Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Engineering

Terms modified by FEM

  • fem analysis
  • fem model
  • fem simulation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Physiologically correct animation of the heart

    Kyoungju Park
    Abstract Physiologically correct animation of the heart should incorporate non-homogeneous and nonlinear motions of the heart. Therefore, we introduce a methodology that estimates deformations from volume images and utilizes them for animation. Since volume images are acquired at regular slicing intervals, they miss information between slices and recover deformation on the slices. Therefore, the estimated finite element models (FEMs) result in coarse meshes with chunk elements the sizes of which depend on the slice intervals. Thus, we introduce a method of generating a detailed model using implicit surfaces and transferring a deformation from a FEM to implicit surfaces. An implicit surface heart model is reconstructed using contour data points and then cross-parameterized to the heart FEM, the time-varying deformation of which has been estimated by tracking the insights of the heart wall. The implicit surface heart models are composed of four heart walls that are blended into one model. A correspondence map between the source and the target meshes is made using the template fitting method. Deformation coupling transfers the deformation of a coarse heart FEM model to a detailed implicit model by factorizing linear equations. We demonstrate the system and show the resulting deformation of an implicit heart model. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Investigating static and dynamic characteristics of electromechanical actuators (EMA) with MATLAB GUIs

    Gursel Sefkat
    Abstract This paper deals with the design of an electromechanical device considering some prescribed performance requirements, and static and dynamic analysis of this device are carried out. In studying the transient response of such a system, as part of dynamic analysis, two methods mostly used finite element method (FEM) and finite differences method (FDM). However, these methods need much CPU time. In this work, a computer simulator program is developed for an EMA. This technique is implemented in the MATLAB-Simulink environment and tested for different design tasks such as electromagnetic valves or electromechanical brakes etc. Furthermore, by using GUIDE tools within MATLAB, a simple useful and user-friendly GUI structure is developed to provide a visual approach to design and analysis process. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 18: 383,396, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.20279 [source]

    Optimizing process allocation of parallel programs for heterogeneous clusters

    Shuichi Ichikawa
    Abstract The performance of a conventional parallel application is often degraded by load-imbalance on heterogeneous clusters. Although it is simple to invoke multiple processes on fast processing elements to alleviate load-imbalance, the optimal process allocation is not obvious. Kishimoto and Ichikawa presented performance models for high-performance Linpack (HPL), with which the sub-optimal configurations of heterogeneous clusters were actually estimated. Their results on HPL are encouraging, whereas their approach is not yet verified with other applications. This study presents some enhancements of Kishimoto's scheme, which are evaluated with four typical scientific applications: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), finite-element method (FEM), HPL (linear algebraic system), and fast Fourier transform (FFT). According to our experiments, our new models (NP-T models) are superior to Kishimoto's models, particularly when the non-negative least squares method is used for parameter extraction. The average errors of the derived models were 0.2% for the CFD benchmark, 2% for the FEM benchmark, 1% for HPL, and 28% for the FFT benchmark. This study also emphasizes the importance of predictability in clusters, listing practical examples derived from our study. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Simulation of Redox-Cycling Phenomena at Interdigitated Array (IDA) Electrodes: Amplification and Selectivity

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 5 2008
    M. Odijk
    Abstract We present Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations of interdigitated array (IDA) electrode geometries to study and verify redox selectivity and redox cycling amplification factor. The simulations provide an adequate explanation of an earlier found, but poorly understood, high amplification factor (65×) in a 1,,m-spaced IDA microdevice. Moreover, using the FEM calculations we present selectivity measurements with IDA electrodes in a mixture of two redox species, as for example dopamine and ferricyanide. We show that it is possible to electrochemically detect dopamine in presence of the stronger reductor ferricyanide, which is impossible with direct amperometric detection, with the use of IDA electrodes with proper polarization potential of the collector electrode. Using our simulations, we show that a theoretical selectivity of dopamine over ferricyanide of 11 can be achieved. [source]

