida. There was no indication of serum or mucus antibodies to A. salmonicida, but there was an increased number of erythrocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes and leucocytes, and enhanced lysozyme activity in the fish. [source]

    Effects of Vitamin E and Organic Selenium on Oxidative Stability of ,-3 Enriched Dark Chicken Meat during Cooking

    T.I. Perez
    ABSTRACT:, The influence of vitamin E and selenomethionine (SeMet) on lipid oxidation in frozen,raw and cooked ,-3 enriched dark chicken meat was evaluated. Feed was supplemented with 2 levels of vitamin E (250 and 50 IU/kg of feed) and selenium (0.1 mg of sodium selenite/kg of feed and 0.3 mg of SeMet/kg of feed). An extruded linseed product was used as the ,-linolenic acid source. Fatty acid (FA) profile, oxysterols, and thiobarbituric reactive acid substances (TBARs) were analyzed in frozen,raw, boiled, pan-fried, and roasted meat. After 6 mo of storage, oxysterols in frozen,raw meat remained stable with either high or low levels of dietary antioxidants. During cooking, high levels of vitamin E reduced oxysterol formation, whereas high levels of SeMet were inconsistent and even increased oxysterols during roasting. TBARs in frozen,raw meat stored for 6 mo were inhibited by high levels of either antioxidant. Conversely, no protective effect during cooking was observed at this time of storage. After 12 mo at ,30 C no antioxidant protection was observed. [source]

    Use of Cyclopoid Copepod Apocyclops dengizicus as Live Feed for Penaeus monodon Postlarvae

    Omidvar Farhadian
    In this study, the suitability of cyclopoid copepod Apocyclops dengizicus as a live food for black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, postlarvae was investigated. After 14 d, P. monodon postlarvae (PL1) had survival rates of 41.7 2.9% (mean SE), 28.7 1.2%, 56.3 3.7%, 4.4 1.9%, and 2.8 1.0% when fed A. dengizicus (CC), Artemia nauplii (AN), mixture of A. dengizicus and Artemia nauplii (CC + AN), artificial shrimp feed (SF), and microalga Tetraselmis tetrathele (TT), respectively. Specific growth rates (SGRs) of P. monodon were maximum (14.2 0.6%/d) in CC + AN, followed by CC (11.0 0.4%/d), AN (9.3 0.7%/d), SF (6.1 0.2%/d), and TT (6.0 0.5%/d). The total n-3 fatty acids of postlarvae increased from 20.6 to 25.8% when fed with CC, 28.8% with AN, and 29.0% with CC + AN. Better survival and SGRs of P. monodon postlarvae could be attributed to docosahexaenoic acid : eicosapentaenoic acid : arachidonic acid ratio of CC (10.2:3.2:1) diet. The results of this study showed that A. dengizicus has a potential to be used as a substitute live feed for P. monodon postlarvae because of better survival, growth, and high polyunsaturated fatty acids. [source]

    Comparison of Prepared Feed Versus Natural Food Ingestion Between Pond-Cultured Bluegill and Hybrid Sunfish

    Ryan L. Lane

    The Effects of Exogenous Bovine Growth Hormone and Placental Lactogen on Juvenile Striped Bass Morone saxatilis Feed and Growth Efficiency

    Amy S. Hunt
    Striped bass Morone saxatilis under normal pond-reared conditions usually requires 14,18 mo to grow out to market weight. This includes a winter of comparatively slower growth which could possibly be overcome through hormonally induced acceleration of growth. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that bovine growth hormone and bovine placental lactogen increase growth in striped bass in a dose dependent manner. A secondary objective was to determine the effect of these hormones on body composition. Variables tested were weight gain, length gain, condition factor, feed conversion, and body composition. Fish injected biweekly with 10 ,g/g body weight, bovine placental lactogen (P < 0.09) or bovine growth hormone (P < 0.11) increased body weight. Fish injected with 1 or 10 ,g/g body weight bovine placental lactogen (P < 0.10) or bovine growth hormone (P < 0.10) increased body length during the 12-wk study period. Proximate analysis indicated that bovine growth hormone increased protein content (10 ,g/g; P < 0.10) and decreased fat content (1 and 10 ,g/g; P < 0.10). No significant differences occurred in feed conversions. We conclude that bovine growth hormone and bovine placental lactogen are effective in increasing body growth in striped bass. [source]

    Marine yeast diet confers better protection than its cell wall component (1-3)-,- d -glucan as an immunostimulant in Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Thavarool Puthiyedathu Sajeevan
    Abstract A comparative study was performed to evaluate the immunostimulatory effect of yeast and yeast-derived glucan in white prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus (sub-adults of ,20 gm). Feed with a whole cell biomass of marine yeast Candida sake S165 (CSY) at a concentration of 10% (w/w) and another feed with 0.2% glucan of C. sake S165 (CSG) were used in the study. Fenneropenaeus indicus were fed with these diets for 40 days and subsequently challenged with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Haematological parameters such as the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide anion (O2,) level, haemolymph peroxidase level and post-challenge survival against WSSV infection were determined to assess the immune status. In the present experiment, a higher immunity index and post-challenge survival were recorded in shrimps fed with the whole cell yeast diet. The better immunostimulatory performance of the whole cell yeast diet compared with the glucan diet could be attributed to the cellular constituents of yeast including the cell wall glucan, nucleotides, carotenoid pigments and vitamins. Here we observed that whole cell yeast performed better as an immunostimulant than the extracted cell wall glucans. Therefore, the use of yeast biomass in diets, rather than the yeast cell wall extract, glucan, would confer better protection against microbial infection besides reducing the cost of shrimp production. [source]

    Experimental evaluation of co-culture of juvenile sea cucumbers, Holothuria scabra (Jaeger), with juvenile blue shrimp, Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson)

    Steven W Purcell
    Abstract The co-culture of juvenile sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (Jaeger), or ,sandfish', with juvenile blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) was tested by growing groups in co-culture and monoculture for 3 weeks in tanks with enriched sand substratum. Feed was supplied on trays, accessible only to shrimp. Survival of shrimp and sandfish was high in all treatments (73,100%). Growth of shrimp did not differ between monoculture and co-culture, but sandfish grew significantly slower in co-culture (P=0.03), although their sand burying and surface foraging were apparently unaffected by shrimp (P=0.76). However, shrimp increased the levels of total ammonia-N in tanks, which related inversely with sandfish growth (P=0.04). Conversely, sandfish did not appear to lower the water quality for shrimp culture. While sandfish bioturbate sediments and eat organic deposits, the juveniles did not significantly reduce the organic content of sand in tanks. Co-culturing juveniles of the two species in earthen ponds appears feasible, with no detriment to shrimp production, presenting a cost-effective method for growing sandfish to larger sizes for restocking. These findings underpin further studies to test the viability of commercial co-culture of sandfish with blue shrimp at later stages in the production cycle of shrimp. [source]

    The chromospherically active binary star EI Eridani: II.