    Modeling of Coating Process, Phase Changes, and Damage of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings on Ni-Base Superalloys,

    Tilmann Beck
    The paper gives an overview on the modeling activities on plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating in the frame of TFB 63. In the first part, through-process modeling of the APS deposition of a ZrO2 based TBC is described. Starting from simulation of the plasma jet, heat transfer into the powder particles, particle melting, particle impact on the substrate surface, and solidification is simulated. A homogenization method is introduced to describe the mechanical properties of the resulting TBC. The second part shows simulation of interdiffusion and phase transformations of MCrAlY and intermetallic oxidation protection coatings on several cast Ni-base alloy substrates. Finally, FEM-based damage simulation of oxidation protection coatings by transversal fatigue cracks during thermomechanical fatigue loading as well as by delamination of the TBC during thermocyclic loading is discussed. [source]

    Heat Transport in Closed Cell Aluminum Foams: Application Notes,

    Jaime Lázaro
    Heat transport equations have been used to solve, by implementing the Finite Element Method (FEM), three different cases representative of the aluminium foams life: the production process (solidification in the molten state), post-production (water quenching heat treatments) and applications (fire barriers). [source]

    Flow Behavior of Sandwich Structures for Cooling Thermally Highly Loaded Steam Turbine Components,

    Paul Beiss
    To increase steam temperature and pressure in the steam turbine, a new cooling structure (see picture) was developed comprising a woven wire mesh interlayer between two plane sheets. Cooling steam is fed into the interlayer, where it can flow without severe losses. To characterize the mechanical high temperature behavior of the structure, the flow behavior under static loading was investigated and simulated by the finite element method (FEM). [source]

    Coupled FEM and lumped circuit model of the electromagnetic response of coaxially insulated windings in two slot cores

    Pär Holmberg
    Abstract This paper presents a coupled FEM and lumped circuit modelling approach that is primarily intended for high-frequency and overvoltage simulations of rotating electric machines with coaxially insulated windings, such as Powerformer and Motorformer. The magnetic fields and their interaction with the conductors of the winding are simulated with the aid of a FEM-program. The displacement current and its losses are modelled with an external lumped circuit. To consider eddy current losses, the stranded conductors and the laminated steel cores are replaced by homogeneous bodies with similar losses over a wide frequency range. The approach is illustrated and experimentally verified for a set-up with a cable wound around two slot cores. The model agrees well with measurements up to 1,MHz. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Tests and calculations of short-circuit forces and displacements in high-voltage substations with strained conductors and droppers

    N. Stein
    Forschungsgemeinschaft für Elektrische Anlagen und Stromwirtschaft FCH and DKE UK 121.2 have recently completed an extensive systematic programme of short-circuit tests on substation bus bars of stranded conductors with and without droppers. The present test series, in continuation of the former studies, comprises 100-kV and 400-kV arrangements, applying the relevant parameters of the former. Apart from other variations, different current paths were studied for the arrangements with droppers. The present paper is confined to giving a survey of the 100-kV arrangements, parameter variations, measurements and test results, as far as they presently relate to the calculation procedure oflEC, CENELEC and D/V/VDE. It is further reported on studies with the Finite-Element Method (FEM) which show a remarkable comparative accuracy. Finally, the standardized method of IEC 60865-1 and EN 60865-1 for the calculation of short-circuit tensile forces is extended onto arrangements with droppers. [source]

    Significance of the elastic peak stress evaluated by FE analyses at the point of singularity of sharp V-notched components

    ABSTRACT The paper presents an expression useful to estimate the notch stress intensity factor (NSIF) from finite element analyses carried out by using a mesh pattern with a constant element size. The evaluation of the NSIF from a numerical analysis of the local stress field usually requires very refined meshes and then large computational effort. The usefulness of the presented expression is that (i) only the elastic peak stress numerically evaluated at the V-notch tip is needed and no longer the whole stress,distance set of data; (ii) the adopted meshes are rather coarse if compared to those necessary for the evaluation of the whole local stress field. The proposed expression needs the evaluation of a virtual V-notch tip radius, i.e. the radius which would produce the same elastic peak stress than that calculated by FEM at the sharp V-notch tip by means of a given mesh pattern. Once such a radius has been theoretically determined for a given geometry, the expression can be applied in a wide range of notch depths and opening angles. [source]

    The effect of interference-fit fasteners on the fatigue life of central hole specimens

    ABSTRACT Fatigue tests were carried out on 2024-T351, thickness 1.6 mm, central hole specimens containing pins installed with five different interference-fit levels. Tests clearly demonstrated the beneficial effect of interference fit on fatigue resistance, up to the maximum value examined, 2.5%. A three-dimensional (3D) finite-element model was used in order to characterize the stress field around the hole. A large specimen, with a 40-mm-diameter hole filled with interference-fit pin, was instrumented by strain gauges and statically tested in order to check FEM results. A very good correlation existed between measured and numerically evaluated strains. FEM results demonstrated the well-known effect of interference-fit fasteners on reducing stress ranges. By increasing the interference level, the stress range was practically unchanged, while the mean stress decreased. Interference-fit produces a biaxial stress state, which must be taken into account for fatigue evaluation. In the present case, a simple criterion, based on hoop strain, predicted the fatigue results quite well with the exception of open hole fatigue test results, which were overestimated. [source]

    Fluid injection and surface deformation at the KTB location: modelling of expected tilt effects

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2005
    T. JAHR
    Abstract This investigation is indented to explore the relationship between changes in pore fluid pressure and deformation of the land surface induced by a large-scale injection experiment at the KTB site. Deformation will be monitored by ASKANIA borehole tiltmeters at five locations. During the year 2003, a network of borehole tiltmeters was installed, data transmission links established and tested, and recording of tilt data started. Our first main interest was to receive data sets of all stations well before the injection experiment to start in May 2004, to be able to evaluate local site effects. Thus, the separation of injection-induced effects will be more reliable. Principal 3D numerical modelling (poro-elastic modelling and investigations, using the finite element method, FEM) of poro-elastic behaviour showed that significant tilt amplitudes can be expected during controlled fluid injection. Observed deformation will be investigated within the framework of the fluid flow behaviour and resulting deformation. Two models have been used: a coupled hydro geomechanical finite element model (abaqus) and, as a first step, also a multi-layered poro-elastic crust (poel). With the numerical model two effects can be quantified: (i) the deformation of the upper crust (tilt measurements) and (ii) the spatial distribution and the changes of material properties in the KTB area. The main aim of the project is to improve the knowledge of coupled geomechanic,hydraulic processes and to quantify important parameters. Thus, the understanding of fracture-dominated changes of the hydrogeological parameters will be enhanced, geomechanical parameter changes and the heterogeneity of the parameter field quantified. In addition, the induced stress field variation can be explained, which is believed to be mainly responsible for the increase of local seismic activity. Here, we introduce the tiltmeter array at the KTB site, the modelling for a poro-elastic crust and the preliminary FEM modelling. [source]