    Long-term Doppler imaging
    Abstract Data from 11 years of continuous spectroscopic observations of the active RS CVn-type binary star EI Eridani , gained at NSO/McMath-Pierce, KPNO/Coud Feed and during the MUSICOS 98 campaign , were used to obtain 34 Doppler maps in three spectroscopic lines for 32 epochs, 28 of which are independent of each other. Various parameters are extracted from our Doppler maps: average temperature, fractional spottedness, and longitudinal and latitudinal spot-occurrence functions. We find that none of these parameters show a distinct variation nor a correlation with the proposed activity cycle as seen from photometric long-term observations. This suggests that the photometric brightness cycle may not necessarily be due to just a cool spot cycle. The general morphology of the spot pattern remains persistent over the whole period of 11 years. A large cap-like polar spot was recovered from all our images. A high degree of variable activity was noticed near latitudes of ,60,70 where the appendages of the polar spot emerged and dissolved ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Surgical removal of an ovarian tumour in a koi carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Ultrasonography, radiography and exploratory coeliotomy were used to diagnose and treat a large intracoelomic neoplasm from a female koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) presented for abdominal enlargement of several months duration. Feed was withheld for 1 week immediately prior to surgery and the fish was sedated with isoeugenol (AQUI-S) at a dose rate of 10 mL/L to facilitate diagnostic imaging techniques. Surgical anaesthesia was induced by adding tricaine (MS-222) 50 mg/L to the water and an exploratory coeliotomy and tumour removal was performed. The fish was allowed to recover in fresh water at 18C and salt was added slowly to the water over a period of 1 hour to a concentration of 5 g/L This concentration was maintained in a recovery pond for 1 week postoperatively. Enrofloxacin was administered intramuscularly (10 mg/kg) immediately, 3 days and 1 week postoperatively. A diagnosis of undifferentiated ovarian carcinoma was made on the basis of the histological appearance of the neoplasm and immunohistochemical staining. [source]

    Fast Determination of Clenbuterol and Salbutamol in Feed and Meat Products Based on Miniaturized Capillary Electrophoresis with Amperometric Detection

    Qing-Cui CHU
    Abstract The fast separation capability of a novel miniaturized capillary electrophoresis with an amperometric detection (,CE-AD) system was demonstrated by determining clenbuterol and salbutamol in real samples. The effects of several factors such as the acidity and concentration of the running buffer, the separation voltage, the applied potential and the injection time on CE-AD were examined and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the two , -agonists could be baseline separated within 60 s at a separation voltage of 2 kV in a 90 mmol/L H3BO3 -Na2B4O7 running buffer (pH 7.4), which was not interfered by ascorbic acid and uric acid. Highly linear response was obtained for above compounds over three orders of magnitude with detection limits ranging from 1.2010,7 to 6.5010,8 mol/L (S/N=3). This method was successfully used in the analysis of feed and meat products with relatively simple extraction procedures. [source]

    Mud crab pen culture: replacement of fish feed requirement and impacts on mangrove community structure

    Jurgenne H Primavera
    Abstract Brackishwater pond culture has been a major factor in mangrove loss in Southeast Asia, hence, the need to develop environment-friendly technologies such as mud crab Scylla (Portunidae) culture in mangrove pens exists. This study evaluated the effects of mud crab netpen systems in central Philippines on mangrove macroflora, and the replacement of dietary fish with low-cost pellets. Wild or hatchery-sourced Scylla olivacea and Scylla serrata were stocked at 0.5,0.8 m,2 in 167,200 m2 nylon netpens (2.3 cm stretched mesh) in Avicennia -dominated mangrove habitats. The feeding treatments were: (A) Zarraga: (1) no feeding (natural productivity), (2) no feeding for 1 month+supplementary feeding, (3) fish biomass and (4) low-cost pellets, and (B) Batan: (1) fish biomass and (2) pellets+fish biomass. Feeds were given ad libitum twice daily. Growth and survival rates of S. olivacea in Zarraga pens were not significantly different among treatments, although crabs fed fish biomass had the highest survival, body weight and production. Similarly, growth and survival of S. serrata were not significantly different between the Batan treatments. Economic analysis of the latter gave a 38.5% return on investment (ROI) and 2.6 years payback period (PP) for pellets+fish biomass treatment compared with 27.5% ROI and 3.6 years PP for fish alone. Sensitivity analysis showed an improved economic performance of the pellets+fish biomass treatment by increasing the survival rate. Evaluation of mangrove community structure showed that crab culture reduced species diversity, numbers and biomass of seedlings and saplings, but not of mangrove trees. Therefore, mud crab pen culture is recommended for mangrove sites with mature trees, but not seedlings and saplings, and low-cost pellets can reduce dependence on fish biomass. [source]