    A Numerical Simulation Model for Shield Tunnelling with Compressed Air Support

    Felix Nagel Dipl.-Ing.
    This paper is concerned with a numerical simulation model (ekate) specifically designed for shield tunnelling in fully and partially saturated soils based upon the Finite Element Method (FEM). The model considers all relevant components , the soil, the lining, the tail void grouting, the hydraulic jacks and different types of face support , involved in shield tunnelling. The surrounding soft soil is formulated as a three-phase material, consisting of the soil skeleton, pore water and air. This model allows for the simulation of consolidation processes in partially saturated soils as well as of flow of compressed air often used as temporary face support during repair interventions at the cutting wheel. Despite the complexity connected with the relatively high degree of realism of the simulation model, only little effort is required from the user to establish a realistic 3D model for shield tunnelling. To this end an automatic model generator has been developed which allows for a user friendly generation of the discretized model including all components involved and to investigate variants with a minimum effort for the user. The model allows for realistic predictions of settlements and also provides information on deformations and stresses in the ground, the lining and the TBM, respectively. In addition to its use as a prognosis tool in the design process, in particular for tunnelling projects in sensitive urban areas, the model also may be used to assist the driving and steering process in mechanized tunnelling. The paper provides an overview over the main components of the model, the automatic model generator and the tri-phasic representation of the soil. A simulation of a compressed air intervention of a shield tunnel in soft soil demonstrates the applicability of the model. Ein numerisches Simulationsmodell für druckluftgestützte Schildvortriebe In diesem Beitrag wird ein Simulationsmodell basierend auf der Methode der Finiten Elemente (FEM) für die Berechnung schildvorgetriebener Tunnel in un-, voll- und teilgesättigten Böden vorgestellt. In diesem numerischen Modell werden alle beim maschinellen Tunnelbau wesentlichen Komponenten , der Boden, der Ausbau, die Schildschwanzverpressung, die Vortriebspressen sowie unterschiedliche Arten der Ortsbruststützung , wirklichkeitsnah berücksichtigt. Der Baugrund wird im Simulationsmodell als dreiphasiges Material modelliert, bestehend aus dem Korngerüst, dem Porenwasser und der Porenluft. Diese Materialformulierung für den Baugrund ermöglicht die Analyse von Konsolidierungsprozessen in teilgesättigten Böden ebenso wie von Strömungsvorgängen im Boden bei Verwendung von Druckluft als temporärer Ortsbruststützung. Druckluft wird häufig beim Wechsel von Schneidwerkzeugen eingesetzt. Ungeachtet der Komplexität des Modells, die mit der relativ wirklichkeitsnahen Abbildung des Vortriebsgeschehens verbunden ist, ist nur ein sehr geringer Aufwand für die Modellgenerierung erforderlich. Um diesen Eingabeaufwand auf ein Minimum zu reduzieren, wurde ein automatischer Modellgenerator entwickelt, der den Ingenieur bei der Eingabe unterstützt und die Untersuchung von Planungsalternativen deutlich vereinfacht. Das Modell ermöglicht wirklichkeitsnahe Prognosen von Bodenbewegungen und Beanspruchungen, wie sie für die Planung von Vortrieben insbesondere unter setzungsempfindlichen, innerstädtischen Gebieten erforderlich sind. Darüber hinaus stellt das Modell ein wertvolles Hilfsmittel bei der vortriebsbegleitenden Steuerung von Vortriebsmaschinen in Lockergestein dar. Neben den wesentlichen Komponenten des numerischen Modells, des Modellgenerators und der Dreiphasen-Formulierung für den Boden enthält der Beitrag als prototypisches Anwendungsbeispiel die Simulation einer Druckluftintervention in Lockergestein. [source]

    He's homotopy perturbation method for two-dimensional heat conduction equation: Comparison with finite element method

    M. Jalaal
    Abstract Heat conduction appears in almost all natural and industrial processes. In the current study, a two-dimensional heat conduction equation with different complex Dirichlet boundary conditions has been studied. An analytical solution for the temperature distribution and gradient is derived using the homotopy perturbation method (HPM). Unlike most of previous studies in the field of analytical solution with homotopy-based methods which investigate the ODEs, we focus on the partial differential equation (PDE). Employing the Taylor series, the gained series has been converted to an exact expression describing the temperature distribution in the computational domain. Problems were also solved numerically employing the finite element method (FEM). Analytical and numerical results were compared with each other and excellent agreement was obtained. The present investigation shows the effectiveness of the HPM for the solution of PDEs and represents an exact solution for a practical problem. The mathematical procedure proves that the present mathematical method is much simpler than other analytical techniques due to using a combination of homotopy analysis and classic perturbation method. The current mathematical solution can be used in further analytical and numerical surveys as well as related natural and industrial applications even with complex boundary conditions as a simple accurate technique. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/htj.20292 [source]

    Research on the human thermal model with a poly-segmented hand

    Ding Li
    Abstract A more integral human thermal model was built by combining the human thermal cylindrical model and the manual poly-segment thermal model. Finite element methods (FEM) was used to define the body thermal model. It was in good agreement with the experimental results. The results show: the experimental results are consistent with the calculated value, when suitable blood flux is taken into consideration. The blood flux is in a certain range when the manual temperature is stable. Blood flux is the major factor in the manual temperature field. Body temperature and intake artery temperature have little effect on the hand temperature. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res, 37(2): 94,100, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/htj.20187 [source]

    Development of a finite element radiation model applied to two-dimensional participating media

    Hong Qi
    Abstract A finite element method (FEM) for radiative heat transfer has been developed and it is applied to 2D problems with unstructured meshes. The present work provides a solution for temperature distribution in a rectangular enclosure with black or gray walls containing an absorbing, emitting, isotropically scattering medium. Compared with the results available from Monte Carlo simulation and finite volume method (FVM), the present FEM can predict the radiative heat transfer accurately. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res, 34(6): 386,395, 2005; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/htj.20076 [source]

    Certified solutions for hydraulic structures using the node-based smoothed point interpolation method (NS-PIM)

    J. Cheng
    Abstract A meshfree node-based smoothed point interpolation method (NS-PIM), which has been recently developed for solid mechanics problems, is applied to obtain certified solutions with bounds for hydraulic structure designs. In this approach, shape functions for displacements are constructed using the point interpolation method (PIM), and the shape functions possess the Kronecker delta property and permit the straightforward enforcement of essential boundary conditions. The generalized smoothed Galerkin weak form is then applied to construct discretized system equations using the node-based smoothed strains. As a very novel and important property, the approach can obtain the upper bound solution in energy norm for hydraulic structures. A 2D gravity dam problem and a 3D arch dam problem are solved, respectively, using the NS-PIM and the simulation results of NS-PIM are found to be the upper bounds. Together with standard fully compatible FEM results as a lower bound, we have successfully determined the solution bounds to certify the accuracy of numerical solutions. This confirms that the NS-PIM is very useful for producing certified solutions for the analysis of huge hydraulic structures. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Thermal reservoir modeling in petroleum geomechanics

    Shunde Yin
    Abstract Thermal oil recovery processes involve high pressures and temperatures, leading to large volume changes and induced stresses. These cannot be handled by traditional reservoir simulation because it does not consider coupled geomechanics effects. In this paper we present a fully coupled, thermal half-space model using a hybrid DDFEM method. A finite element method (FEM) solution is adopted for the reservoir and the surrounding thermally affected zone, and a displacement discontinuity method is used for the surrounding elastic, non-thermal zone. This approach analyzes stress, pressure, temperature and volume change in the reservoir; it also provides stresses and displacements around the reservoir (including transient ground surface movements) in a natural manner without introducing extra spatial discretization outside the FEM zone. To overcome spurious spatial temperature oscillations in the convection-dominated thermal advection,diffusion problem, we place the transient problem into an advection,diffusion,reaction problem framework, which is then efficiently addressed by a stabilized finite element approach, the subgrid-scale/gradient subgrid-scale method. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Coupled HM analysis using zero-thickness interface elements with double nodes.