    Orexins/hypocretins and aminergic systems

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    K. S. Eriksson
    Abstract Orexin/hypocretin neurones in the posterior hypothalamus are mutually connected with noradrenergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic, histaminergic, and cholinergic neurone systems. They activate these targets by direct post-synaptic and indirect pre-synaptic mechanisms and in turn receive inhibitory feedback and excitatory feed forward control. With respect to behavioural state control, orexin/hypocretin neurones are conducting the orchestra of biogenic amines. This review highlights the role of these players in the control of energy administration, sleep,wake architecture, cortical activation, plasticity, and memory functions in health and disease. [source]

    In-hospital breast feeding rates among women with gestational diabetes and pregestational Type 2 diabetes in South Auckland

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2 2005
    D. Simmons
    Abstract Aim To describe the uptake of breast feeding in mothers with either Type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes (GDM) in a hospital serving a multiethnic community in South Auckland, New Zealand. Research design and methods A retrospective study of all women attending the Diabetes in Pregnancy clinic over a 4-year period was undertaken: 30 women had Type 2 diabetes and 373 GDM. Results Compared with mothers with GDM, mothers with Type 2 diabetes were less likely to breast feed in any way as the first feed (41.4% vs. 68.0%, P = 0.011) or at discharge (69.0% vs. 84.0%, P = 0.039). In the combined group, there were no differences in uptake of breast feeding by ethnicity, age, parity, body mass index, smoking or antenatal glycaemia, use of insulin or presence of hypertension. Breast feeding on discharge was associated with a higher APGAR score, breast feeding as the first feed (78.2% vs. 19.4%, P < 0.001) and lower rates of delivery by Caesarean section (17.0% vs. 31.8%, P = 0.006). Logistic regression showed breast feeding as the first feed, the major determinant for breast feeding on discharge. Conclusions Factors delaying breast feeding as the first feed are the major determinant of breast feeding on discharge. Strategies to increase breast feeding as the first feed among women with Type 2 diabetes, and those having a Caesarean section, may be useful in increasing the uptake of breast feeding in the longer term. [source]

    Persecution of Indian Christians

    DIALOG, Issue 2 2002
    Monica Melanchthon
    Christians are one among many minority religious groups in India that face "persecution.""Persecution" here relates to the unjust treatment of lower classes in the Hindu caste system; it is not only Christians that are persecuted, but all those who fall in the lower castes. Part of the animosity towards Christians, then, is due to the fact that many Christian schools have been built to educate the masses thereby upsetting the existing caste system; furthermore, Christianity preaches a classless gospel. Persecution of Christians in India takes place under the guise that Christian Missionaries are covertly trying to convert Hindu,Indian society to the western cult of individualism. Government propaganda, laws, and programs designed to thwart Christian efforts, feed off of this mentality. Unfortunately, there are certain Christian groups that feed off of the misery of people in an unjust caste,system, offering salvation through conversion. These groups do not help matters at all; in fact, they add fuel to the fire. [source]

    Flies and concealed nectar sources: morphological innovations in the proboscis of Bombyliidae (Diptera)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 3 2002
    N. U. Szucsich
    Abstract Bee-flies (Bombyliidae) have morphological adaptations of the mouthparts to particular floral traits. To investigate this the short, plesiomorphic proboscis of Hemipenthes morio was compared with the long, apomorphic proboscis of Bombylius major. A novel feeding position enables B. major to use flowers that open to the side as additional nectar sources. The new horizontal feeding position is enabled by the prolonged ventral base of the proboscis. Bombylius major exploits deep corolla tubes with an elongate proboscis, and an increased efficiency in both the suction pumps and the sealing mechanisms of the proboscis. The exploitation of narrow corolla tubes is made possible by the shift from a sponging feeding mode, exhibited by H. morio, to the exclusively sucking mode in B. major. Besides quantitative changes in the proportions of the different proboscis components, labellar movements as well as the structures of saliva distribution are changed along with this shift. The labial musculature of B. major does not significantly differ from the plesiomorphic state, since both examined species do not only feed on nectar, but also on pollen. [source]