    Part I: Theoretical model
    Abstract In recent years, the authors have proposed a new double-node zero-thickness interface element for diffusion analysis via the finite element method (FEM) (Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2004; 28(9): 947,962). In the present paper, that formulation is combined with an existing mechanical formulation in order to obtain a fully coupled hydro-mechanical (or HM) model applicable to fractured/fracturing geomaterials. Each element (continuum or interface) is formulated in terms of the displacements (u) and the fluid pressure (p) at the nodes. After assembly, a particular expression of the traditional ,u,p' system of coupled equations is obtained, which is highly non-linear due to the strong dependence between the permeability and the aperture of discontinuities. The formulation is valid for both pre-existing and developing discontinuities by using the appropriate constitutive model that relates effective stresses to relative displacements in the interface. The system of coupled equations is solved following two different numerical approaches: staggered and fully coupled. In the latter, the Newton,Raphson method is used, and it is shown that the Jacobian matrix becomes non-symmetric due to the dependence of the discontinuity permeability on the aperture. In the part II companion paper (Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; DOI: 10.1002/nag.730), the formulation proposed is verified and illustrated with some application examples. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Coupled HM analysis using zero-thickness interface elements with double nodes,Part II: Verification and application

    J. M. Segura
    Abstract In a companion Part I of this paper (Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 2008; DOI: 10.1002/nag.735), a coupled hydro-mechanical (HM) formulation for geomaterials with discontinuities based on the finite element method (FEM) with double-node, zero-thickness interface elements was developed and presented. This Part II paper includes the numerical solution of basic practical problems using both the staggered and the fully coupled approaches. A first group of simulations, based on the classical consolidation problem with an added vertical discontinuity, is used to compare both the approaches in terms of accuracy and convergence. The monolithic or fully coupled scheme is also used in an application example studying the influence of a horizontal joint in the performance of a reservoir subject to fluid extraction. Results include a comparison with other numerical solutions from the literature and a sensitivity analysis of the mechanical parameters of the discontinuity. Some simulations are also run using both a full non-symmetric and a simplified symmetric Jacobian matrix. On top of verifying the model developed and its capability to reflect the conductivity changes of the interface with aperture changes, the results presented also lead to interesting observations of the numerical performance of the methods implemented. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Liquefaction and cyclic mobility model for saturated granular media

    S. López-Querol
    Abstract A new constitutive law for the behaviour of undrained sand subjected to dynamic loading is presented. The proposed model works for small and large strain ranges and incorporates contractive and dilative properties of the sand into the unified numerical scheme. These features allow to correctly predict liquefaction and cyclic mobility phenomena for different initial relative densities of the soil. The model has been calibrated as an element test, by using cyclic simple shear data reported in the literature. For the contractive sand behaviour a well-known endochronic densification model has been used, whereas a plastic model with a new non-associative flow rule is applied when the sand tends to dilate. Both dilatancy and flow rule are based on a new state parameter, associated to the stiffness degradation of the material as the shaking goes on. Also, the function that represents the rearrangement memory of the soil takes a zero value when the material dilates, in order to easily model the change in the internal structure. Proceeding along this kind of approach, liquefaction and cyclic mobility are modelled with the same constitutive law, within the framework of a bi-dimensional FEM coupled algorithm developed in the paper. For calibration purposes, the behaviour of the soil in a cyclic simple shear test has been simulated, in order to estimate the influence of permeability, frequency of loading, and homogeneity of the shear stress field on the laboratory data. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Ground response curves for rock masses exhibiting strain-softening behaviour

    E. Alonso
    Abstract A literature review has shown that there exist adequate techniques to obtain ground reaction curves for tunnels excavated in elastic-brittle and perfectly plastic materials. However, for strain-softening materials it seems that the problem has not been sufficiently analysed. In this paper, a one-dimensional numerical solution to obtain the ground reaction curve (GRC) for circular tunnels excavated in strain-softening materials is presented. The problem is formulated in a very general form and leads to a system of ordinary differential equations. By adequately defining a fictitious ,time' variable and re-scaling some variables the problem is converted into an initial value one, which can be solved numerically by a Runge,Kutta,Fehlberg method, which is implemented in MATLAB environment. The method has been developed for various common particular behaviour models including Tresca, Mohr,Coulomb and Hoek,Brown failure criteria, in all cases with non-associative flow rules and two-segment piecewise linear functions related to a principal strain-dependent plastic parameter to model the transition between peak and residual failure criteria. Some particular examples for the different failure criteria have been run, which agree well with closed-form solutions,if existing,or with FDM-based code results. Parametric studies and specific charts are created to highlight the influence of different parameters. The proposed methodology intends to be a wider and general numerical basis where standard and newly featured behaviour modes focusing on obtaining GRC for tunnels excavated in strain-softening materials can be implemented. This way of solving such problems has proved to be more efficient and less time consuming than using FEM- or FDM-based numerical 2D codes. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Reinforcing mechanism of anchors in slopes: a numerical comparison of results of LEM and FEM

    Fei Cai
    Abstract This paper reports the limitation of the conventional Bishop's simplified method to calculate the safety factor of slopes stabilized with anchors, and proposes a new approach to considering the reinforcing effect of anchors on the safety factor. The reinforcing effect of anchors can be explained using an additional shearing resistance on the slip surface. A three-dimensional shear strength reduction finite element method (SSRFEM), where soil,anchor interactions were simulated by three-dimensional zero-thickness elasto-plastic interface elements, was used to calculate the safety factor of slopes stabilized with anchors to verify the reinforcing mechanism of anchors. The results of SSRFEM were compared with those of the conventional and proposed approaches for Bishop's simplified method for various orientations, positions, and spacings of anchors, and shear strengths of soil,grouted body interfaces. For the safety factor, the proposed approach compared better with SSRFEM than the conventional approach. The additional shearing resistance can explain the influence of the orientation, position, and spacing of anchors, and the shear strength of soil,grouted body interfaces on the safety factor of slopes stabilized with anchors. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effect of element size on the static finite element analysis of steep slopes

    Scott A. Ashford
    Abstract The accuracy of the computed stress distribution near the free surface of vertical slopes was evaluated in this study as a function of the element size, including aspect ratio. To accomplish this objective, a parametric study was carried out comparing stresses computed using the finite element method (FEM) to those obtained from a physical model composed of photoelastic material. The results of the study indicate a reasonable agreement between a gelatin model and the FEM model for shear stresses, and an overall good agreement between the two models for the principal stresses. For stresses along the top of the slope, the height of the element tends to be more important than width or aspect ratio, at least for aspect ratios up to 4. In all cases, the greatest difference between the two models occurs in the vicinity of the slope. Specifically, if H is defined as the slope height, an element height of H/10 appears to be adequate for the study of stresses deep within the slope, such as for typical embankment analyses. However, for cases where tensile stresses in the vicinity of the slope face which are critical, such as for the stability analysis of steep slopes, element heights as small as H/32, or higher-order elements, are necessary. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Modeling and simulation of bioheat transfer in the human eye using the 3D alpha finite element method (,FEM)

    Eric Li
    Abstract Computational modeling is an effective tool for the detection of eye abnormalities and a valuable assistant to hyperthermia treatments. In all these diagnoses and treatments, predicting the temperature distribution accurately is very important. However, the standard finite element method (FEM) currently used for such purposes has strong reliance on element meshes and the discretized system exhibits the so-called ,overly stiff' behavior. To overcome this shortcoming, this paper formulates an alpha finite element method (,FEM) to compute two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) bioheat transfer in the human eyes. The ,FEM can produce much more accurate results using triangular (2D) and tetrahedron (3D) elements that can be generated automatically for complicated domains and hence is particularly suited for modeling human eyes. In the ,FEM, a scaling factor ,,[0, 1] is introduced to combine the ,overly stiff' FEM model and ,overly soft' node-based finite element method (NS-FEM) model. With a properly chosen ,, the ,FEM can produce models with very ,close-to-exact' stiffness of the continuous system. Numerical results have shown that the present method gives much more accurate results compared with the standard FEM and the NS-FEM. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Efficient graph-theoretical force method for two-dimensional rectangular finite element analysis

    A. Kaveh
    Abstract In this paper an efficient method is developed for the formation of null bases of finite element models (FEMs) consisting of rectangular plane stress and plane strain elements, corresponding to highly sparse and banded flexibility matrices. This is achieved by associating special graphs with the FEM and selecting appropriate subgraphs and forming the self-stress systems on these subgraphs. The efficiency of the present method is illustrated through three examples. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Addressing volumetric locking and instabilities by selective integration in smoothed finite elements

    Nguyen-Xuan Hung
    Abstract This paper promotes the development of a novel family of finite elements with smoothed strains, offering remarkable properties. In the smoothed finite element method (FEM), elements are divided into subcells. The strain at a point is defined as a weighted average of the standard strain field over a representative domain. This yields superconvergent stresses, both in regular and singular settings, as well as increased accuracy, with slightly lower computational cost than the standard FEM. The one-subcell version that does not exhibit volumetric locking yields more accurate stresses but less accurate displacements and is equivalent to a quasi-equilibrium FEM. It is also subject to instabilities. In the limit where the number of subcells goes to infinity, the standard FEM is recovered, which yields more accurate displacements and less accurate stresses. The specific contribution of this paper is to show that expressing the volumetric part of the strain field using a one-subcell formulation is sufficient to get rid of volumetric locking and increase the displacement accuracy compared with the standard FEM when the single subcell version is used to express both the volumetric and deviatoric parts of the strain. Selective integration also alleviates instabilities associated with the single subcell element, which are due to rank deficiency. Numerical examples on various compressible and incompressible linear elastic test cases show that high accuracy is retained compared with the standard FEM without increasing computational cost. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comparison of two wave element methods for the Helmholtz problem

    T. Huttunen
    Abstract In comparison with low-order finite element methods (FEMs), the use of oscillatory basis functions has been shown to reduce the computational complexity associated with the numerical approximation of Helmholtz problems at high wave numbers. We compare two different wave element methods for the 2D Helmholtz problems. The methods chosen for this study are the partition of unity FEM (PUFEM) and the ultra-weak variational formulation (UWVF). In both methods, the local approximation of wave field is computed using a set of plane waves for constructing the basis functions. However, the methods are based on different variational formulations; the PUFEM basis also includes a polynomial component, whereas the UWVF basis consists purely of plane waves. As model problems we investigate propagating and evanescent wave modes in a duct with rigid walls and singular eigenmodes in an L-shaped domain. Results show a good performance of both methods for the modes in the duct, but only a satisfactory accuracy was obtained in the case of the singular field. On the other hand, both the methods can suffer from the ill-conditioning of the resulting matrix system. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    On generalized stochastic perturbation-based finite element method

    Marcin Kami
    Abstract Generalized nth order stochastic perturbation technique, that can be applied to solve some boundary value or boundary initial problems in computational physics and/or engineering with random parameters is proposed here. This technique is demonstrated in conjunction with the finite element method (FEM) to model 1D linear elastostatics problem with a single random variable. The symbolic computer program is employed to perform computational studies on convergence of the first two probabilistic moments for simple unidirectional tension of a bar. These numerical studies verify the influence of coefficient of variation of the random input and, at the same time, of the perturbation parameter on the first two probabilistic moments of the final solution vector. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Anisotropic meshes and streamline-diffusion stabilization for convection,diffusion problems

    Torsten Linß
    Abstract We study a convection-diffusion problem with dominant convection. Anisotropic streamline aligned meshes with high aspect ratios are recommended to resolve characteristic interior and boundary layers and to achieve high accuracy. We address the question of how the stabilization parameter in the streamline-diffusion FEM (SDFEM) and the Galerkin least-squares FEM (GLSFEM) should be chosen inside the layers. Using a residual free bubbles approach, we show that within the layers the stabilization must be drastically reduced. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]